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Alexander MacBain, the author of this book, was born in Glen- 
feshie of Badenoch, in Inverness-shire, in the year 1855. He 
spent his boyhood in his native district, and began his career 
there as a pupil teacher. Later on he was for a short time with 
the Ordnance Survey in Wales. In his nineteenth year he went 
to Old Aberdeen Grammar School : two years later, to King's 
College ; graduated in 1880 ; and, in the same year, received the 
appointment of rector of Raining's School, Inverness. This post 
he held until 1894, when the school was transferred to the 
administration of the local Board. From that time until the close 
of his life he held a position in the High School of Inverness. In 
1901 he was made an LL.D. by the University of Aberdeen. 

The range of his studies in the Celtic field covered mythology, 
philology, history, manners and customs, and place and personal 
names. His literary output, extending over only 24 years, 
though not voluminous, involved much preparatory work, and is 
of great value for the acumen and originality exercised in the 
study and elucidation of the subjects which he took in hand. 

A large number of his papers appeared in the Transactions 
of the Gaelic Society of Inverness, and also in pamphlet form. 
These comprise, besides others, articles on "Celtic Burial," 
"Who were the Pictsl" "The Chieftainship of Clan Chattan," 
" Badenoch History, Clans, and Place Names," " Ptolemy's 
Geography," " The Norse Element in Highland Place Names," 
" Personal Names," and " The Book of Deer." In collaboration 
with the Rev. John Kennedy he brought out the two volumes of 
" Reliquiae Celticee," containing much matter for the student of 
Gaelic. He edited " Skene's Highlanders," to which he added a 
short but valuable excursus. Along with Mr John Whyte, 
Inverness, he prepared two useful Gaelic school-books and an 
edition of MacEachan's Gaelic Dictionary. 

His most important work, however, is " The Etymological 
Dictionary of the Gaelic Language," issued in 1896, of which the 
present volume is the second edition. Unfortunately, he was 
prevented from personally superintending its publication by his 
sudden demise in April, 1907, when in the town of Stirling 
making arrangements with the publisher. 


The present edition of Dr MacBain's Etymological Dictionary 
consists of the text of the original edition, with interposed 
additions, amendments, and corrections drawn from the 
author's " Further Gaelic Words and Etymologies," from the 
" Addenda et Corrigenda " at the end of the first edition, and 
from written jottings on interleaved copies of these books. 

Nothing has been TCdded~*to' Br MacBain's work except 
the Supplement to The Outlines of Gaelic Etymology, the words 
and letters in square brackets, and a few slight changes from the 
original text, which are the work of the Rev. Dr George Henderson, 
Lecturer in Celtic Languages and Literature in the University of 
Glasgow, who found it necessary to abandon his intention of seeing 
the Gaelic Etymological Dictionary through the press, after 
reaching the sixteenth page of the "Outlines"; and a few 
suggestions in brackets followed by "Ed." 

Nothing has been left out which could be deciphered, Dr 
applied with any measure of confidence. Even queried 
suggestions have been given, in the belief that mere flashes of 
thought by an expert may often point the way towards correct 



At the foot of page 97 restore dropped m's. 

To goireag on page 391 add (= cock of hay; also in parts of 

Suth. gbrag = large coil of hay. See coiUag in Dicty. 



This is the first Etymological Dictionary that has appeared of 
any modern Celtic language, and the immediate cause of its 
appearance is the desire to implement the promise made at 
the publication of Dr Cameron's Reliquice Celticce, that an 
etymological dictionary should be published as a third or 
companion volume to that work. Some learned friends have 
suggested that it is too early yet to publish such a work, and 
that the great Irish Dictionary, which is being prepared just 
now by a German savant, should be waited for; but what I 
hope is that a second edition of this present book will be called 
for when the German work has appeared. Celtic scholars, if 
they find nothing else in the present Dictionary, will, at least, 
ind a nearly pure vocabulary of Scottish Gaelic, purged of the 
mass of Irish words that appear in our larger dictionaries; 
and, as for my countrymen in the Highlands, who are so very 
fond of etymologising, the work appears none too soon, if it 
will direct them in the proper philologic path to tread. With 
this latter view I have prefaced the work with a brief account 
of the principles of Gaelic philology. 

The words discussed in this Dictionary number 6900 : 
derivative words are not given, but otherwise the vocabulary 
here presented is the completest of any that has yet appeared . 
Of this large vocabulary, about two-thirds are native Gaelic 
and Celtic words, over twenty per cent, are borrowed, and 
thirteen per cent, are of doubtful origin, no etymology being 
presented for them, though doubtless most of them are native. 

The work is founded on the Highland Society's Gaelic 
Dictionary, supplemented by M' Alpine, M'Eachan, and other 
sources. I guarded especially against admitting Irish words, 


with which dictionaries like those of Shaw and Armstrong 
swarm. Shaw, in 1780, plundered unscrupulously from 
Lhuyd (1707) and O'Brien (1758), and subsequent dictionary- 
makers accepted too many of Shaw's Irish words. Another 
trouble has been the getting of genuine Irish words, for 
O'Reilly (1823) simply incorporated Shaw's Dictionary and 
M'Farlane's Scotch Gaelic Vocabulary (1815) into his own. 
For genuine modern Irish words I have had to trust to Lhuyd, 
O'Brien, Coneys, and Foley. For early Irish, I have relied 
mainly on Windisch, Ascoli, and Atkinson, supplementing 
them by the numerous vocabularies added by modern editors 
to the Irish texts published by them . 

For the etymologies, I am especially indebted to Dr 
Whitley Stokes' various works, and more particularly to his 
lately published Urkeltischer Sprachschatz. I have, however, 
searched far and wide, and I trust I have not missed anything 
in the way of Celtic etymology that has been done for the last 
twenty or thirty years here or on the Continent. In form the 
book follows the example of Mr Wharton's excellent works on 
Latin and Greek philology, the Etyma Latino and the Etyma 
Grceca, and, more especially, the fuller method of Prellwitz' 
Etymolgisches W orterbuch der Griechischen Sprache. 

The vocabulary of names and surnames does not profess to 
be complete. That errors have crept into the work is doubt- 
less too true. I am sorry that I was unable, being so far 
always from the University centres, to get learned friends to 
look over my proofs and make suggestions as the work 
proceeded ; and I hope the reader will, therefore, be all the 
more indulgent towards such mistakes as he may meet with. 


Inverness, 13th January, 1896. 


Since the publication of my Etymological Dictionary of the 
Gaelic Language in January, 1896, I have had the benefit of 
criticisms of that work both publicly and privately, and the 
result of these, along with what I have gleaned from my own 
reading and thinking, I here give to the Gaelic Society and 
the public, so as to form a sort of addenda et corrigenda to 
my dictionary. I have to thank the critics of that work for 
their almost unanimous praise of it; its reception was very 
flattering indeed. The criticisms of most weight were from 
foreign scholars, the best in the way of addition and suggestion 
being that of Prof. Kuno Meyer in the Zeitschrift fur Celtische 
Philologie. In Scotland the Inverness Courier gave the 
weightiest judgment on the general philology of the work ; 
and other papers and periodicals as well added their quota of 
fruitful criticism. Nor did the work fail to meet with critics 
who acted on Goldsmith's golden rule in the " Citizen of the 
World " — to ask of any comedy why it was not a tragedy, and 
of any tragedy why it was not a comedy. I was asked how I 
had not given derivative words — though for that matter most 
of the seven thousand words in the Dictionary are derivatives ; 
such a question overlooked the character of the work. Mani- 
fest derivatives belong to ordinary dictionaries, not to an 
etymological one. This was clearly indicated in the preface; 
the work, too, followed the best models on the subject — 
Prellwitz, Wharton, and Skeat. Another criticism was 
unscientific in the extreme : I was found fault with for 
■excluding Irish words ! Why, it was the best service I could 
render to Celtic philology to present a pure vocabulary of the 


Scottish dialect of Gadelic; the talk of the impossibility of 
" redding the marches " between Irish and Gaelic may be 
Celtic patriotism, but it is not science. As against this 
criticism, I was especially congratulated by Prof. Windisch 
for attempting to redd these same marches. A funny criticism 
was passed on the style of printing adopted for the leading 
words; no capitals are used at the beginning of each article. 
The critic had not seen a dictionary before without such 
capitals, and it offended his eye to see my work so ' * headless ' ' 
as it is ! Here again acquaintance with like philological work* 
would have removed the " offence " and shown the utility of 
the style. In fact in Gaelic, with its accented vowels, capital 
initials are troublesome and unsightly, and the philological 
method is at once more scientific and more easy to work. 

The following vocabulary contains (1) etymologies for 
words not etymologised in my dictionary ; (2) new or corrected 
etymologies for words already otherwise traced ; and (3) words 
omitted. These new words have come from the public and 
private criticisms and suggestions already referred to, and 
from another overhauling of such dictionaries as M' Alpine 
and M'Eaehan. 



Ag. S. . 

— Anglo-Saxon 

L. . . . 

— Late, as L. Lat. = Late 

Ann. . 

— Armenian 


Br. . . . 

— Breton 

Lat. . . 

— Latin 

Bulg.. . 

— Bulgarian — 0. Bulg. = 

Lett.. . 

— Lettic 

Ch. SI. 

Lit. . . 

— Lithuanian 

Ch. SI. . 

— Church Slavonic 

M. . . . 

— Middle, as M. Ir. = Midd 

Cor. anc 



— Cornish 

Mod.. . 

— Modern 

Dan. . . 

— Danish 

N. . . . 

— Norse 

Dial. . . 

— Dialectic, belonging to a 

N . . 

— New, as N. Slav.=New 



Du. . . 


N.H. , . 

— Dialects of the North 

E. . . . 

— Early, as E. Eng. = Early 



N. Sc. . 

— Northern Scottish 

Eng. . . 

— English 

0. . . . 

—Old, as 0. Ir.=01d Irish 

Fr. . . . 

— French 

0. H. G. 

— Old High German 

G. . . . 

— Gaelic 

Per. . . 

— Persian 

Gaul. . 

— Gaulish 

Pruss. . 

— Prussian 

Ger. . . 

— German 

Sc. . . . 

— Scottish 

Got. . . 


Shet.. . 

— Shetland 

Gr. . . . 

— Greek 

Skr. . . 

— Sanskrit 

H. . . . 

—High, as H.G. = High 

SI. and 



— Slavonic 

Heb. . . 

— Dialects of the Hebrides 

Slov. . . 

— Slovenic 

Hes. . . 

— Hesychius 

Span. . 

— Spanish 

I. E. . . 

— Indo - European 

Sw. . . 

— Swedish 

Ir. . . . 

— Irish 

W. . . . 


Ital. . . 

— Italian 

Zd.. . . 

— Zend or Old Bactrian 


A. M'D — Alexander Macdonald's Gaelic Songs, with vocabulary. 

Atk — Atkinson's Dictionary to the Passions and Homilies 

from the Leabhar Breac, 1887. 
Arm., Arms. . . — Armstrong's Gaelic Dictionary, 1825. 

B. of Deer . . . — Book of Deer, edited by Stokes in Goidelica, 1872. 
Bez. Beit. . . . — Bezzenberger's Beitrage zur Kunde der Idg. Sprachen, 

a German periodical still proceeding. 

C.S —Common Speech, not yet recorded in literature. 

Carm — Dr Alexander Carmichael ; see " Authors quoted." 

Celt. Mag. . . . — The Celtic Magazine, 13 vols., stopped in 1888. 
Con — Coneys' Irish- English Dictionary, 1849. 


Corm — Cormac's Glossary, published in 1862 and 1868, edited 

by Dr Whitely Stokes. 

D. ofL — The Dean of Lismore's Booh, edited in I 862, 1892. 

Four Mast. . . . — Annals of the Four Masters, published in 1848, 1851. 

Fol — Foley's English- Irish Dictionary, 1855. 

Hend — Dr George Henderson, Lecturer in Celtic Languages 

and Literature in the University of Glasgow. 

H. S. D — The Highland Society's Dictionary of the Gaelic 

Language, 1828. 

Inv. Gael. Soc. Tr. — Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness, still 

L. na H. ... — Lebor na h-uidre, or the Book of the Dun Cow, an 
Irish MS. of 1100. 

Lh — Lhuyd's Archceologia Brittanica, 1707. 

Lib. Leinster . . — Book of Leinster, an Irish MS. of 1150. 

M'A — Macalpine's Gaelic Dictionary, 1832. 

M'D — Alexander Macdonald's Gaelick and English Vocab- 
ulary, 174"!. 

ME — M'Eachan's Faclair, 1862. 

M'F — M'Farlane's FocaUiir or Gaelic Vocabulary, 1815. 

M'L — M'Leod and Dewar's Dictionary of the Gaelic Lan- 
guage, 1831. 

Nich — Sheriff Nicholson's Gaelic Proverbs. 

O'Br — O'Brien's Irish-English Dictionary, 1768 and 1832. 

O'Cl — O'Clery's Glossary, republished in Revue Celtique, 

Vols. iv. v., date 1643. 

O'R — O'Reilly's Irish-English Dictionary, 1823. 

Rev. Celt. . . , — Revue Celtique, a periodical published at Paris, now in 
its 17th vol. 

R D — Rob Donn, the Reay Bard ; sometimes given as (Suth.). 

Rob. . . . . — Rev. Chas. M. Robertson, author of pamphlets on 

certain dialects of the Scottish Highlands. 

S. C. R — The Scottish Celtic Review, 1 vol., edited by Dr 

Cameron. 1885. 

S. D — Sean Dana, Ossianic Poems by the Rev. Donald Smith. 

Sh — Shaw's Gaelic and English Dictionary, 1780. 

St — Dr Whitley Stokes ; see " Authors quoted." 

Stew — Vocabulary at the end of Stewart's Gaelic Collection. 

Wh. — John Whyte, Inverness ; sometimes entered as (Arg.). 

Zeit — Kuhn's Zcitschrift f. vergl. Sprachfo?'schung, a German 

periodical still proceeding. 

An asterisk (*) denotes always a hypothetical word ; the sign (t) denotes 
that the word is obselete. The numeral above the line denotes the number 
of the edition or the number of the volume. 


Adamnan. abbot of Iona, who died in 704, wrote a life of St Columba, 

edited by Reeves 1857, re-issued by Skene in 1874. 
Ascoli is publishing in connection with his editions of the MSS. of Milan 

and St Gall a " Glossary of Ancient Irish," of which the vowels and 

some consonants are already issued. 
Bezzenberger edits the Bez. Beit, noted above, has contributed to it Celtic 

articles, and has furnished comments or suggested etymologies in Dr 

Stokes' Urkeltischer Sprachschatz. 
Bradley's Stratmauns Middle English Dictionary. 
Brttgmann is the author of the " Comparative Grammar of the Indo- 

Germanic Languages," a large work, where Celtic is fully treated. 
Cameron : The late Dr Cameron edited the Scottish Celtic Review, where he 

published valuable Gaelic etymologies, and left the MS. material which 

forms the basis of the two volumes of his Reliquice Celticce. 
Cameron : Mr John Cameron of the Gaelic Names of Plants, 1883. 
Cakmichael's Agrestic Customs of the Hebrides, in the Napier Commission 

Edmonston is the author of an Etymological Glossary of the Orkney Dialect. 
Ernault, author of an Etymological Dictionary of Middle Breton, and 

contributor to the Rev. Celt of many articles on Breton. 
Fick, compiler of the Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Germanic 

Languages (not translated yet i, completed in 1876. The fourth edition 

was begun in 1890 with Dr Whitley Stokes and Dr Bezzenberger as 

collaborateurs : the second volume of this edition is Dr Stokes' 

Urkeltischer Sprachshatz Early Celtic Word -Treasure, 1894. 
Jamieson, author of the Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language, 

2 vols., 1>08, Paisley edition, 5 vols., 1879-1887. 
Dr: Jubainville, editor of the Rev. Celt., has written much on Celtic 

philology in that periodical and otherwise. 
Gutekbock author of a brochure on Latin Loan-words in Irish 1882. 
Hennessey, who offered some etymologies in his Criticism of Macpherson's 

Ossiau in the Acatemy, August 1871. 
Kluge, compiler of the latest and best Etymohg cal Dictionary of the German 

Language, 5th edition here used mostly. 
Loth, author of inter alia the \'ocabulaire Vieux- Breton, 1884, the work 

usually referred to under his name 
Mackinnon : Prof. Mackinnon in lnv. Gael. Soc. Tr., in Celt. Mag and in the 

M'Lean : Hector Maclean wrote many articles on < Jaelic philology in news- 
papers and periodicals ; here quoted as an authority on the language. 
K. Meyer, editor of Cath Finntrdga, 1884, Vision of MacConglinne, 1892, 

&c, all with vocabularies. 
Murray, editor of the Philological Society's New English Dictionary in 

process of publication. 


Osthoff : especially in Indogermanischen Forschungen, 4 264-294. 

Prellwitz, compiler of an Etymological Dictionary of Greek, 1892. 

Rhys : Prof. Rhys is author of Lecture* on Welsh Philology, 1879, Celtit 

Britain, 1884, Hibbtrt Lectures, 1886, and a colophon to the Manx 

Prayer Book, 2 rols., on the Phonetics of the Manx Language. 
Skeat, author of the Etymological Dictionary of tlie English Language. 
Stokes : Dr Whitley Stokes, author of books and articles too numerous to 

detail here. His Urlceltischer Sprachschatz was used throughout the 

work ; it is to this work his name nearly always refers. 
Strachan : Prof. Strachan's paper on Compensatory Lengthening of VcweU 

in Irish is the usual reference in this case. 
Thurneysex, author of Kelto-ronuinisches, 1884, the work usually referred 

to here, though use has been made of his articles in Zeit. and R< >\ 

"Wharton, author of Etyma Grceca, 1882, and Etyma Latina, 1890. 
Wtndisch, editor of Irische Texte rait Worterbuch, used throughout this 

work, author of a Concise Irish Grammar, of Keltische Spracfien in the 

Allgemeine Encyklopcedie, of the Celtic additions to Curtius' Greek 

Etymology, etc. 
Zeuss, Grammatica Celtica, second edition by Ebel. 
Zimmer, editor of Glosses Ribemicce, 1881, author of Keltische Studien, 1881, 

1884, pursued in Zeit., of Keltische Beitrage, in which he discusses the 

Norse influence on Irish, and many other articles. 



Gaelic belongs to the Celtic group of languages, and the Celtic is 
itself a branch of the Indo-European or Aryan family of speech J 
for it has been found that the languages of Europe (with the 
exception of Turkish, Hungarian, Basque, and Ugro-Finnish), and 
those of Asia from the Caucasus to Ceylon, 1 resemble each other 
in grammar and vocabulary to such an extent that they must all 
be considered as descended from one parent or original tongue. 
This parent tongue is variously called the Aryan, Indo-European, 
Indo-Germanic, and even the Indo-Celtic language. It was 
spoken, it is believed, some three thousand years B.C. in ancient 
Sarmatia or South Russia ; and from this as centre 2 the speakers 
of the Aryan tongue, which even then showed dialectal differ- 
ences, radiated east, west, north and south to the various countries 
now occupied by the descendant languages. The civilization of 
the primitive Aryans appears to have been an earlier and more 
nomadic form of that presented to us by the Celtic tribe of the 
Helvetii in Caesar's time. Here a number of village communities, 
weary of the work of, agriculture, or led by the desire of better 
soil, cut their crops, pulled down their lightly built houses and 
huts, packed child and chattel on the waggons with their teams of 
oxen, and sought their fortune in a distant land. In this way 
the Celts and the Italians parted from the old Aryan home to 
move up the Danube, the former settling on the Rhine and the 
latter on the Gulf of Venice. The other races went their several 
ways — the Indians and Iranians eastward across the steppes, the 
Teutons went to the north-west, and the Hellenes to the south. 

The Aryan or Indo-European languages fall into six leading 
groups (leaving Albanian and Armenian out of account), thus : — 

I. Indo-Iranian or Arian, divisible into two branches : 

(a) Indian branch, including Sanskrit, now dead, but dating 
in its literature to at least 1000 B.C., and the descendant 
modern (dialects or) languages, such as Hindustani, 
Bengali, and Mahratti. 

1 - See Supplement to Outlines of Gaelic Etymology. 



(b) Iranian branch, which comprises Zend or Old Bactrian 
(circ. 1000 B.C.), Old Persian and Modern Persian. 

If. Greek or Hellenic, inclusive of ancient and modern Greek 
(from Homer in 800 b.c. onwards). Ancient Greek was 
divided traditionally into three dialects — Ionic (witli Attic or 
literary Greek), Doric, and ^Eolic. 

III. Italic, divided in early times into two main groups — the 
Latin and the Umbro-Oscan. From Latin are descended 
Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Rhoeto-romanie and 
Roumanian, called generally the Romance languages. 

IV. Celtic, of which anon. 

V. Teutonic, which includes three groups — (a) East Teutonic or 

Gothic (fourth cent, a.d.) ; (b) North Teutonic or Scandi- 
navian, inclusive of Old Norse and the modern languages 
called Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish ; and (c) 
West Teutonic, which divides again into High German 
(whence modern German), the Old High German being ;i 
language contemporary with Old Irish, and Low German,, 
which includes Old Saxon, Anglo-Saxon, English, Dutch, and 

VI. Balto-Slavonic or Letto-Slavonic, which includes Lithu- 

anian, dating from the seventeenth century, yet showing 
remarkable traces of antiquity, Lettic, Old Prussian of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, now extinct, Old Bulgarian 
or Church Slavonic, into which the Bible was translated in 
the ninth century, and the Slavonic modern languages of 
Russia, etc. 

These six groups cannot, save probably in the case of Latin 3 
and Celtic, be drawn closer together in a genealogical way. 
Radiating as they did from a common centre, the adjacent groups 
are more like one another than those further off. The European 
languages, inclusive of Armenian, present the three primitive 
vowels cr, e, o intact, while the Indo-Iranian group coalesces them 
all into the sound a. Again the Asiatic languages join with the 
Balto-Slavonic in changing Aryan palatal k into a sibilant sound. 
Similarly two or three other groups may be found with common 
peculiarities (e.g., Greek, Latin, and Celtic with oi or i in the nom. 
pi. masc. of the o- declension). Latin and Celtic, further, show 
intimate relations in having in common an % in the gen. sing, of 
the o- declension (originally a locative), -tion- verbal nouns, a 
future in b, and the passive in -r. 

3 See Supplement to Oat! hie* of Gaelic Etymology. 



The Celtic group now comprises five living languages ; in. tin 
18th century there were six, when Cornish still lived. These six 
Celtic languages are grouped again into two branches, which may 
be named the Brittonic and the Gadelic. The former includes 
the Welsh, Cornish, and Breton ; the Gadelic comprises Irish, 
Manx, and (Scottish) Gaelic. The main difference between these 
two branches of the Celtic group consists in this : the velar 
guttural of the Aryan parent tongue, which we represent here by 
the symbol q, when labialisecl, that is when the sound w or u 
attaches itself to it, becomes in Brittonic a simple p and in 
Gadelic a c (k, Ogam qu). Thus the Welsh for "five" is pump, 
Cornish pymp), and Breton pemp, Gaulish 2 :>em P e - whereas the 
Gaelic is coig, Manx queig, and Irish ciiig : the corresponding 
Latin form is quinque. Professor Rhys has hence called the two 
branches of the Celtic the P group and the Q group (from Ogmic 
qu = Gaelic c). The distinction into P and Q groups existed 
before the Christian era, for the Gauls of Caesar's time belonged 
mainly, if not altogether, to the P group : such distinctive forms 
as Gaulish petor, four (Welsh pedwar, Gaelic ceithir), epos, horse 
(Welsh ebol, Gaelic each), and pempe, five, already noted, with 
some others, prove this amply. At the beginning of the 
Christian era the Celtic languages were distributed much as 
follows : Gaulish, spoken in France and Spain, but fast dying 
before the provincial Latin (and disappearing finally in the fifth 
century of our era) ; Gallo-British or Brittonic, spoken in 
Britain by the conquering Gaulish tribes ; Pictish, belonging to 
the Gallo-Brittonic or P group, and spoken in Scotland and, 
possibly, in northern England ; and Gadelic, spoken in Ireland 
and perhaps on the West Coast of Scotland and in the Isles. The 
etymology of the national names will be seen in Appendix A. 
Our results may be summed in a tabular form thus : — 

/ Irish 

j Gadelic < Manx 

Q Group X . ( Gaelic 

( Dialects in Spain and Gaul (?) 4 


P Group 

Gallo-Brittonic -j Brittonic 

Gaulish — various 
Pictish 5 


There are no literary remains of the Gaulish language existent ; 
but a vast mass of personal and place names have been handed 

4 5 See Suftplcment to Outlines of Gaelic Etymology. 


down, and also a few words of the ordinary speech have been 
recorded by the Classical writers.' 5 The language of Brittany came 
from Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries, and it may have 
found remains in Brittany of the kindred Gaulish tongue. The 
Brittonic languages — Welsh', Cornish, and Breton — appear first in 
glosses as early as the eighth century. These glosses are 
marginal or super-linear translations into Celtic of words or 
phrases in the Latin texts contained in the MSS. so "glossed/' 
The period of the glosses is known as the "Old" stage of the 
languages — Old Breton, Old Cornish, Old Welsh. Real literary 
works do not occur till the " Middle " period of these tongues, 
commencing with the twelfth century and ending with the six- 
teenth. Thereafter we have Modern or New Breton 7 and Welsh 
an the case may be. In this work, New Breton and New Welsh 
are denoted simply by Breton and Welsh without any qualifying- 

The Gaelic languages — Irish, Manx, and Scottish Gaelic — 
have a much closer connection with one another than the 
Brittonic languages. Till the Reformation and, indeed, for a 
century or more thereafter, the Irish and Scottish Gaelic had a 
common literary language, though the spoken tongues had 
diverged considerably, a divergence which can be traced even in 
the oldest of our Gaelic documents — the Book of Deer. In the 
eighteenth century Scottish Gaelic broke completely with the 
Irish and began a literary career of its own with a literary dialect 
that could be understood easily all over the Highlands and Isles. 
Manx is closely allied to Scottish Gaelic as it is to the Irish ; it 
is, so far, a remnant of the Gaelic of the Kingdom of the Isles. 

The oldest monuments of Gadelic literature are the Ogam 
inscriptions, which were cut on the stones marking the graves of 
men of the Gaelic race. They are found in South Ireland, Wales 
and Eastern Pictland as far as the Shetland Isles, and belong mostly 
to the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth centuries. The alphabet, 
which is formed on a proto-telegraphic system by so many strokes 
for each letter above, through, or below a stem line, is as 
follows 8 :— ■ 

j i i in mi urn ' " '" "" ' "" 


b> 1» f> s, n ; h, d, t, c, 

I II III III! Hill i i i in mi i f 

m » g. D g, z» r ; a, o, u, e, 

678 See Supplement to Outlines of Gaelic Etymology. 


Examples of Ogam inscriptions are : — 

Sagramni maqi Cunotami 

" (The stone) of Sagramnos son of Cunotamus." 

Maqi Deceddas avi Toranias 

" Of the son of Deces 0' Toranis." 

Cnnanettas m[aqi] mncoi Nettasegamonas 

" Of Cunanes son of the son of Nettasegamon." 

Tria maqa Mailagni 

"Of the three sons of Maolan." 

These examples show that the state of declensional inflection was 
as high as that of contemporary Latin. The genitives in i belong 
to the o declension ; the i, as in Old Irish, is not taken yet into 
the preceding syllable (maqi has not become maic). The genitives 
os and as belong to the consonantal declension, and the hesitation 
between a and o is interesting, for the later language presents 
the same phenomenon — the o in unaccented syllables being 
dnlled to a. The Ogam language seems to have been a preserved 
literary language ; its inflections were antique compared to the 
spoken language, and Old Irish, so near it in time as almost to be 
contemporary, is vastly changed and decayed compared to it. 
Irish is divided into the following four leading periods : — 

I. Old Irish : from about 800 to 1000 a.d. This is the period 

of the glosses and marginal comments on MSS. Besides 
some scraps of poetry and prose entered on MS. margins, 
there is the Book of Armagh (tenth century), which contains 
continuous Old Irish narrative. 9 

II. Early Irish, or Early Middle Irish : from 1000 to 1200 a.d. 

— practically the period of Irish independence after the 
supersession of the Danes at Clontarf and before the English 
conquest. The two great MSS. of Lebor na h-uidre, the 
Book of the Dun Cow, and the Book of Leinster mark this 
period. Many documents, such as Cormac's Glossary, claimed 
for the earlier period, are, on account of their appearance in 
later MSS., considered in this work to belong to this period. 

III. Middle Irish : from 1200 to 1550 (and in the case of the 
Four Masters and O'Clery even to the seventeenth century in 
many instances). The chief MSS. here are the Yellow Book of 
Lecan, the Book of Ballimote, the Leabar Breac or Speckled 
Book, and the Book of Lismore. 

I\- Modern, or New Irish, here called Irish: from 1550 to the 
present time. 

y See Supplement to Outlines of Gaelic Etymology. 


As already said, the literary language of Ireland and Scotland 
remained the same till about 1700, with, however, here and there 
an outburst of independence. The oldest document of Scottish 
Gaelic is the Book of Deer, a MS. which contains half a dozen 
entries in Gaelic of grants of land made to the monastery of Deer. 
The entries belong to the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the most 
important being the first — the Legend of Deer, extending to 19 
lines of continuous prose. These entries form what we call Old 
Gaelic, but the language is Early Irish of an advanced or phoneti- 
cally decayed kind. The next document is the Book of the Dean 
of Lismore, written about 1512 in phonetic Gaelic, so that we may 
take it as representing the Scottish vernacular of the time in 
inflexion and pronunciation. It differs considerably from the 
contemporary late Middle Irish ; it is more phonetically decayed. 
We call it here Middle Gaelic, a term which also includes the 
MSS. of the M'Vurich seanchaidhean. The Femaig MSS., 10 written 
about 1688, is also phonetic in its spelling, and forms a valuable 
link in the chain of Scottish Gaelic phonetics from the Book of 
Deer till now. The term Gaelic means Modern Gaelic. 

Scottish Gaelic is written on the orthographic lines of Modern 
Irish, which in its turn represents the orthography of Old Irish. 
The greatest departure from ancient methods consists in the 
insistence now upon the rule of " Broad to broad and small to 
small." That is to say, a consonant must be flanked by vowels of 
the same quality, the "broad" being a, o, u, and the "small" e 
and i. Gaelic itself has fallen much away from the inflexional 
fulness of Old Irish. Practically there are only two cases — nom. 
and gen. : the dative is confined to the singular of feminine nouns 
(«-declension) and to the plural of a few words as laid down in the 
grammars but not practised in speech. The rich verbal inflexion 
of the old language is extremely poorly represented by the 
impersonal and unchanging forms of the two tenses — only two — 
that remain in the indicative mood. Aspiration, which affects all 
consonants now, (though unmarked for /, n, r), has come to play 
the part of inflection largely ; this is especially the case with the 
article, noun, and adjective. Eclipsis by n is practically un- 
known ; but phonetic decay is evidenced everywhere in the loss of 
inflection and the uniformising of declension and conjugation. 

There are two main Dialects of Gaelic, and these again have 
many sub-dialects. The two leading Dialects are known as the 
Northern and Southern Dialects. The boundary between them 
is described as passing up the Firth of Lorn to Loch Leven, and 
then across from Ballachulish to the Grampians, and thence along 

10 See Supplement to Outlines of Gaelic Etymology. 


that range. The Southern Dialect is more Irish than the 
Northern, and it has also adhered to the inflections better (e.g., 
the dual case still exists in feminine a nouns). 11 The crucial dis- 
tinction consists in the different way in which the Dialects deal 
with e derived from compensatory lengthening ; 12 in the South it is 
eu, in the North ia (e.g., feur against fiar, breng against briag, <fcc.) 
The sound of ao differs materially in the two Dialects, the 
Southern having the sound opener than the Northern Dialcct. 1:i 
The Southern Dialect is practically the literary language. 

Modern Gaelic has far more borrowed words than Irish at any 
stage of its existence. The languages borrowed from have been 
mainly English (Scottish) and Norse. Nearly all the loan-words 
taken directly from Latin belong to the Middle or Old period of 
Gaelic and Irish ; and they belong to the domain of the Church 
and the learned and other secular work in which the monks and 
the rest of the clergy engaged. Many Latin words, too, have been 
borrowed from the English, which, in its turn, borrowed them 
often from French, (such as prls, cunntas, cuirt, spbrs, &o.), Latin 
words borrowed directly into English and passed into Gaelic are 
few, such as post, plasd, ])eur, &c. From native English and from 
Lowland Scots a great vocabulary has been borrowed. In regard to 
Scots, many words of French origin have come into Gaelic through 
it. At times it is difficult to decide whether the Teutonic word 
was borrowed from Scottish (English) or from Norse. The con- 
tributions from the Norse mostly belong to the sea ; in fact, most 
of the Gaelic shipping terms are Norse. 

Under the heading of Phonetics we deal with the sounds of 
the language — the vowels, semi-vowels, and consonants, separately 
and in their inter-action upon one another. 

§ 1. Alphabet. 

The Gaelic alphabet consists of eighteen letters, viz., a, b, c, d, 
e, f, g, h, i, I, m, n, o, p, r, 8, t, and u. Irish, Old and New, have 
the same letters as the Gaelic. As this number of letters in no 
way adequately represents the sounds, signs and combinations are 

Firstly, the long vowels are denoted by a grave accent : a, ), 
a, e, o, the latter two having also the forms e, 6, to denote sounds 
analogous to those in English vein, hoar. "Whereas a, i, it, which 
have only one sound, represent corresponding Indo-European 
sounds (a, I, it), none of the long sounds of e or o represent - 
.simple corresponding I.E. sound. 

u 12 13 s^ ee Supplement to Outlines of Gaelic Etymology. 


The Gaelic vowels are divided into two classes — broad and 
small. The broad vowels are a, o, u : the small, e, i. The Gaelic 
diphthongs^ 4 represent (1) simple sounds, (2) real diphthong sounds, 
or (3) modification of the consonants and carrying out of the law 
of "broad to broad and small to small." They are as follows : — 

ai, ao, [au~\* ai 

ea, ei, eo, en, eh ei, ei 

ia, io, hi, Hi to 

oi, [oti]* oi 

)i", ui id 

Here ea, ei, eu represent 0, Ir. e, e, and are practically simple 
sounds, as certainly is ao. The forms ia, ua are genuine diph- 
thongs, as are usually the long vowel combinations. The rest 
may be diphthongs, or may be a trick of spelling, as in the 
word Jios (0. Ir. jis), where the o shows that the 8 has its normal 
sound, and not that of E. sh, as ./7s would imply. 

Triphthongs occur in the course of inflection, and in the case 
of ao otherwise. These are — aoi, eoi, iai, iui, uai, ebi, iiii. 

The consonants are classified in accordance with the position 
of the organs of speech concerned in their utterance : — 

I. Liquids. — The liquids are / and r, with the nasals n and vi. 
In writing, m only is "aspirated," becoming to the eye mh, to the 
ear a v with nasal influence on the contiguous vowels. The other 
liquids, /, n, and r, are really aspirated in positions requiring 
aspiration, though no h is attached to show it. 15 There is, however, 
only a slight change of sound made in these letters by the aspira- 
tion — a more 10 voiced sound being given them in the aspirating 

II. Mutes and Explosives. — These all suffer aspiration when 
intervocalic. They are classified as follows : — ■ 

Tenues. Mediae. Aspirates. 

Labials p b ph, l>lt 

Dentals t d th, dh 

( Gutturals c g ch, gh 

The dentals d and t become spirants 17 when in contact with, or 
flanked by, the "small" vowels e and i. The other mutes are not 
affected by such contact. 1S The aspirate sounds are— -ph~f f 
bk = v, th = h, dh and gh before c, i — y, eA== German and Scotch ch. 

* Dialectal, before //, nn, mh, bh, though not in the .script. 

14 15 i<i 17 is g ee SupplenierU to Outline* of Gaclia Etymology* 


III. The Spirants.— These, outside the above spirant-made 
mutes, are,/' and s. The sound [resembling E.] sh is represented 
by s flanked with "small" vowels. The aspirate forms of these 
are — jh ( = the Greek open breathing or nothing practically), 
G. sh ( = h). 

Celtic Alphabet. 

The Celtic alphabet, as deduced from the Neo-Celtic dialects, 
checked by Gaulish, possessed the following sounds : — 

I. Vowels : — - 

Short — i, u, e, o, a 

Long — i ( = 7, e), u, e (-=ei), o ( — au), a ( = <>, (7) 

Diphthongs— ei, oi, ai, en, on, an 

II. Liquids — r, I, m, n 

III. Spirants — (h), s, j, v 

IV. Explosives :— Tenues. Mediae. 

Labials — h 

Dentals t d 

Gutturals../... k, kv, (p) g, gv (/>) 
It has to be noted that Indo-European p initial and intervocalic 
is lost in Celtic. 10 Before another consonant, it manifests its former 
presence by certain results which still remain. Thus I. E. septn 
is G. seachd, supno-s becomes suan. 

Indo-Eu ropean A Ipha bet. 

By a comparison of the six Indo-European or Aryan language 
groups, the sounds possessed by the parent tongue may be 
inferred. The following is the form of the I. E. alphabet which is 
used in the present work : — 

I. Vowels : Short — i, u, e, o, «, 9 

Long — i, il, e, o, cl 
Diphthongs — ei, oi, ai, eu, mi, au 
ei, oi, di, en, oh, du 

II. Semi-vowels : i, u, represented in this work always by 

,;', v. See the spirants. 

III. CoNSONANT-VOWELS : r, I, lit, it, r, /, in, v 

IV. Liquids and Nasals : r, I, m, n 
V. Spirants :,/, v, s, z 

111 See Supplement to Outlines of Gaelic Etymology. 


VI. Explosives 20 : — Tenues. Mediae. Aspirate* 

Labial ~. p b j>h, bh 

Dental t d th, dh 

1 'alatal k g kh, gh 

Velar q g qh, ah 

§ 2. Vowel Modification. 
In Gaelic the vowel or vowel combination of a syllable may 
undergo "mutation" (German umlaut) in the course of inflection 
or word-building. This mutation is caused by the influence 
exerted backward by the vowel of the next syllable now or previ- 
ously existent. There are three classes of mutation in Gaelic 
caused either by a following (1) e or i, (2) a or o, or (3) u. 
Mutation by " e" or "e." 
a becomes (1) ai : cat, gen. cait, damh, g. daimh. 

(2) oi (with double liquids usually) : dall, pi. doill, 

clann, g. cloinne. 

(3) ui (with liquids) : ball, pi. buill, edit, g. uillt. 

Also where Irish shows o : balg, 0. Ir. bole, 
pi. builg ; so dag, fait, gal, fuil, car. 
(■i) i : 7/iac, g. mic. Dialectally ai becomes ei, 
especially with liquids, and in ordinary G. 
eile represents 0. Ir. aile ; so seileach, too. 
o becomes (1) oi : sgoltadh, sgoilte. 

(2) ui : bonn, g. buinn, j>o*t, g. jmist. 
u becomes ui : dubh, comp. duibhe. 
e becomes ei : beir for *bere, catch thou. 
a, b, u become ai, hi, id : laimlie, bige, diiin. 
to, iu, ua become triphthongs; [the digraph ao + i forms a 

ea becomes (1) ei : each, g. eich. 

(2) i : ceann, g. cinn ; the usual mutation. 
cu, with liquids, becomes eoi : beul, g. bebil. It sometimes 

becomes ao : eiidann, aodamt. 
ia is restored to ei : fiadh, g. feidJt ; irregularly — fiar, crooked, 

comp. Jiaire, biadh, g. bidh, [Dial, teidh, beidh, bi-idh.] 
io becomes i : fionn, g. Jinn. 

Mutation by "o" or "«." 
o becomes a, a mutation of principal syllables rare in Irish : 

cap, Ir. cos, original *coxa ; cadal for codal. 
u becomes o : sruth, g. srotha ; nuadh, nodha. 
e becomes ea : cearc from *cerca. 


.See Supplement to Outlines of Gaelic £ti)molo<jij. 


i becomes ea : fear from *viro-s. 

ei becomes ia : the stem feidh becomes Jiadh in the nom. 

t becomes \o : flor from *viro-s. 

Mutation by "u." 
A succeeding u aftects only i or e ; it is a mutation which does 
not now operate. Thus fiodh conies from *vidu- (0. Ir. fid) ; bior 
from *beru (0. Ir. bir) ; sliochd from slektu- ; cionn from the dat. 
*cennu, from *cennb. 

§ 3. Indo-European and Gaelic Vowels. 

The representation in Gaelic of the I. E. vowels is very com- 
plicated owing to the principles of mutation discussed above. 

I. E. i. 

(1) Gaelic i, 0. Ir. i, W. y. 

bitk, world, 0. Ir. bit/i, W. byd, Br. bed : *bitu-s, root gi. So 
ith, fidir, nigh, fir (gen. and pi. of fear), as also nid from nead, 

(2) G. ea, 0. Ir. e. 

beatha, life, 0. Ir. bethu : *bitiis, stem *bitdt-, root ^i. So 
eao?/i, it, fear, geamhradh, meanbh, nead, seas, seasg, sleamhuinn, 

(3) G. to, 0. Ir. £ 

G. ^oc?A, wood, 0. Ir. fid, W. gwydd, Br. ^rwez : *vidu-. So 
jzos, ioc?A-. The zo of fionn, 0. Ir /mm? is due to the liquid 
and medial mute, which together always preserve the i and 
even develop it from an original // or < j n (iib, nd, iig). 

(4) G., 0. Ir. in. 

This is a mutation by u : flinch, wet, from *vliqu- ; tiugh, 

I. E. u. 

(1) G., 0. Ir. u, W. to (o). 

G., 0. Ir. sruth, stream, W. frivd : *srutu-s. So Swa, dubh, 
guth, muc, musach, slug, smug, tidach. 
Here add G. ui : cluinn, luibh, uisge. 

(2) G., 0. Ir. o. 

bonn, bottom, 0. Ir. bond, W. bon, *bundo-s. So bothan, con, 
dogs', do-, so-, domhan, dorm, torn, os, trod. 
I. E. e. 
(1) G., 0. Ir. e, W. e. 

Simple e is rare in G. : leth, side, 0. Ir. leth, W. lied, *letos. 
So teth, hot. 


(2) G. 00, 0. Ir. e. 

G. each, horse, 0. Ir. ech, W. ebol, Lat. equus. So numerous, 
words — eadh, space, bean, heart, cearc, ceart, dearc, dearr/ y 
deas, fearg, geal, geas, meadhon, meanmna, meas, neart, reachd, 
seach, seachd, sean, Sparg, teach, teas, treabh. 

(3) G. ei, 0. Ir. e. 

G. heir, take, 0. Ir. berim, W. adfer, Lat. /ero. So beil 
(meil), ceil, ceirtle, ceithir, creid, deich, deis, [Dial.] read)-, 
meirbh, seiun, teich, teine. 

(4) G., 0. Ir. i. 

G., 0. Ir. fine, tribe, root ven, 0. H. G. urini, Ag. S. wine, 
friend. So cineal, gin, ite, mil, misg, sinnsear, tigh, tigheama. 

(5) G. io, 0. Ir. i. 

G. bior, spit, 0. Ir. bir, W. <^r, Lat. vfrw. So iol-, sliochd,. 
smior, biolaire, ciomach, tioram. 

(6) G. ui in rnith, ruinn = rinn (bis), ruighiun and righinn : (Cf. 

roinn, [Dial.] did, for ruin ; ruigheaclid). So trusd<i : ,-. 

(7) Compensatory long vowels in G. and 0. Ir. These arise from 

loss of one consonant before another, one of which must be a 

a. ent becomes G. eud, 0. Ir. et. G. ceud, first, 0. Ir. cet, W. 

cynt. So seud, journey. Similarly *enk ; G. <??/?, death, 
0. Ir. ec ; *brenkd, G. hreug, lie, 0. Ir. irec, ; *enkt, 
G. euchd, E. Ir. e'c^ (Cf. cr euchd, *crempt- ?) ; *centso ; G. 
ceus, crucify. Parallel to these forms in ent, enk aro 
those in vt, nk, such as ceud, one hundred, 0. Ir. cet y 
W. crtwi, Lat. centum (so cfewc/, 0W^, geug). 

b. ebl : in G. neul, cloud, 0. Ir. nel, W, ?mt'£. 
e<?r : in G. feur, grass, 0. Ir. fer, W, gvair. 
egn : in G. feun, 0. Ir. fen : *vegno-s. 

etl : in G. ggeul, 0. Ir. acel, W. chwedl. 
etu : in G. eun, 0. Ir. £;*, W. edit. 

c. G. e^r/rt?' and thig show short vowels for original * enter and 

<??i£. This is due to sentence accent in the case of eadar 
and to the word accent in the case of thig or to both. 

For ceum, leum, etc., see under n. 

I. E. o. 
(1) G., Ir. o. 

G. co-, comh-, with, 0. Ir. co-, com-, W. cy-, cy/-, *kom- ; so ro- 
( as Lat. pro), fo ( = Gr. iVo), nochd, naked, night, ocAcf, wioJ„ 
bodhar, gon, goit, roth. 


(2) G., 0. Ir. u, ui. 

G., 0. Tr. muir, sea, W. mor, Br. mor, from *mori. So druim 
(*dros-?ii€?i), guidJie, guil, guin, sgtur, suidhe, uidhe, uileann, 
nircean, gu, to, cu-, fu-, fur- (fur = *vor). 

(3) 'A. a, 0. Ir. o. 

G. cas, foot, 0. Ir. cos, W. coes, *coxd. So amh, balg, call, fait, 
fart, gar, calltuinn. So, too, compounds. With con as in 
zagainn, cadal, cagar, caisg, as against coguis (0. Ir. concubus), 
with its n sound terminal. 

,. x * compensatory long vowels. 

G. dual, lock of hair, *doglo-, Got. tagl, Eng. £cw7. So o£ 
(*potlo-), buain, (*bog-ni- or *bongni-), cluain, man, bruan, 
sron, cbmh-. 

I. E. a. 

(1) G. a, ai, 0. Ir. a, W. a. 

G., 0. Ir. can, sing, W. ama, Lat. cano. So many words, 
such as abhainn, ad-, agh, air, altrum, anail, anam, cac, 
damk, gad, mac, maide, marc, nathair, salann, &c. 

(2) G. a before rd, rn, m. 

See ard, bard, barr, cam, sgaird, cam, am, mam. 

(3) G. i. 

In two cases only : mac, g. mic ; sile [Dial, for seile], saliva, 
0. Ir. saile. 

(4) G. u, ui. 

This happens in contact with liquids. The prep, air becomes 
ur-, uir-, urchar, uireasbhuidh. So muigh from *magesi. 
Common in oblique cases : allt, g. uillt, ball, buill, &c. 

{5) G. ea, ei for e. 

G. seileach, willow, E. Ir. sail, W. helyg, Lat. salix. So 
ealtuinn, eile, eir- for air-, eilean, [Dial.] training, deigh, ice. 

(6) G. oi. 

This change of I. E. a into Gaelic oi is due mostly to a liquid 
followed by a "small" vowel. 

G. oil, rear, E. Ir. ailim, Lat. alo. So oir for air-, coileach, 
goir, troigh, coire, loinn, <fcc, and goid, oide. 

{!) Compensatory lengthenings in G. 
a. As a, ai : 

G. dail, meeting, 0. Ir. ddl, W. dadl, where -atlo- is the 
original combination, -agr- appears in naire, sar, clr. 


b. As eu, ao, ia : 

It has been seen that ceud, hundred, corresponds to \V. 
cant, Lat. centum. The Celtic, in these cases, is regarded 
as having been yt, nk, (*kyto-?i). See under n. 
An undoubted case of a landing by compensation into 
eu ( = e) is deur, tear, 0. Ir. der, 0. W. dacr, I. E. dahu. 
Prof. Strachan has extended this analogy to words like 
meur, breun, leine, sgeun, meanan. The case of deur 
seems rather to be an anomaly. 21 

IE. s. 
This is the I. E. "indefinite" vowel, appearing in Celtic as a, 
in the Asiatic groups as *, and generally as a in Europe (Greek 
showing also e). Henry denotes it by a, a more convenient form 
than Brugmann's s. Some philologists refuse to recognise it. 

G. athair, father, 0. Ir. athir, I. E. pvter-, Gr. 7ra.Tijf), Skr. 
It is common in unaccented syllables, as G. anail, breath, 
W. anadl, *ans-tla, Gr. ave/xos. In the case of syllables with 
liquids it is difficult to decide whether we have to deal with a, 9, 
or a liquid vowel ; as in G. ball, member, *bhal-no-, root bhsl, 
whence Gr. <f>a\\6s, Eng. bole. 

I. E. Long Vowels. 

I. E. % and u are so intimately bound with ei and eu (on) 
that it is difficult to say often whether we have to deal with the 
simple vowel or the diphthong as the original. For % see l\, s)n, 
sglth, brigh ; for ii, see cul, duil, element, dim, cliii, mucli, miiin, 
run, ur. The W. in both cases (7, u) show simple i. 

I. E. e appears in Celtic as *, G. \ : as in G. flor (fir), true, 
0. Ir. fir, W. and Br. gwir, Lat. verus. So lion, mial (miol), mios 
righ, sith, siol, sior, tir, snwmh. 

I. E. o and a appear both as a in the Celtic languages — 
Gadelic d, W. aw, Br. eu. For 6, see bldth, gnath, lar, dan, snath. 
For a, see ban, brathair, endimh, car, clai\ daimh, faidh, g&ir. 
mathair, sath, tamh. But rbin, run, nbs, mdin, all from d ? b in 
finals, etc., may equal u : *svesor = 0. Ir. siv.r, jiur, Med. Ir. si dr. 

I. E. Diphthongs. 
I. E. ei (ejV) appears in G. in two forms — as el and ia. Thus— 
a. G. ei, 0. Ir. ei, W. wy, Br. oe, oa. See fe'itJi, geill, meith, 
reidh, seid, sme'id. 22 

n -- See Supplement to Outlines of Gaelic Etymology. 


b. G. ia, 0. Ir. ia. This is due to the influence of a succeed- 
ing broad vowel. See eta, ciall, cliathach, criathar, fiadh, 
fianuis, giall, iarunn, liagh, riadh, riar, sgiath, sliabh. 
Consider these— -fetich, lean, gle, and, possibly, geadli. 
I.E. oi(oj?). This consistently appears in G. as ao long, 
0. Ir. di, oi, later oe, ae, (6e, de), AV., Br. u. See caomh, claon, 
fraoch, gaoth, gaol, laogh, maoiu, maoth, taobh. 

I. E. ai can with difficulty be differentiated from oi ; certainly 
not on Celtic ground, nor, indeed, outside Greek and Latin. The 
following are real cases : G. aois, caoch, saothair, taois. 

I. E. eu and ou are also confused together in the modern Celtic 
languages. They both appear as either G. ua or o. 

a. G. ua, 0. Ir. ua, AV., Br. u. 

G. buaidh, victory, 0. Ir. buaid, AV. bud, Gallo-British 
Boudicca, "Victoria." See also buachaill, cluas, luath 
ruadh, ruathar, truagh, tuath, uasal. 

b. G. b ; as bbidheach from buaidh, trbcair from truagh, 

lochran, cos for cuas. 
I. E. au 2 ' J appears in G. as o or ua, much as do eu, ou. Thus — 
G. go, a lie, 0. Ir. go, gdu, AV. gau, Br. gaou. Also bigh, virgin, 
from augi-, fuachd, uaigneach. 

§ 4. I. E. Semi- Vowels and Consonant Vowels. 
The semi-vowels are denoted by Brugmann as * and u, by 
Henry as y and w ; and these forms are used by them " not nf erely 
for intervocalic semi-vowels but also for the diphthongs which we 
have printed as ei, oi, ai, eu, o%i, au, which Henry, for instance, 
prints as ey, ew, etc. In this work Fick is followed in the forms 
of the diphthongs, and also, where necessary, in his signs for the 
semi-vowels, viz., y and v, with J and v as signs for the spirants. 

I. E. y andj disappear in Gadelic, but are preserved in the 
Brittonic as i. Thus toe, heal, 0. Ir. iccaim, Vs r .jach, I. E. yakos, Gr. 
a/cos, Skr. ydcas ; see deigh and og. For I. E. j, compare G. ebrna, 
for eo-rna, *jevo-, Gr. £eta, spelt, Skr. ydva ; also eud, jealousy, 
% jantu-, Gr. £>/X<os, zeal, Skr. yatnd. 

I. E. v is thus dealt with : — 
(1) Initial v : G., 0. Ir. /, AV. gw, as in G. fait, hair, lv. folt, AV. 
gwalt ; also faidh, Lat. vdtes, feachd, fear, Lat. vir, fiadh, 
fichead, fine, fiodh, with succeeding consonant mflath (*vlati-), 
fiiuch, fraoch, fras, freumh, etc. 

88 - 4 See Supplement to Outlines of Gaelic Etymology. 


(2) Intervocalic v. This disappears in G. leaving the vowels to 

coalesce with varying results, thus: — 

a. -ivo- produces eo, as in bed, *givo-s, Lat. vivas, or ia in 

biadh (*b~tvoto-n, cf. dia), than. 

b. -evo- produces eb, as in ceo, *$kevo-, Eng. shower* ; cfeo, W. 

dywy, *devo-, Lat. fdmus, ebrna. Stokes gives did as 
*klevos, Thnmeysen as Moves-. 

c. -ovi- gives nuadh, *novios, -ovo- in err) (*&rom$), -ova- in 0(7. 
ri. -avi- in ogha (*pavios) ; dath (*davio) ; -avo- in clb. 

e. -eivi- in gle, -eivo- in dia. 

(3) Post-consonantal #. 

a. After liquids it becomes bh. See garbh, marbh, searbh, 

tarbhj dealbh, sealbh, meanbh, banbh. 

b. After explosives it disappears save after d, (gv) : feadhbh, 

widow, 0. Ir. fedb, faobh, baobh. For gv, see g below. 

c. After 9, it sometimes disappears, sometimes not. Thus 

piuthar is for *svesor, 0. Ir. siur, whereas in searbh 
(*svervo-s), solus (but follas), seinn, etc., it disappears. 

The Consonant Vowels. 

These are r, I, a, m; P, [, a, /a. The regular representation 
of r, I in G. is ri, li (mutated forms being rea, rei, lea,, lei). See 
the following regular forms : bris, britheamh, fri, lit ; also the 
modified forms — bleath, bleoghainn, breith, cleith, dreach, leamhann, 
leathan (1), sreath. 

The numerous Gaelic a forms of I. E. e roots containing 
liquids fall to be noticed here. Some of them Brugmann explains 
as glides before sonants, somewhat thus : G. mair, remain, 0. Ir. 
maraim, would be from mrra-, root mer, Lat. mora ; so sgar from 
%h r ; garbh, marbh. 

Add the following : — alt, car-bad. (Lat. corbis), bdrr, bard, eairt, 
garg, mall, doll, sgaird (Lat. muscerda), tart, tar ; fra.% flath, 
fraigh, graigli, braich. With modified vowels in — coille (*caldet-), 
doire, foil, goile, goirid, sgoilt. 

The long vowels f and I appear regularly as rd (I) Id. See Ian 
i^pl-no-, Skr. pumas), slan, tlath, Math. Long f seems to appear 
as ar in dair, maireach, faireag (?). 25 

Vocalic n and m may be looked for in G. samhail, which 
Brugmann explains as siam/li-s, in tana, thin ; reversed in magh 
and nasg. 

Compensatory a plays a great part in G., appearing usually as 
1 u (au). We have ceud, hundred, W. cant, deud, W. dant, tend, 

- : ' See Supplement to Outlines of (indie Etymology. 


eud, eug, eudann, eiginn, geug. The negative n appears before 
vowels as an, before c, t, and s, as eu, 6i : eutrom, tislean, &c. 
The most curious result arises from -ngm-, which ends in G. as 
eum-; see ceum, W. cam, leu?n, W. lam, and add teum, W. tarn, from 


Before the medials b, d, g, both n and m become in (ion), im 
(iom), and original in retains its i (cf . fionn). Thus we have im- y 
torn- from mbi, Lat. ambi, also wti, ionga, imleag, ciomach. 

I. E. "r"<md "I" Liquids. 

Gaelic r and I represent the I. E. liquids r and I. Initially we 
may select ramh, reachd, ruadh, rim, loch, laigk, labhair, leth ; 
after p lost — ro, rath, lamh, Ian, lar. Medially r and I are 
" aspirated," but the sounds have no separate signs — dorus, tulach, 
geal, meil, eile, seileach, etc. Post-consonantal r and I appear in 
sruth, srath, etc., cluinn, Jliuch, slug, etc. In -br, -tr, -dr, the 
combinations become -bhar, -thar, -dhar, while in -cr, -gr, -bl, -tl, 
-dl, -cl, -gl the respective explosives disappear with lengthening 
of the preceding vowel. For -si, see below (-//). 

Ante-consonantal r and I preserve the explosives after them — 
ard, bard, ceart, neart, dearg, dearc, allt, calltuinn, gilb, balg, cealg, 
olc, etc. 

Gaelic -rr arises from -rs ; see barr, earr, carraig ; from the 
meeting of r with r, as in atharrach \ from rth, as in orra from 
ortha, Lat. orationem. Again -11 comes from -si, as in uaill, coll, 
ciall, etc. ; especially from -In-, as in follas, ball, feall, etc. ; from 
-Id-, as in call, coille, and many others. 

Gaelic -rr arises from -rp ; corran, searrach (St.) ; Ir. carr, 
spear, cirrim, I cut, forrach, pole. KZ. 35. 

I. E. "n" and " m" Nasals. 

I. E. n and m appear normally in G. as n and m, save that I. E. 
terminal m in neuter nouns, accusative cases, and genitives plural, 
became in Celtic n. (1) Initial n appears in nead, Eng. nest, 
neart, neul, nochd, naked, night, nathair, nuadh, nasg, na, not, etc. 
(2) After an initial mute, n appears in cnaimh, cneadh, end, gnath, 
etc. After s, in snath, sniomh, snuadh, snigh, sneachd. After b it 
changes the b into m (mnatha for *bnds). (3) Intervocalic n is 
preserved — bean, Ian, maoin, dan, run, dun, sean, etc. (4). Pre- 
consonantal n is dealt with variously : 

a. Before the liquids, n is assimilated to m and I, and dis- 
appears before r. 


b. Before the labials, n becomes m in modern Gaelic. Before 

t, c, the n disappears with lengthening of the previous 
vowel, as in ceud, first, breug, coig. Before d and g % 
it is preserved, as in cumhang, fulaing, muing, seang, 
but it assimilates d — -jionn (*vindo-s), bonn, inn-, binn. 
For -ngm, see under n and g. 

c. Before s, n disappears as before t and c. Compare mtos, 

feusag, grlos, sios. 

(5) Post-consonantal n disappears after I, leaving II (see under I), 
but is preserved after r, as in cam, ebrna, tighearna, etc. 

a. After s, that is, -sn becomes -nn ; as in dronn for 

*dros-no-, donn, uinnsean, cannach, bruinne, etc. 

b. The mutes, t, d, c, g, p, disappear with compensatory 

lengthening of the previous vowel : -tn-, as in eun, bwnt, 
iiin ; -dn-, as in bruan, smuain ; -en- is doubtful — cf . ton, 
also sgeun, breun, lean ; -gn, as in feun, bron, uan, srbn ; 
-pn, as in suain, cluain, cuan ; -pn ? tepno = ten ; 
apnio = ane (Lit. aps) ; lipn — Jen, follow ; but 
supn = suan ; copn = cuan (Stokes) ; en, gn, and tn initial 
become r in pronouncing ; but the vowel is nasal — 
gnath is grath with nasal a ; bn becomes mn, as 
in mnaoi, pronounced rnraoi ; even snath becomes 
dialectally srath, especially in oblique cases. 

c. After b, that is, bn changes into mh-n, as in domhan 

(*dubno-), sleamhuinn. 

The G. combination -nn arises therefore from (1) n before n, 
(2) n before d, and (3) from -m ; or (4) it is a doubling of n in an 
unaccented syllable at the end of a word (tighinn, etc.), or, rarely, 
of a one-syllable word like cinn, cluinn, linn. In Islay, -in 
becomes -inn ; duinne is for duine ; minne gen. of min, etc. In 
general, gloinne is comp. of glan. 

Initial m appears in mios, muir, mil, maide, etc. Before the 
liquids r and I, the m becomes b, as in braich, brath, brugh, Math, 
bleith, bleoghainn. Intervocalic m is always aspirated — geimheal, 
amhuil, like, cruimh, amh, damh, cnaimh, Iamh, caomh. In 
combinations with other consonants, various results occur : — 

(l)'Pre-consonantal m. 

a. Before liquids, m is preserved in an aspirated form 
(geamh-radh, etc.), but there are no certain ancient cas 
Of course, m before m results in preserved m (cf. amadan, 
comas, comain). 


b. Before s, m should disappear, but no certain Celtic cases 

seem to occur. In the historic language, m before s 
results in mp or p as usually pronounced, as in rompa 
for rom + so, that is, *rom-sho ; so iompaidh, umpa. 

c. Before the explosives. Original mb is now m, as in the 

prefix im-, iom-, in imleag, torn. I. E. m before t and k 
(7) became n (as in ceud, breng), and disappeared with 
compensatory lengthening. Compare also didean, 
eiridinn. Prehistoric mg, md fail us ; in the present 
language both appear aspirated (mhgh, mhdh). 

(2) Post-consonantal m. After the liquids r, I, and n, the m is 
preserved. Whether an intermediate s is in some cases to be 
postulated is a matter of doubt (as in gairm, from * gars- 
men ? W. garm). See cuirm (W. civnv), gorm, seirm, deilm, 
calma, ainm, meanmna, anmoch. 

After s, m becomes in the older language mm, now m ; drulm 
comes from *dros-men. But s is very usual as an intermediate 
letter between a previous consonant and m : many roots appear 
with an additional s, which may originally have belonged to an -c-s 
neuter stem. We actually see such a development in a word like 
snaim, which in E. Ir. appears as snaidm (d. snaidmaimm), from a 
•Celtic *snades-men. In any case, a word like ruaim postulates a 
Pre-Celtic *rond-s-men. See also gruaim, seaman, reim, lom, trom. 

After the explosives the m is aspirated and the explosive 
disappears, as in the case of freumh (vrdmd) ; but seemingly the 
accented prefix ad- preserves the m : cf. amas, amail, aimsir. 

Preserved G. m, intervocalic or final, may arise from (1) m or 
n before m, (2) 8 before in (also -bsm, -tsm, -dsm, -csrn, -gsin), (3) 
-ngm, or -ugm, as in ceum, leum, beum, geum, or -ndm as in teum, 
(4) ng. becoming mb as in \m, turn, torn, etc., or (5) mb (-nibh), 
as in im-, iom-. 

§ 5. Vowel Gradation or Ablaut. 

The most characteristic roots of the I. E. languages are at least 
triple-barrelled, so to speak : they show three grades of vowels. 
The root pet, for instance, in Greek appears as pet, pot, >>t 
(7T€T0/xat, fly, 7roTao/xcu, flutter, irrepov, wing). The first grade — 
e — may be called the "normal" grade, the second the "deflected " 
grade, and the last — pt — the "reduced "or " weak " grade. The 
reason for the reduced grade is evident ; the chief accent is on 
another syllable. Why e interchanges with o is not clear. The 



leading I. E. series of vowel gradations are six in number, as 
follows : — 

Normal. Deflected. 

1. e-series 


2. e-series e 

3. a-series a 

4. 6-series o 

5. a-series a 

6. o-series o 













to ei belongs %, to- 

Corresponding to the e, o, nil series are the two " strong " 
vowel grades e, b, as in sed, sit, sod, sed, sod, si-zd, found in Latin 
sedeo (sed), G. suidhe (sod), G. sith [properly sidK], peace (sed) y 
Eng. soot (sod), Lat. sido (si-zd). 

The e-series in full is as follows : — 

Normal. Deflected. Weak. 

e simple e o nil 

ei ei oi i 

eu eu 

er (or el, en, em) er 

To all these correspond "reduced" long forms 
eu belongs u, and to the consonant- vowels correspond the long f, I, 
n, m. We may also here add the triple ve, vo, u (vet, vot, ut, as in 
G. feitheamh, uine, uiridh ; vel, vol, ul as in fait, 0. Ir., Mod. Ir. 
folt, olann). 

Some Gaelic examples will now be given. 
(1) The e-series. G. eadh, uidhe from *pedo-, *podio-\ Ugh, tugha,. 
from *tegos, *togio- ; geas, guidhe from ged, god ; cleachd, 
cleas, cluich, etc. In ei we have the complete set meit, moit, 
mit in meith, maoth, meata or miosa ; further cliathach, claon 
from klei, kloi ; fianuis, fios from veid, vid ; gaoth, geamhradh 
from ghoi, ghi ; and others. The diphthongs eu, ou cannot 
be differentiated, but the short form of the root occurs, as in 
ruadh, roduidh from roud, rudd ; buail, buille from bhoud, 
bhud ; cluas, cluinn from kleu, klu ; nuadh, nodha (1) The- 
liquids show the changes also : beir, breith from ber, br, and 
in the sense of speech we have also brath, judgment (bftu-). 
The root pel is especially rich in forms : iol (*pelu-), uile 
(*polio-), lion (*pleno-, Lat. plenus, from pie), Ian (either 
*plono, plo, Eng. flood, or *pl-no-, from pi-), that is," root 
forms pel, pol, pi, pie, plo, pi, meaning " full." In n we have 
teann, tana (*tendo- tnnavo-, according to Brugmann), and 
• teud ; from gen we get the long forms gne in gniomh and gnb 
in gnath. In nem we have neamh, heaven, 0. Ir. nem, and 
namhaid, foe, from nom (Gr. vw/xaw). 


{2) The e and other series. One of the best examples of the e 
series is sne, sno (snd), spin, which gives sniomh \*snemu-) and 
snath, thread (*sndtio-). From se comes slol (*selo-) and, 
possibly, sath, transfix (soto-). The a- series is not differ- 
entiated in G. nor is the o- series ; but from a short we get, 
among others, the root dg, lead, in aghaidh, etc., and dg in 
agh, success, aghach, warlike. The diphthong ai has as its 
" reduced " grade t. The name Aodh in Mackay represents 

0. Ir. Aed, aed, fire, Gr. aWw, I burn. 

§ 6. The Spirants. 

The I. E. spirants were j, v, s, and z. We have already dis- 
cussed j and v under the heading of semi- vowels, from which it is 
difficult to differentiate the consonantal j and v. Here we deal 
with s and z, and first with s. 

(1) Initial s. Before vowels and the liquids, I. E. s remains intact 
in Gadelic. In Brittonic s before vowels becomes h ; before 
/, n, and m, it disappears, while before r it or its resultant 
effect is preserved (see sruth, srath, srdn). 

a. I. E sv appears in Gadelic as s usually, more rarely as / 

and p or t ; in W. the form is chw. See searbh, seal, se, 
sibh, seid, etc. The G. piuthar appears in Ir. as siur, 
fiur, from *svesor, while pill (*svelni-) gives fill and till ; 
compare also sdisd (teis). 

b, I. E. sp (sph) is treated in Celtic much as sv. And spr 

appears as sr ; cf. srdn, straighlich, slis, sonn, sealg, sine. 

1. E. st appears in Gadelic as t, as in iigh, td, tighinn, taois. 

But str, stl, become sr, si, as in srath, sreotkart, sreang, 
slios, slat, sloinn, slaid. Some hold that st may appear 
as simple s, which is the case in Welsh, but the instances 
adduced can be otherwise explained (cf. seirc, sail, 
searrach (St.), seall). 

I. E. sq, sgh, appear in Gaelic as sg, 0. Ir. sc, as in sgath, 
sgath, sguir, etc. The W. precedes the sg with a y as in 
ysgwyd, Ir. sgiath, G. sgiath, shield : I. E. sqv is in W. 
chw, as G. sgeul, W. chwedl, sgeith, W. chwydu. 

I. E. skn appears in Gaelic as sn, as in sneadh. 
{2) Intervocalic s. This becomes h and disappears ; compare tagh 

(*to-guso), do-, chi, etc. 
^3) Terminal s disappears altogether ; but in closely connected 

combinations of words its former existence is known from the 

so-called euphonic h, as in the article genitive feminine* and 


nom. plural before vowels {na h-u'ighean = **<m<hU augeis), also 
} H- of Irish ; and it may be the origin in most cases of 
prothetic s. 

(4) Pre-consonantal s. A prehistoric case of -*r is not forth- 

coming, but eirich comes from *ek-s-rego. Before I, in, and n 
the 8 disappears, and the liquid is doubled (m of Gaelic being 
for older mm), as already shown under these letters. Medial 
sv appears as / in the older language (see seinn), and it is 
still seen in t ibhann (*to-sven-), feabhas. 
Before the explosives, s is preserved before the tenues, which 
in the modern language become mediae. The combination 
sp is not certain ; but -sc becomes -sg (see fasgadh, seasg, 
measg, etc.), st becomes s (older ss) simply, as in seas 
( = *sisto-), fois, fas, dot,, etc. Before the medials s becomes 
z, which see for results in Gaelic ; *sg becomes g ; sp becomes s. 

(5) Post-consonantal 8. After the liquid r the s is assimilated to 

the r, and the result is rr, as in barr, earr, etc. From -U- 
seemingly s results, at least in the later language ; -ms, -its 
become s with compensatory lengthening for the previous 
vowel ; -ds becomes t, as in an t-eack ( = *sindos eqos) ; Thn. 
adds Jitir ( = *vid-sar). For m-sh = mp, see under m. 
The explosives combine with the s and disappear into 0. Ir. ss„ 
now s, as in uasal ( = *oups- or *ouks-), his, leas (*led-so-), 
lios, as, out ( b- eks), and many others. 

Gaelic preserved s intervocalic, therefore, arises from (1; st, as 
in seas ; (2) from -ms, -ns, as in mios ; and (3) from -ps, -ts, -cs. 
Gaelic -st arises from this s by a sort of modern restoration of 
previous st, only, however, x may also become modern st (as in 
aiste, now aisde, out of her). Final x disappears, as in caora, se. 

I. E. z. 

Even in I. E. this is assured only before the medial explosives. 
Thus G. nead, nest, is from I. E. nizdo-s : so maide, brod, cead r 
gad, seid. Again -zg seems to have developed in G. into g ; compare 
beag, biog, meag, griogag, eagal ( = ex-gal-), rag. 

§ 7. The Explosives or Mutes. 

The I. E. explosives formed a possible sixteen in number 
between tenues, mediae and the double set of aspirates (ph, bh, th, 
dh, kh, gh, qh, gh). The tenues aspirate were " rare and of no 
importance" in the resulting languages, save only in Sanskrit and 
Greek. The mediae aspirates are the predecessors of aspirates of 
the modern languages. But in the Celtic languages these media 


aspirates were merged into the mediae themselves, so that b and 
bk appear in Celtic as b, d and dh as d, g and gh as g, and g and 
gh as g. The Balto-Slavonic, in this matter, shares the peculiarity 
of the Celtic. 

All the explosives, when intervocalic, are " aspirated" in Gaelic 
— p to ph, b to bh ( = v), t to th ( = h), d to dh ( = y), c to cA, # to 
gh, (=y) ; the corresponding Welsh changes are the tenues to 
mediae, and the media) to /, dd, and nil in the case of g. Inter- 
vocalic preserved explosives in Gaelic arise from a doubling of the 
explosive, the cause of which in many cases is obscure. The fol- 
lowing are the leading cases and causes of intervocalic G. mutes : 

(1) Doubling of the explosive in the course of inflection or word- 


a. Inflection. The participle passive in -te preserves the t or 

d of the root as t; thus [caith gives caithte,] bath (for badh) 
gives baite, radh gives raite, etc. 

b. Word-building. The prepositional prefixes which end or 

ended in a consonant preserve the succeeding explosive ; 
even vowel-ending prepositions like air (*are), aith- 
(*ati) do the same, if the accent is on the preposition. 
Thus — abair is for ad-ber, aitreabh is for ad-treb, aidich 
is for ad-dam, faic for ad-ces-, agair for ad-gar. In the 
way of affixes, we have ruiteach from rud-t and ruicean 
from rud-c, creid from *cred-dho ; compare the compounds 
boicionn, laoicionn, and craicionn. 

(2) After sunk n or m. Thus deud comes from dnt, and so with 

ceud, teud ; ceud, first, from * cento-, so send ; eug from nho-, 

(3) After sunk spirant z. This is assured for zd, as in brod 

(*broz-do-, Norse broddr), cead, gad, maide, nead ; but zg 
giving g is doubtful — eagal seems for *es-gal or * ex-gal-, 
beag for gvezgo-s ( Lat. vescus), meag for mezgo-. 

(4) Cases corresponding to double explosives in other languages : 

cat and Lat. catta (borrowing 1), cac and Gr. kolkkt]. Compare 
also slug. 

(5) Doubtful cases. Many of these cases can be satisfactorily 

explained as due to suffixes immediately affixed to consonant- 
ending roots. Thus brat may be for brat-to-, trod for trud-do-, 
we for *yak-ho-, breac for mrg-ko-. Even suffixes in -bho- and 
-go- (Eng. k in walk) are not unknown, and they might 
account for reub (*reib-bo-, *reib-bho-, Eng. reap, rip), slug for 
slug-go-, etc. Dr Whitley Stokes has given a different theory 
founded on the analogy of a Teutonic phonetical law, stated 


thus by Brugmann : "bn, dn, gn became bb, dd, gg before the 
principal accent in primitive Teutonic, thence pp, tt, kk (by 
Grimm's law), which were further treated just the same as 
2)p, tt, kk, which had arisen from pn, tn, qn, and from I. E. 
bhn, dhn, ghn, ghn. . . . 0. H. G. sluccho, slukko, 
glutton \*sluk-no-\ M. H. G. sluchen, gulp, have hiccup, 
allied to Gr. Avfto, Xvyyavdoixai, I have hiccup." These last 
words are allied to G. slug, which Dr Stokes refers to a 
pre-Celtic *slug-n6-, the accent being on the suffix -no-. The 
weakness of this hypothesis lies in the fact that uniform 
results are not found from it. Thus breac, from mrg-no-, 
should be breag, not breac, on the analogy of slug. 

I. E. p. 

Initial and intervocalic I. E. p disappears in Gaelic, as in 
athair, Lat. pater, eun for *pet-no-, eadh for pedo-, iasg against Lat. 
piscis, ibh against bibo (for pibo), Ictn against Lat. plenns, lar and 
Eng. Jloor, etc. For intervocalic p, see fo (*upo), for, teth, 
caora, (*kaperax), saor, (*sapiros), etc. 

Lat. and G. agree in the initial of the numeral five — quinque 
and cbig, though the I. E. was penqe. In feasgar the G. guttural- 
ises an original vesperos without Latin countenancing it. Initial 
sp appears as s ; see sealg, spleen, sonn, sliseag, sine, sir. 

When p appears before the liquids and t, c, or s, it is not lost 
in G. ; it leaves its influence either in a new combination or in 
compensatory lengthening. Thus suain is for supno-s, and see 
cluain, cuan. G. dias seems from *steip-s-d, W. twys, and uasal 
may have had an original form like vxj/rjXos, Eng. up. (Cf. teanga 
and dingua). In seachd, Lat. septem, the p is gutturalised ; we 
may add here *neachd, 0. Ir. necht, Lat. neptis, Eng. niece ; 
creuchd, dreachd. Possibly leac may be for lep-kd. 

G. intervocalic p is, of course, due to some combination. In 
leapa, genitive of leabaidh, it arises from Heb-tha ; and we must 
explain similarly tap (*tabaidh arising from *tab-tha) ; so raip, 

For t taking the place of p through an initial h compare the 
derivations offered for tore, turlach, tuiL tlam, tlics for luths. 

I. E. b, bh. 
These two become b in Gaelic and the other Celtic languages, 
I. E. b is rare in any language ; in G. it appears in ibhim (*pibo). 
treabh, domhain and druchd (*dhreub-tu-). 

(1) Initial I. E. bh, G. b. See beir, balg, ball, ban, Math, bloom, 
bragh, biuthainn, buaidh. 


(2) Intervocalic I. E. bh, G. bh ( = v), 0. Ir. b, W. /. See abhainn 

crabhach, dubh, gobhal. 
(3). Pre-consonantal bh or b. 

a. Before r it remains — abhra, gabhar, dobhar, Gaul, dubrum. 

b. Before / it disappears with compensatory lengthening — 

neul for neblo-s. 

c. Before n it becomes mh now — sleamhuinn is for *slibno-s, 

Eng. slippery ; so domhain. These are I. E. b. 

d. Before t, I. E. b becomes ch as in druchd. 

(4) Post-consonantal b, bh. It is preserved after the liquids r and 
I — carbad, cearb, earb, gilb, sgolb. After m it preserves the 
m, as in im-, iom- from mbi, ambi. After s it is preserved 
in eabar ; after d in abair, lebb, faob, aobrann ; perhaps after 
g in leabaidh, *leg-buti- (V). 

{5) Gaelic intervocalic b. In reub and #o& we seem to have a 
suffix -bo-, *reib-bo-, gob-bo ; also cliob from clib-bo-, root <?/<7, 
Gr. ko\o/36s, stumpy (f). Oftenest 6 is produced from a 
previous c?, especially of the prefixes — as abair, abadh, faob, 
etc. (see the paragraph above). 

I. E. t. 

Initially this is Celtic t ; intervocalic, it is aspirated, and 

otherwise it is variously modified. 

(1) Initial t, G., 0. Ir., W. t. See, among many, tiugh, tar, teth, 
teich, tais, tor a, tlaih, tnuth, tri, treabh. 

{2) Intervocalic t, G. th ( = h), 0. Ir. th(d),W.d. See athair, 
mathair, ith, roth, ceithir, leth, etc. Sometimes in non- 
accented syllables it appears as dh, as in biadh from *bivoto-s, 
and this is always the case with the infinitives in -atu- 
(glan-adh). Irregularly faidh for faith. 

(3) Pre-consonantal t not initial. Before r it is preserved, as in 

criathar, briathar, etc. Before I it disappears with com- 
pensatory lengthening — sgeid, W. chwedl, bl, beul, etc. ; so 
before n, as in eun. Before s the t disappears and the s is 
preserved, as in miosa, ris, sets. Words like fios are from 
vid-s-tu-, formerly explained as from vid-titr. Before another 
t, t is preserved in the resultant t of G., as in ite, etc. ; -td- 
seems to become -dd- ; -tc- becomes 0. Ir. cc, G. c, as in 
freiceadan ; -tg- becomes gg, that is g, as in freagair. 

(4) Post-consonantal t. After r and I it is preserved, as in beart, 

ceart, ceirtle, alt, fait ; after n and m it sinks to d, as in ceud, 
etc. As seen, -bt becomes -chd, as in druchd, while -pt is in 
seachd. After c or g, the t sinks in G. to d. preserving the 


guttural as an aspirate : ochd, nochd, bochd, reachd. 0. Ir. 
has -cht here and W. th. 
(5) Gaelic intervocalic t. The t of a root is preserved when the 
suffix begins in t, as [in caithte, spent,] in ite, Ir. ette, *pet-tiu, 
lit, *plt-tion-. The d of the affixes preserves it, as in aitreabh, 
taitinn, ruiteach, reif. The t of the following does not 
belong to the ultimate root : ciotach, *sqvi-tto-, Eng. skew, 
crcit, root kur, lot, root hi. 

I. E. d. dh. 
This is a uniform Celtic d initial ; Gaelic dh between vowels 
and W. dd. 

(1) Initial d, dh. See deas, dearc, deich, druim, dun, damh, etc., 

for d ; for dh, dubh, domhan, dearg, dorus, dall ; also dlighe. 

(2) Intervocalic d, dh. See fiodh, *vidu-, eadh, suidhe, fiadh, 

guidhe, etc. 

(3) Pre-consonantal d, dh non-initial. Before r, /, n, the d dis- 

appears with compensatory lengthening, as in aireamh 
(*ad-rim-) aros, ctrach, buail, (*boud-lo-), but buille is for 
*bud-s-lio- ; amuain for smoud-no-, Before m it sometimes 
disappears, as in freumh, *vrd-m&, but with an accented 
prefix the d and m become m, as in aimsir, amal, amas. With 
s it coalesces into s, as in musach, or in uisge for *ud-s-qio-, or 
jios for *vid-s-tu-. Before the explosives, with b it coalesces 
to bb, now b, as in abair, etc. So with t, as in aitreabh ; with 
d, as in aidich ; with c, as in faic ; with g, as in agair. 

(4) Post-consonantal d, dh. The liquid r preserves a following d, 

as in ard, bard, sgdird, brd, etc. It assimilates with I, as in 
coille, call, moll, mullach ; and with n, in fionn, 0. Ir. find, 
bonn, 0. Ir. bond, binn. For zd, see next paragraph. The 
explosives before d are unusual, save t and e/, for which see 
next paragraph. 

(5) Intervocalic G. d. There are three sources at least for this 


a. The d from nt in ceud, teud, beud, etc. 

b. The <7 arising from the spirant z before d, as in brod f 

*brozdo-, cead, gad, maide, nead, druid. 

c. From -dd- as in creid, goid, rodaidh, trod, etc. ; also aidich, 

* ad-dam-. 

I, E. " k " and " q." 
These appear in G. uniformly as c ; but in the Brittonic 
languages q, if labialised, becomes p as in Greek. 
(1). Initial k. See cluinn, cii, ceud, hundred, cac, cridhe, caomh r 


Initial q simple. See caraid, W. car, ceud, first, W. cynt, coille, 
W. celli, cas, W. coes, eoileach, W. ceiliog, etc. 

Initial 7 labialisecl, that is, qv : casd, W. pcU, ciall, W. jowy//, 
ceithir, W. pedwar, cecum, W. />era, cmre, W. /vaj'r, co, W. pa, 
cruimh, W. jwy/'. 

It seems clear that G. # at times represents I. E. k, q, as \Y. 
has the latter. Compare G. geug with W. cainc, Skr. cauku ; 
but W. ysgainc shows the reason for the anomaly — an s 
initial has been dropped, and in dropping it the G. reduced 
c to g. Further compare garmainn, giomach. Cf. dias. 

(2) Intervocalic k, q. The G. is ch, W. g, b. Compare cruach, 

W. crilg, Jichead, deich, loch ; also each, W. ebol, seach, 
W. heb, etc. 

(3) Pre-consonantal k, q. Before r, I, n, the c disappears with com- 

pensatory lengthening as in deur, Lat. dacrima, meur, dual, 
muineal, ton ; and compare Prof. Strachan's derivations for 
meanan, b? , eu?i, cain, leana. With s, the result in G. is », 
0. Ir. 88, W. ch, as in uasal, W. vchel. Before explosives, 
cb, cd, eg do not appear ; ct becomes chd, for which see 
under t (4) ; for c-c, see paragraph (5) here. 

(4) Post-consonantal k, q. After r and /, the guttural appears as 

c, as in cearc, uircean, male, ole, falc, etc. After n (in), it 
sinks to g, with a preceding long vowel, as in eug, breug, 
already discussed. After s, the c is preserved, but in G. it 
is written as g, as in measg, nasg, teasg, etc. After 
explosives, the t and d of the prefix or root preserves the c 
following, for which see under t and d pre-consonantal. 
For c or g before c, see next paragraph. 

(5) Intervocalic Gaelic c. It may arise from -tk, -dk, -kk, -gk. 

From -tk in freiceadan (*frith-com-et-dn) ; -dk in faic, 
acarach, ruicean, aculnn ; -kk in mac, *mukkus, cac, 
craicionn, 10c, leacainn ; from -gk in hoc, boc, breac, cnoc, 
gleac. The word mac, son, postulates a Gadelic makko-s as 
against the Ogmic maqvi (gen.) and W. mab ; it is difticnlt 
to account for the G. form. 

I.E. g, gh; g, gh. 

These consonants all, save in one case, appear in G. as g y 
aspirated to gh, and W. shows g and nil in similar circumstances. 
The exception is in the case of g, which when labialised, becomes 
G. and W. b. But gh, whether labialised or not, becomes g in G. 
(1) Initial I. E. g : in guth, gin, gnctth, geimheal, go. I. E. gh is 
in geamhradh, gabh, gag, geal, white, I. E. g simple appears 
in geal, leech, goir, goile, gearan, guala, gradh ; I. E. gh in 


gar, gnan, gaol, auidhe, geas, guin. Labialised g. appears in 
bean, Eng. queen, bior, bed, bd, bra, quern, braghad. 

(2) Intervocalic Celtic g. See deigh, aghaidh, greigh, truagh, 
bleoghainn, Ugh, bragh, etc. In the termination of words it 
appears often as ch : teach (*tegos), mach, (*magos), imlich, 
hn[th]ich, eirich, fuirich. Intervocalic g labialised does not 
seem to exist in modern G. 

{3) Pre-consonantal Celtic g. Here -gr, -gl, -gn, become -r, -I, -n 
with vocalic lengthening, as feur, *vegro-, ar, nair, fuar, id, 
fual, feun, *vegno-, srbn, uan, tain, brdn, etc. Before m, g 
is found in the combination ng-m, which results in m with a 
preceding long vowel, as in ceum, leum, geum. Before s it 
becomes x and modern s, W. ch, as in uasal, W. uchel, as for 
ex, os, deer, W. ych, cas, las, uiseag. Before explosives the g 
is variously preserved : -gb, -gd may be passed over ; -ct, -gt 
appear as chd, as in seachd, bliochd, smachd, nochd, sneachd, 
etc. ; -gk ends in -kk, now c, for which see post-consonantal k ; 
-gg appears as g, as in slug, bog, clag, lag, slige, smugaid. 

(4) Post-consonantal Celtic g. After r and / the g is preserved 

in G., but often in W. becomes y ; see dearg, fearg, searg, 
garg, lorg, balg, cealg, dealg, tulg. After n ordinary g is pre- 
served, as in cumhang, long, muing, seang, fnlaing. But 
labialised g became b, and then coalesced with the n into mm, 
now m as in \m, butter, Lat. unguentum, turn, cam, torn, 
ciomach, and in modern times cum, keep, from *congv in 
congbhail. For ng-m see the foregoing paragraph. For §g 
see the next paragraph. After the explosives, the g is pre- 
served in the combinations -tg (freagair), -dg (agair), and -gg, 
which see below. 

(5) Intervocalic Gaelic g. It arises from -sg firstly, which in pre- 

Celtic times was -zg, as in beag, mogul, griogag, meag, eagal, 
etc., which see under I. E. z above. From the explosive 
combinations we have tg in freagair, * frith-gar-, eagna, eagar ; 
dg in agair, agus. The -gg must arise from a suffix in -go-, 
which was operative in early Gadelic, if we discard Dr Stokes' 
view already set forth. Cf. Eng. walk, hark, lurk, skulk, 
smirk. For this -gg see paragraph third above. 
Intervocalic g may arise from a lost n before c, as in breug, geug, 
eug, etc. The previous vowel is lengthened save in a few 
cases where the word — or sentence — accent has brought about 
a short syllable. Thus thig has short i, and in G. leig is 
short. This is regularly the case with the results from the 
prefix con, confused with cos, as in cogais, 0. Ir. concuhus, 
cadal, cagar, cogadh, etc. 

outlines of gaelic etymology. xxix. 

§ 8. Accent. 

In Gaelic, only the stress accent exists, and it is placed always 
on the first syllable. The accent of the Old Gaelic was likewise 
on the first syllable, save in the case of the verb. Here in the 
compounded verbs the stress accent rested on, as a rule, the 
second syllable ; but the imperative placed the accent on the 
first syllable, and this also took place after the negative and inter- 
rogative particles and after the conjunctions gv!n and na'n (da'n). 
Thus /cue, see thou, is for f-aid-c, with accent on the preposition 
ad , for it is imperative ; the future ctii stands for the old present 
at-chi, videt, where the accent is on the root ci. Again in cha'n 
fhaca the negative brings the accent on the prefix ad, that is, 
f-ad-ca. When the accent is on the prefix, its ending consonant 
and the initial consonant of the root coalesce and result in a pre- 
served G. intervocalic consonant, but the root suffers truncation : 
when the accent is on the root, these consonants are aspirated, and 
the root is preserved. The ten irregular verbs in G. present 
sufficient illustrations of this rule. The preposition con, when 
accented, was always con, when unaccented it was com (comh). In 
the unaccented syllables, long vowels become short (aireamh from 
*dd-rim, anail for 0. Ir. anal), and in many cases change com- 
pletely their grade, as from small to broad (e.g. cbmhnadh, 0. Ir. 
congnam, from gniomh, and the compounds in -radh and -lack). 


Word-building consists of two parts — composition and deriva- 
tion. The first deals with the compounding of separate words ; 
the second deals with the suffixes (and prefixes) that make up the 
stem of a word from its root. 

(1) The compound may be two stems welded together: righ-theach, 
palace, *rigo-tegos, "king's house"; righ-fhaidh, royal prophet 
— " king who is a prophet" ; ceann-fhionn, white-headed, 
penno-vindo-s ; ceithir-chasach, four-footed ; dubh-ghlas, dark- 
blue ; crannchur, lot, "casting the lot." These are the six 
leading relationships brought out in compounds. In Celtic 
the first stem is nearly always in o-, as Teuto-bodiaci, G. sean- 
mhathair (but Catu-slogi, M ori-dunum, G. Muirgheal). Con- 
. sider the following compounds : iodhlann, miolchu, dircheard, 
buarach, ceardach, clogad, bathach, eilthire, gnath-fhocal, 
moirear, leth-chas, leth-trom, etc. 
The following are common prefixes : ath-, re-, ath-ghlac, re- 
capture ; ban-, she, ban-altrum, bantrach ; bith-, ever-, bilh- 
bheb, bith-bhuan ; it-, iol-, many ; ion-, fit ; sir-, sior-, ever-, 
fir-, f tor-, very, saobh-, pseudo-. 


The following suffixes belong to this branch of word-building : — 
-lack, from *slougo-, now sluagh ; seen in teaghlach, dbrlach, 

bglach, youth, etc. 
-radh, from *reda, W. rwyd (see reidh) ; seen in reabhradh, 

madraidh, dogs, bigridh, youth, macraidh, sons, righre, 

kings, gniomharra, deeds. 
-mhor, -or, from mor, great ; it makes adjectives from nouns, 

etc. : llonmhor, etc. 
-ail, like ; from earn/tail, amhail : rwghail for riogh-amhail, 

-an, diminutive masculine, 0. Ir. an, Ogmic -agnos, for *apo- 

gno-s, root gen, bear (Stokes) : as in fear an, truaghan, 

-ag, diminutive fern, in G., 0. Ir. -6c (masc. and fern.), from 

be, 6g, young : seen in caileag, etc. 
-seach. This feminine termination has been explained by 

Stokes as from 0. Ir. es, a fern, form, with the adjectival 

addition *iqd, and this es he deduces from W. es, which 

comes from Lat. issa. Cf. baiseach, cldirseach, bonnsach, 

ceir seach or ciarseach (Ir.). 

(2) The compound may be one noun governing another in the 

genitive : mac-leisg, and all the personal names in mac, gille, 

(3) Uninflected prefixes : 

a. Negative prefixes — I. E. y, G. an before vowels, aineol, 

ion-, in- before b, d, g (iongantas), eu- (ao-) before t, c, s 
(aotrom for e-trom, *n-trommo-s). 
To this negative add also mi-, neo-, as- (eas-), di- (der- = 

b. Prefixes of quality : do (do-char), and so- (so-char) ; and 

the intensive ro-. 

(4) Old adverbial forms and all prepositions. These prepositions 

are often combined with one or two other prepositions. 

ad-, Lat. ad : faic =f-ad-ci ; aireamh ( = ad-rim-). 

aith-, ad-, *ati-, re-, continually confused with the above 

prep, (aith gives accented e as in epiur ; ad gives a as in 

aca) : abair (*ad-ber-), agair, aithreachas (*ati-re'c-), etc. 

Compounded with to- in tagair, tapaidh, taitinn, taitheasg, 

taisg, etc. ; with fo- in fag (fo-ad-gab). 
air, by, on : air-leag, eir-idinn, bir-dheirc, oir-thir, urchair, 

urlar. Compounded with com in comhairle ; with to- in 

tairis, tairg, tearainn ; with di- in dearmad ; with imm- 

in iomav-bhaigh, iomarchur. 


as, out, es- : as-eirigh, as-creideamh, eas-bhuidh, el-rich. Com- 
pounded with air : uireasbhuidh ; with to-, teasairg ; 
with to-for- in tuairisgeid ; with to-fo-ar in tuarasdal ; 
with to-fo- in tuasgail. 
eadar, between ; eadar-sgaradh. 
/'<o; after; in *iarfaighim, now febraich ; iarogha. 
in, in ; with to- in tional and comh-thional. With a double 

nn in ionnsuidh. 
inn-, ionn-, to, Gaul, cmcfe- : in jionnogha ; with to- in tionn- 

sgainn, tionndadh (Zeuss). Confused with in, ind, above. 
im-, iom-, about : iomair, iomradh, imich, iompaidh (*imb-sh). 

Compounded with com in caochladh ; with to- in timchioll, 

tiomsach, tiomnadh. 
od-, ud-f out, Eng. out : obann, obaidh. Compounded with 

aith- in loboirt ; with di- in duisg ; with/o in fog 'air ; 

with to- in foftar, tog. 
con-, comh-, co- : coimhead, comaidh, caisg, cogadh. Com- 
pounded with im- in iomchorc ; with ccwi in cogais (0. Ir. 

concidms) ; with to-aith- in teagasg, teagamh. 
di-, de, de : dimeas, dioghail, diomhain, dlreach ; also deach, 

do-, to : this is the unaccented form of to-, 
fo, under : in foghnadh, foghlum, falach, fulaing. Com- 
pounded with to- in tdrachd, tuisleadh (to-fo-ess-) tuarasdal 

(to-fo-ar-as-), tuasgail (to-fo-as-). 
for, far, super : in forail, for radh,J 'ardor us, farmad, furtachd. 

Compounded with to in tonnach, tuaiiisgeul. 
fri-, ri, to, *vrt, Lat. versus ; it appears as frith, fris : in 

freagair, fritheil, freiceadan [frith-corn-), 
ro-, before : in robhas, rosg, rabhadh, radharc. Compounded 

in rug (ro-ud-). 
tar, across, tairm- : in teirig, toirmisg. 

Stem Suffixes. 

The following are the most important suffixes used in Gaelic 
for stem formation : — 

1. o-, d-, as in cid (*ciUo-), aitreabh, cas (*coxd). 

2. tro-, tlo-, trd-, tld- : criathar, hrei-tro-, anail, (*ana-tld), sgeul, 


3. jo-,jd-, ijo-, ijd-: eile, suidhe, (*sod-i-on). See no-, ro-, tjo-, sqio-. 

4. vo-, vd-, uvo-, uvd- : tarbh (*tar-vo-), each (*ek-vo-), bed, (bi-vo-). 

5. no-, nd-, ano-, eno-, ono- : Ian, slcin, duan, domhan, leathan 

(letano-s). It is secondary in iarunn ; cf. tighearna i^teg- 


6. mo-, md- : trom, lorn, caomh. 

7. ro-, rd, i-ro-, etc. : slor, mor, lar, dr, bodhar. Here comes the 

Gaelic numeral stem -dro-n, as aonar, one person, coignear, 
five persons ; it is allied to Lat. -drius, -drium, Gaelic -air, 
-eir, denoting agents or doers — cldrsair, harper, etc. 

8. tero-, ero- : in sinnsear, uachdar, eadar. 

9. lo-, Id-, llo-, etc. : coll (*cos-lo-), siol, neul, ciall, giall. 

10. dhro-, dro-, dhlo-, dlo- : odhar, uallach. 

11. bho-, bhd-\ earb, gob (^gob-bo-). 

12. to-, id-. This is the participial termination in most I. E. 

languages. In G. it is used for the past passive. Also in 
the adjectives nochd, bochd, gnath, etc. ; nouns dligheadh, 
dearmad, govt. 

13. tjo-, tjd-: Gr. a/x/?/)ocrio?. This forms the passive participle in 

G. : briste, caithte, etc. 

14. td- of abstract nouns : lobart, now wbairt. 

15. to- comparative. This appears in the ordinal numerals : 

deicheamh, 0. Ir. dechmad, for *dekmmeto-. 

16. ko-, hd-\ bg, young, juvn-ko-. 

1 7. qo-, qd-, qio-, dqo- ; suileach for *suli-qo-s ; cuimhneach, 

creidmheach. Especially the adjectives and nouns in ach, 
as marcach, buadhach. Further, the form iche (-iqio-s) 
denoting agent ; maraiche, etc. 

18. sqo-, sqio-\ as in measg, seasg, uisge. 

19. go-, gd : see muing, Danish, manke ; cf. Eng. walk, hark, etc. 

20. Stems in i- : dird, muir, maith, deigh. In ni-, tain, cluain, 

buain ; in mi-, cruimh, endimh ; in U-, samhail, dial ; in ti-, 
fctith, fdiih, breith, bleith, etc. — a form in which some 
infinitives appear. 

21. tdti-, that is, Celtic tat-, tus : beatha, life, *bitiis, g. *bi-tdt-os. 

22. Stems in u- : tiugh, Jliuch, dub, loch. In nu-, linn, 0. Ir. lin, 

lenu- ; in tu- there are many — bith, iodh-, fios (*vid-s-tu-), 
guth, cruth ; especially reachd and its like in chd. Here 
come the infinitives in adh (-dtu-). 
In G. -eas, as of abstract nouns, the form arises from tu- being 
added to an -es stem : aois, *aiv-es-tu- ; so dorus, follus. 

23. Stems in -n : cii, dra, \m, ionga. In -ien, there is 'Eire, 

' Eireann. The stems in tio are very common ; the oblique 
cases are in -tin- ; see eiridinn, faotainn, etc. : common in 
infinitives. Similarly common is -men, -mon, in ainm, 
cuirm, druim, hum ; and masculine in Oritheamh, ollamh, 

24. Stems in -r ; only the family names athair, mdthair, etc. 

25. Stems in -t, -nt : nochd, night : caraid, friend — a participial 




26. Stems in k or q : G. nathair, g. nathrach, so lair, lasair, 

cathair, etc. 

27. Neuter stems in -es : teach, leth, magh, gleann. 

28. Comparative stems in -jes, -is-, jos : mb, greater *md-jos, sine, 

Skr. san-yas-. 

Adair in tughadair, dialladair, figheadair, breabadair, etc. (?) 

Two or three stems peculiar to Gaelic may be mentioned. 
Adjectives in -idh, 0. Ir. -de, as diadhaidh, come from an original 
-dio-. Endings like maireann, firionn have been correlated with 
the Lat. gerund, itself a much disputed form. The preserved d in 
words like flichead, moisture, 0. Ir. Jliuchaidatu, has been variously 
referred to *-antu- or -ato-tut ; possibly the latter is its origin. 

A. Declension. 

1. 0- 

stems. Masc. o-stem ball, member. 

Gaelic. Old Irish. 


Sing. Nom. 

ball ball 



buill baill 



ball baull 

ballu (balloj. Jub.) 


ball ball n- 



bhuill baill 


Dual N., A. 

da bhall da ball 



da bhuill (!) 


da bhall dib mballaib 


Plur. Nom. 

buill baill 

baill (balloi) 


ball ball n- 



ballaibh ballaib 



buill baullu 

ballos (bal' >ns) 


bhalla baullu 
Neuter io-stem cridhe, heart 


S. N., A. 

cridhe cride n- 



cridhe cridi 



cridhe cridiu 



chridhe cride n- 


PI. N., A. 

cridheachan cride 



cridheachan cride n- 

krid on 


cridheachan cridib 



chridheachan chride 




2. d-stems : all feminine, cas, a 

, foot. 


Old Irish. 


S. Norn. 











coxl (coxai) 



coiss n- 






Dual A. 

da chois 

di choiss 



da chois 

da choss 



da chois 

dib cossaib 


PI. N. 






coss n- 














3. 2 

-stems. Feminine noun suil, eye. 

S. Norn. 







sulos (sidous) 







suil n- 






Dual N. 

da shuil 

di shuil 



da shuil 

da sula 



da shuil 

dib sulib 


PI. N. 



suleis (siilejes) 



siile n- 














4. u-i 

stems. Masculine noun bith 

, world. 

S. Norn. 














bith n- 






PL N. 



bitois, (bitoves) 



bithe n- 

bition, (bitovon) 









V. bhithean bithu 




5. Consonantal Stems. 



a). Stem in r 

; athair, father. 

Gaelic. Old Irish. 


S. Norn. 














athir n- 






il N., A. 

da athair 

da athir 



da athair 

da athar 



da athair 

dib n-athrib 


PL N. 






athre n- 









ateras (ater us) 





(6). Stem in men ; neut. ainm, name. 
S. N., A. ainm ainm n- anmen 

G. a.nme 

anma, anme 


D. ainm 




., A. ainmeannan anmann 


G. ainmeannan anmann n- 


D. ainmeannan anmannaib 



Stem in guttural c ; fern, nathair, serpent. 

S. Norn. 














nathraig n- 

natracen (natrcn) 

Dual N., A. 

da nathair 

di nathraig 



da nathair 

da nathrach 

na trace 


da nathair 

dib nathrachaib 


PI. N. 






nathrach n- 

natracon . ' 













(d). Neuter stem in -es ; tigh, house. 
S. N., A. tigh teg, tech 

G. tighe tige 

D. tigh tig tegesi 

Dual N. da thigh da thech 




Old Irish. 



da thigh 

da thige 



da thigh 

dib tigib 








tige n- 




6. Adjectives. 



Adjectives belonged (1) to the o- and the a- declensions, as 
*marvos, *marva, *marvon, now marbh, declined like the nouns 
of o- and a- declensions; (2) i- declension, as maith, *matis, 
*matis, *mati, the neuter nom. being the stem ; (3) u- declension, 
as *tigus, *tigus (I), *tigu, now tiugh ; and (4) consonantal adj., 
*tepens, te, teit, etc. Comparison was in two ways — (1) caomh : 
0. Ir. c6em, coemiu, coemem : *koimos, *koimjos, *koimimos ; 
(2) luath : 0. Ir. luath, liiathither, luathem : *loutos, *loutiteros, 

The numerals may be seen in the Dictionary in their Celtic 
form : *oinos, *dva, *treis, etc. 

The pronouns are so phonetically gone astray that they cannot 
be restored. 

B. Conjugation. 

Active Voice. Indicative 

— Present. 

Verb beir, bear. 

S. 1. 

beiridh mi 




beiridh tu 




beiridh e 







P. 1. 

beiridh sinn 




beiridh sibh 




beiridh iad 


berenti (beronti) 





Dependent Present. 

S. 1. 

bheir mi 




bheir tu 




bheir e 



P. 1. 

bheir sinn 




bheir sibh 




bheir iad 



first sing, is 

from theme-vowel-less rerbs : 

*ber*mi. Cf. orm, tharam 

even agam, ".-"//;. 



Secondary Present or Subjunctive. 

Gaelic. Old Irish. 

< ladelic. 



bheirinn no berinn 

berin (?) 


bheireadh no bertha 



bheireadh e no bered 




bheireamaid no bermmis 

berimmisa (I) 


bheireadh sibh no berthe 



bheireadh iad no bertis 

berintiss (?) 



do ghabh ro gabus 



ghabh ro gabis 



ghabh ro gab 




ghabh ro gabsam 



ghabh ro gabsid 



ghabh ro gabsat 




beiream — 



, . t \ beir 

| berthe 



beireadh e berad 




beireamaid beram 

, — 


beiribh berid 



beireadh iad berat 


Passive. Indicative — Present. 
S. 3. beirear e berir beretor 

P. 3. beirear iad bertir berentor 

Secondary Present or Subjunctive. 
S. 3. bheirteadh e no berthe — 

P. 3. bheirteadh iad no bertis — 

Past Tense. 
S. 3. chanadh e ro chet 
P. 3. chanadh iad ro cheta 


S. 3. beirear e berar 

P. 3. beirear iad bertar 

cainte cete 

cantos, "cantus" 
cantas (n.f.) 




1. cf. Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India as to how far the 
statement is to be limited as embracing India. Concerning Asia 
the statement is to be restricted to living Aryan languages. 

2. v. J. Hoop's Waldbaume und Kulturpflanzen (Trubner, 
1905), pp. 113-114, 382-384. The question is far from being 

3. cf. G. Dottin : Les desinences verbules en r en Sanskrit en 
italique et en celtique. He regards the passive in r in Celtic and 
Italic as an independent creation, the common element r going 
back to the period of Indo-European unity. Even the future in 
-bo he regards as a possibly analogous formation and different in 
origin Nand development. Compare critique in Revue Celtique, 18, 
343, where M. D'Arbois de Jubainville takes exception to some 
points. Irish, contrary to the Latin, has conserved the Indo- 
European perfect. Further, see G. J. Ascoli : Osservazioni 
fonologiche concernenti il celtico e il neolatino in Actes du dixieme 
congres international des Orientalistes ii. erne partie, Leide Brill, 
1895 ; cf. Indogerm. Forschungen Anzieger vii., i., 70. Also 
Windisch in Grundriss der Rom. Philologie, where most of the 
relative literature is summarized and discussed. The views of 
M. D'Arbois were made accessible some years ago in a paper in the 
Celtic Magazine, ed. by Dr MacBain. cf. Giles's Manual § 449. 

4. cf. Rhys's Celtae and Galli in Proceedings of the British 
Academy. Dr MacBain's notices of it in the Scottish Historical 
Review and in the Celtic Review are of interest, as also Sir J. 
Rhys's references in his Celtic Inscriptions of France and Italy, 
reviewed by the writer in the Scottish Historical Review, July, 

5. See Stokes on Pictish and Other Names in Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, Band 18. In the second edition of Skene's Highlanders 
of Scotland, Dr MacBain clearly summarizes the whole of the 
Pictish problem. Dr Zimmer's views were made accessible in a 
paper treating of Matriarchy Among the Picts given in the writer's 
Leabhar Nan Gleann (Edin. : N. Macleod). 

6. See Old Celtic Inscriptions by Stokes in Bezzenberger's 
Beitrage, B. xi., 112-141 ; Rhys's Celtic Inscriptions of France 
and Italy, and reviews by Thurneysen in Zeitschrift fiir Celtische 


7. cf. Rhys and Jones : The Welsh People ; v. Henry's 
Lexicon Etymol., p. xxiii., where he refers to the dialects of 
Modern Breton. On the periods of Old Breton see Loth's 
Vocabulaire Vie" x- Breton, Paris, 1884, ch. i. 

8. The presence of z (for vowel-flanked s) can only be explained 
by assuming that the Ogmic alphabet was invented or imported 
before the regular disappearance of s between vowels — v. Bezzen- 
berger's Beitrdge, xi., 144. Mr R. A. Stewart MacAlister, in his 
work on The Ogam Inscriptions (London : D. Nutt), suggests a 
different value in the case of z ; in which case, if we have /for z, 
we require to read v for the / of this transcription of the Ogam 

9 Add K. Meyer's old Irish treatise on the Psalter (Oxford : 
Clarendon Press), his edition in the Revue Celtique of the Old 
Irish version of Tochmarc Emere ; and Felire Oenqusso (2nd ed. 
by Stokes in Publications of Henry Bradshaw Society). 

10. About one half of the contents was transliterated by the 
writer in Leabhar Nan Gleann ; cf. Stern's critique in Zeitschrift 
fiir Celtische Philologie. One of the chief poems has since been 
found in a good version in an Irish MS. from Ratisbon, of which 
an account has been given by the writer in the forthcoming 
volume of the Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. cf. the writer's treatment of 
The Gaelic Dialects in Zeitschrift fiir Celtische Philologie ; also 
Rev C. Robertson on the same subject in the Celtic Review ; 
M. Macfarlane's The Phonetics of Scottish Gaelic ; and Professor 
Mackinnon on Scottish Gaelic Dialects in a paper in the Trans- 
actions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness. 

. 19. "hin anlaut before a vowel seems to come from p. So 
apparently in Irish haue = 7nus, and fJeriu cognate with irtepia. 
This change is regular in Armenian, see Brugmann's Grundriss, 
§30" — Stokes in Pezzenberger's Beitrdge, 23, 44. In last ed. of 
the Fdlire Stokes regards ire as the cognate of the Greek word 
cited. But this does not affect the cases in which an historic h 
seems to represent a vanished p ; compare the m for n in the 
derivation of amharus ; and see Dr Pedersen's Vergleichende 
Grammatik der Keltischen Sprachen, as well as the second edition 
of Brugmann's Grundriss der VergL Grammatik. 

20. A great levelling, as compared with what one must infer 
from the historic development of Indo-European, has taken place 
in Gadelic. Dr MacBain's Indo-European Alphabet is therefore 
simplified in the gutturals, although perhaps it would have been 
more regular to have put in a labio- velar series apart. Osthoff 
recognises three k-rows, labio-velar, velar, palatal, in the mother- 


speech ; v. Indogerm. Forschungen, 4, 246 ; Wharton's Etyma 
Latina recognise the three rows c, k, q ; cf. Zupitza's treatment 
of the gutturals. In Gadelic the velar and the palatal series have 
fallen together, but there is a distinct treatment of the labio- 

21. Contamination may have been at work here. But 
although the Cymric cognate is daigr, and Old Latin shows 
dacruma, 0. H. German, zahar, 0. Icelandic, tdr, Germ., zdkre, in 
view of the Gadelic forms, we may take the pre-historic form to 
have been *dnkru, which developed on the Brythonic side into a 
proto-Celtic *dakru. Compare Dr Walde's Lateinisches Etymolv- 
gisches Worterbuch, p. 319, also p. 5, where L. acer is given as 
cognate with Irish Gadelic er, high. 

22. meith should be meith, as in the Dictionary, with long 
open e ; this is diphthongized in the Northern dialect as mxath — a 
case of diphthongization of long open e where there has been no 
compensatory lengthening. 

23. See Zeitschrift fur Celtische Philologie y Band 3, 264, 275, 

24. See Zupitza on *, ,;' in Celtic, in Zeitschrift fiir Celtische 
Philologie, 2, 189-192. 

25. See Foy in Indogerm. Forschungen, 6, 337, on Celtic ar, 
al = Indogerm. f, I ; and Zupitza on r, I in Celtic, in Kuhn's 
Zeitschrift, 35, 253. 


Page xxxiii. — In the third line from the botoom of the page, 
for krid on, read kridion ; in the eleventh line from the bottom of 
the page, for the word in brackets, read (ballons). 







a, vocative particle, lr. a, 0. Ir. d, a ; W., Corn., Br. a : Lat. o ; 
Gr. 3. 

a, his, licr, Ir., a, 0. Ir. a, di (accented), W. ei, Br. e, Celtic e*/o, 
es/<$« ; Skr. gen. asya, asyds. The gen. pi. is an, their, O. I r. 
a n-, Celtic esjon (Stokes gives esan = Skr. fern. gen. pi. dsdm). 

.a, who, that (rel. pron.). In G. this is merely the verbal particle 
do of past time, used also to explain the aspiration of the 
future rel. sentence, which is really parataetic, as in the past 
rel. sentence. Oblique cases are done by an, am (for san, 
sam, 0. Ir. san, sam), the neut. of art. used as rel. (cf. Eng. 
that). The rel. locative is sometimes done by the prep. "//, 
am : "An coire am bi na caoraich" (1776 Collection, p. 112). 

a, out of, ex : see as. 

a, from, in the adverbs a nail, a nios, a nuas, a null ; Ir., 0. Ir. 
an-, as anuis, etc. ; Celtic a(j))ona, a derivative from I. K. 
apo, whence Lat. ab, Gr. ob-d ; Ger. von, from, is the exact 
equivalent of the Celtic. The a before sios and suas is due 
to analogy with a n\os, a nuas. 

a, in, to, as in a bhan, a bhos, a nis, a stigh, a steach, is the 
prep, an, in, into, q.v. 

a, as in a ris, &c., and before verbs, is the prep, do, q.v. 

a', the. at : see an, the, and ag, at. 

ab, or ab ab, lie ! The Ir. ab ah, M. Ir. abb, is an interjection of 
defiance, obo, of wonder ; cf. Lat. baba J , Gr. f3a/3ai. Hence, 
doubtless M'A.'s abab, dirt. 

aba, abbot, Ir. ab, 0. Ir. abb, YV. abad ; from Lat. abbas, abbatis, 
whence also Eng. abbot. Hence abaid, abbey. M. Ir. 
apdaine, abbacy, in M. G. "abbey lands," whence place- 
names Appin, older Abbathania (1310), Abthein (1220), 
" abbey lands." 


abadh, syllable, utterance ; E. Ir. apad, proclamation : ad-ba- 9 

Celtic ba, speak ; Lat. fatur, fama, Eng. fame. 
abaich, ripe, Ir. abaidh, M. Ir. abaid, E. Ir. apaig, * ad-bo gi r 

0. Ir. apchugud., autumnatio ; *ad-bog-, Celtic root bug, as in 

bog, q.v. ; ad-bach, root of Eng. bake ; Gr. <£ojyo>. The \W 

addfed is from a root met. 
abaideai, colic (M'A.) : 
abair, say, so Ir., 0. Ir. epiur, Celtic dd-bero ; Lat. re-fero \ see 

root in beir. 
abaisd, a brat, trifling, impudent person : 
abalt, expert (M'A.) ; from Sc. apert ? See aparr. 
f abar, confluence ; only in Pictish place names : 0. Gaelic (B. of 

Deer) abbor, W. aber, 0. W. aper, Celtic ad-bero-, root her ; 

see beir. Modern Gaelic pronounces it obair (so in 17th 

cent.), which agrees with the 0. W. oper ; this suggests 

od-bero-, "out flow," as against the "to flow" of ad-bero-. 

The od is for ud, allied to Eng. out. Aporicum : *ati-boro-n 

abarach, bold ; see abair above, 
abardair, dictionary (Shaw) ; from abair, q.v. 
abartach, talkative, bold ; from abair, q.v. 
abh, hand net; from Norse hdfr, pock-net. Also tabh, q.v. 

Spelt less correctly amh and abhadh. 
abh, bark of dog ; an onomatopoetic word, 
abhainn, river, Ir. abhann (gen. abhann, now aibhne), 0. Ir. abann, 

W. a/on, Br. auon, Gallo-Brit. Abona; Lat. amnis (*ab-nis). 

Root abh ; Sk. ambhas, water ; Gr. dcf>pos (o/i/fyos, imber) 

(Zim. Neu., 270). 
abhacas, sport, irony ; see the following word, 
abhachd, humour, sport, Ir. adhbhachd : 
abhag, terrier, Ir. abhach ; from abh, q.v. Cf. E. Ir; abacc,. 

dwarf ; W. afanc. 
abhagas, rumour, false suspicion : 
abhaist, custom, Manx oaysh, Ir. abhest (O'R.), abaise (O'B.), 

ad+beus? M. Ir. dbaisi (pi.)- See beus, custom. Ascoli 

compares the 0. Ir. -abais of duabais, teter, and suabcu's,. 

suavis. Meyer suggests from N. avist, abode : unlikely. 
abhall, an orchard, apple-tree, M. Ir. aball, apple-tree. See uhhal. 
abharr, silly jest (M'A.) : 
abharsair, Satan, Ir. aidhbhersedir, E. Ir. adbirseoir ; from Lat. 

adversarius (Eng. adversary). Also aibhistear. 
abheaid, a jest ; see abhachd. 

abhlan, wafer, so Ir., 0. Ir. obla, g. oblann ; from Lat. oblatim 
an oblation. 


abhra, eyelid ; see fabhra. 

abhras, spinning, produce of distaff, Ir., M. Ir. abhras, 0. Ir. 
abras, gestus, E. Ir. abras, handiwork, spinning, abairsech, 
needlewoman. Conn. (B) abras, who derives it from L. Lat. 
abra, ancilla. 

abhsadh, the slackening of a sail, hoisting sail (N. H.) ; from 
Norse hdlsa, clew np sail, from hdls, neck, allied to Lat. 
collum. Eng. hawser is also hence. Also allsadh. 

abhsporag", a cow's stomach, tripe (H.S.D.), allsporag, cow's 
throttle (M'A.) ; borrowed evidently from a Scandinavian 
compound of hdls, neck. Cf. abhsadh above. 

ablach, a mangled carcase, Ir. ablach, carcase : *dd-bal-ac-, from 
root bal, bel, die, I. E. gel, whence Eng, quell. Irish has 
abailt, death, 0. Ir. epelta, atbail, perit, from the same root 
and prefix ; the first of them appears in our Gaelic dictionaries 
through Shaw. From Gaelic conies Scotch ablach. 

abran, abran (M'A. and H.S.D.), an oar-patch on a boat's gun- 
wale ; see aparan. 

Abraon, April, so Ir. ; founded on Lat. Aprilis (Eng. April). 
The form is due to folk-etymology, which relates it to braon. 

abstol, apostle, Ir. absdcd, 0. Ir. apstal, W. apostol; from Lat. 
apostolus, whence Eng. apostle. 

acaid, a pain, stitch ; *dd-conti- ; see urchoid. 

acain, sigh, complaint, E. Ir. accdine, W. achwyn ; dd + caoin ; see 
caoiu, weep. 

acair, anchor, Ir. ancaire, 0. Ir. ingor, W. angor ; from N. ahheri : 
acarsaid, anchorage, from N. akkarsaeti, " anchor-seat." 
From. Lat. ancora, whence Eng. anchor. 

acair, acre, Ir. acra ; from Eng. acre ; Lnt. ager. 

acarach, gentle ; Ir. acarach, obliging, convenient, which shacks 
oft' into acartha, profit ; W. achar, affectionate ; ad-car- ; see 
car, friendly. M'A. has acarra, moderate in price, indul- 
gence, which belongs to acartha. 

acaran, lumber : 

acartha, profit, so Ir. ; see ocar, interest. 

acastair, axle-tree ; borrowed word from Sc. ax-tree of like mean- -f 
ing — Eng. axle, Ac. 

ach, but, Ir. achd, 0. G. (B. of Deer) act, 0. Ir. act, acht, *ekstos, 
possibly, from eks^ex; cf. Gr. cktos, without. For the 
change of vowel, cf. as, from eks. The Welsh for " but" is 
eithr, from ekster ; Lat. exter-. 

ach, interjection of objection and impatience ; founded on above 
with leaning upon och, q.v. 

achadh, a field, so Ir., 0. G. achad, 0. Ir. ached (locative?) 
campulus (Adamnan), *acoto- ; Lat. acies, acnua, field. 


achain, prayer ; dialectic for achuinge, <j.v. 

acharradh, dwarf, sprite : 

achd, statute, so Ir., M. Ir. acht ; from Lat. actum, Eng. act. 

achd, manner, condition, Ir. achd : same as above. There may be 

a native ahu- (*ag-tu-, *pag-tu- /) underlying some meanings 

of the word, especially in Irish. 
achdarr, achdartha, methodical, expert (H.S.D.) : 
achlaid, chase, pursuit, so Ir., M. Ir. acclaid, fishing, E. Jr. atclaid, 

fishes, hunts, pursues : ad-claidini ; see claoidh. 
achlais, arm-pit, Ir. ascall, M. Ir. ochsal, W. cesail. The 

divergence from regular philologic equivalence here proves 

borrowing — from the Lat. axilla : Norse oxl, Ger. achsel, 

Sc. oxter. 
achlan, lamentation (M'L.) : for och-lan ? from och. 
achmhasan, a rebuke, Ir. ochmhusdn, E. Ir. athchomsdn ; cf. aithis 

for root, 
achuinge, supplication ; also athchuinge, so Ir., E. Ir. athcliunigu) '; 

ath + cuinge; 0. Ir. cuintgim, peto, con-tek- ; Eng. thig. See 

acras, hunger, Ir. ocrus, E. Ir. accorus, orconcs : *ad-co-restu- i 

possibly the root pre* of Lat. premo : *careo (F 4 . 422). 
acuinn, aefhuinn, apparatus, accoutrements, Ir. acfuinn, E. Ir. 

accmaing, means, apparatus : ad-cumang, 0. Ir. cumaug, 

potentia ; see further under cumhachd. 
ad, hat, M. Ir. at, W. het ; from Eng. hat, N. hattr. 
ad-, adh-, inseparable prefix, in force and origin the same as Lat. 

ad. It is to be separated, though with difficulty, from the 

ad- arising from aith- or ath-, <j.v. 
adag, shock of corn, Ir. adag ; cf. Sc. hat, hot, hut, " to put up 

grain in the field, a small stack built in the held ;" M.E. 

hutte, heap. 
adag, a haddock ; from the English. 
adamant, adamant, so Ir. ; from the English. 
adha, ae, liver, Ir. aeghe, g. ae, 0. Ir. da, ae, W. atu, Br. avu, 

root av. Cf. adha for ae, cadha for cae. 
adhan, proverb (M'A.) ; rather aghan, root agh, Lat. a jo, adagio, 

adage ; Skr. ah, say. 
adhal, flesh hook (Sh.), so Ir., O. Ir. del, tridens : *pavelo-, Lat. 

pavire ? But cf. Eng. azvl, M. E. and Ag. S. awel, awl, flesh- 
adhaltrach, adulterous, Ir. adhaltranach, E. Ir. adaltrach : from 

Lat. adulter, whence Eng. adulterous. 
adharc, horn, so Ir., 0. Ir. adarc : ad-arc ; root ara, defend, as in 

teasairg, q.v. : Lat. arceo, tfce. 


adharcan, lapwing, "horned bird;" h-om adharc ; Dial, daoireagan. 

Ir. adaircin (P. O'C). 
adhart, pillow, so Ir., E. Ir. adart: ad-art', art, stone? See 


adhart, aghart, " progress" (Diet.). This is a ghost-word, made 

from the adverbial phrase air adhart, which in M. Ir. is 

ami rd, forward, bring forward ; in 0. Ir. arairt, prorsum. 

Hence it is air+ard, q.v. 
adhastar, halter, Manx: eistyr, Ir. aghastor, M. [r. adastar : ef. W. 

eddestl, steed. 
adhbhal, vast, awful, so Ir., 0. Ir. adbul : *ad-bol- : I. E. root 

bhel, swell, as in Eng. bloom, etc. Zimmer compares it with 

Skr. bala, strength. Stokes and Osthoff give root hel, bol,, 

strong; big, Skr. balam, strength, Gr. /8cAt€/>os, better, Lat, 

de-bilis, weak, Oh. SI. bolijx, greater ; whence bailceach 

(Osthoff) and bail, buil. 
adhlac, burial, Ir. adhlacadh, 0. Ir. adnacul, sepulcrum : ad-nank- 

otlo (*ad-nagtlo-, Zim.) : root verb nanko, I bring : Lat. 

nanciscor : further I. E. nenk t enk, as in £&ta, q.v. 
adhna, an advocate (Macd.) : H.S.D. cfs. Heb. adhon, sustentator. 
ag, at, with inf. only ; see aig. 
ag, agadh, refusal, doubt ; E. Ir. ac, refusal, 0. Ir, ace. no 1 

W. acorn, to deny. It is onomatopoetic % See next, 
agadh, hesitancy in speech, Br. hak, halcal ; of. Skr. ac, speak 

indistinctly. See foregoing word, 
agair, plead, so Ir., 0. Ir. acre (n.), from ad-gar- ; root gar, cry ; 

see goir. 
agallamh, conversation, Ir. agallamh, O. Ir. acaldam, for ad-gldd- y 

0. Ir. ad-glddur, I converse: for root, see glaodh. 
agh, a hind, Ir. agh, 0. Ir. aa, W. eiflip (*agtko-), Celtic a^o.s- ; 

Skr. a/as, buck ; Lit. ozps, goat. Zend. «.:/, Arm. ezu (St.). 
agh, also adh, happiness, luck, Manx aigh, Ir. dgk, M. Ir. aefo, 

6z^a«?a, late M. Ir. ttrf, luck, aWA«sonas (P. O'C) j root </;/-, 

bring : see next. 
aghach, warlike, so Jr., E. Ir. dgach, dg, war, *dgu- ; Skr. ajL\ 

contest; Gr. dyu>v, Eng. antagonist. 
aghaib, essay (M'A.) ; see oidheirp. 
aghaidh, face, so Ir., <). Ir. aged, *agitd ; I.E. root ag, lead. It 

is usually referred to the root or/, Lat, octdus, etc., but the 

phonetics are unsatisfactory. 
aghann, pan, so Ir., 0. Ir. aigen, Celtic agind ; Skr. aga, water 

jar : Or. ayyos, a vessel. 
agus, and, so Ir., O. Ir. acus, ocus, B. of Deer ocus, 0. W. ac, Br. 
Aaa; allied is fagus, near, 0. Ir. ocus, W. agos, Br. Ao#o2 : 


*aggostu-, ad-gos- ; root ges, gos, carry ; Lat. gero, aggestu-s, 
mound (Zimmer). Stokes refers it to the root angh, choke, 
narrow ; Celtic aggust-, from pre-Celtic aghnvstv- (Lat. 
angustus), with accent on syllable after the root — gn with 
the accent on the following vowel being supposed, as in 
Teutonic, to produce gg. The derivation from root onk, enk, 
as in thig, is not tenable in view of the Welsh. 

ai, sheep, swan (Carm.) : 

aibheil, huge (M'E.). See adhbhal. 

aibheis, sea, the deep ; Ir. aibheis, sea, abyss ; E. Ir. aibSis, sea. 
This Stokes refers to a Celtic abensi-s, abhent-ti-s ; root abh, 
as in abhainn. But cf. 0. Ir. abis, from Lat. abysses : W. 
affivys, bottomless pit. 

aibheis, boasting ; aibhsich, exaggerate ; Ir. aibhseach, 1 toasting : 

ff-^x from, the foregoing 1 Another form of aibhsich is aillsich. 

aibhist, an old ruin (Stew.) : 

aibhistear, the Devil ; another form of abharsair, q v. 

aibhse, spectre, so Ir. : see taibhse. 

aibidil, alphabet, Ir. aibghitir, 0. Ir. abbgitir, from L. Lat. 
abgetorium, abecedarium, the rt, b, c, d, or alphabet. A 
dialectic form, aibirsidh, comes from the old learning system, 
beginning "A per se," a by itself = a, Eng. apersie. Analo- 
gised to caibideal (Meyer). 

aice, proximity, Ir. aice ; see taic. 

aice, a lobster's burrow, also faiche. 

aicheadh, deny, Ir. aithcheo, contradicting, M. Ir. aithceod : *ati- 
coad- (I), " go back on ;" cf. 0. Ir. atchuaid, exposni, which 
Stokes refers to the root of chaidh, went, q.v. 

aicheamhail, reprisal ; cf. Ir. athghabhdil ; ath+gabhail. 

faicme, race, Ir., 0. Ir. aicme, W. ach, pedigree, *a/rk-, from al; 
edge ; Lat. aciesl Stokes cfs. Skr. ankrt, lap, but this would 
give G. ac- (a) and a W. ane. Norse dtt, family, Ger. acht, 

aidheam, joyous carol : 

aidich, confess, Ir. admhuighirn, 0. Ir. addalmim, W. addef: 
ad-dam- ; root dam ; Lat. domo, Eng tame. 

aifrionn, mass, so Ir., E. Ir. oifrend, W. offeren : from Lat. 
offer endum (Eng. offer). 

aig, at, Ir. ag, 0. Ir. oc : for root, see agios. 

aigeach, young or entire horse; also digeach = <:V/-r'r/r//, q,v, 
M. Ir. dc-ech, young steed (Erin 2 11). 

aigeann, the deep, Ir. digeu?i, E. Ir. oician, W. eigion : from Lat. 
oceamis, Eng. ocean. There is also a by-form aigeal. 

aigeannach, spirited, E. Ir. aignech; see aigneadh. Ir. o?'</eanta y 


aighear, mirth, Manx aig/ier ; *ati-gar- ; see gdirdeachas for root. 

Yet Ir. aiereach, merry, aerial, from crier, air, from Lat. aer, 

makes the matter doubtful. Ir. aerach (Hyde), merry, airy. 

Evidently the G. is borrowed from the Lat/ 
aigilean, ear-ring, tassel ; cf. Sc. aiglet, tagged point, jewel in 

one's cap ; eglie, needlework, from Fr. aiguille, needle ; Lat. 

aigne, the swift, anything quick (Carm.) : 
.aigne, aigneadh, mind, so Ir., 0. Ir. aicned : dd-gn-eto-, root gnd, 

know, Gr. yiyvoxr/cw, Eng. know. Stokes refers it to the root 

of aicme, as he gives it. Ascoli makes the root cen, as in 

cineal. The Gaelic g is against any root with e. 
ail, will ; better aill, q.v. 
ail, aileadh, ailt, a mark, impression, Ir. oil, mark (O'R.), M. 

and E. Ir. aile, fence, boundary (Meyer). A t stem : oiledaib, 

■fail, rock, Ir. and 0. Ir. ail, *alek-, allied to Ger. fels ; see further 

under mac-talla. 
ailbheag, ring ; see failbhe. 
.ailbhinn, flint, precipice ; from ail, rock, 
aile, air, scent, E. Ir. ael, ahe'l ; W. avel, C, Br., awel, wind : Gr. 

deAAa (St. Lee), storm ; *avel-, root ave, ve, wind ; Lat. 
' "au-ra, Gr, dijp, Eng. air. 

;aileag, hiccup, Ir. fail; cf. Lat. halo, breathe, Eng. in-hale. 
.ailean, a green : *ag-li- ? Cf. Lat. ager. 
ailear, porch : 

ailis, blemish, reproach, 0. Ir. ail, disgrace, Got. aglsl 
ailis, mimicing (Wh.) ; bad atharrais, aith-lis, (M'A.) aithris. 
aill, desire, so Ir., 0. Ir. ail, W. ewyll, Br. ioul, Celtic avillo- ; 

root av, desire, Lat. av<-o, Eng. avidity, ail, pleasant, *pagli, 

Eng. fair (St. Bez. 20 24). 
.aille, beauty, E. Ir. aide, for abide : see dlainn. 
.ailleas, ailgheas, will, desire ; Ir. dilgheas, E. Ir. ailges, dilgidim, 

I desire ; from ail and gea-<, request, q.v. 
ailleagan, root of the ear, hole of the ear ; also fail lean, q.v. 
.ailleagan, darling, so Ir. ; from aille, q.v. 
aillean, elecampane : cf. Gr. eXeviov, Lat. inula. M. Ir. eillinn 

(Rev. Celt. 9 231). inula quam alain rustici vocant (Isidor), 
ailleant, shy, delicate ; M. Ir. ail (O'Cl.), shamefaced, 
.ailleort, high-rocked ; from aill, rock ; see mac-talla. 
aillse, diminutive creature, fairy, Ir. aillst : 
aillse, cancer, Ir. aill is, 0. Ir. ailsin, cancerem : 
aillseag, caterpillar ; from above, 
ailm, the letter A, elm; Ir. dim, palm (fir?) tree, letter A; 

borrowed from Lat. ulmus, Norse dlmr, Eng. elm. 


ailt, stately, high ; Ir. ailt, Lat. alias, ailt (H.S.D.). 

aim-, aimh-, privative prefix ; sec am-, amh-. See its use in 

aimhleas ( = am-leas), hurt, aimhrea, aimhreidh, confusion 

( = am-reidh), aimbeart, distress, etc. ( = am-bert). The 

vowel in the root is " small", and hence affects the a of am. 
aimheal, grief, Ir. aithmheal, repentance ; aiik+miala, grief,. 

E. Ir. mcla, sorrow, reproach ; *meblo-, a shorter form of 0. Ir. 

mtbul, dedecus ; Gr. /j-e/x^opu. 
aimhfheoil, ainfheoil, proud flesh ; from aimh- and febil, q.v. 
aimlisg, confusion, mischief : 
aimrid, barren, so Ir., M. Ir. immrit, barren, E. Ir. amrit ; am- 

ber-eut-, "non-producing f root ber of beir ] 
aimsichte, bold (Arms.); am-meas-ichte, " un-mannerly !"' 

me as. 
aimsir, time, so Ir. ; 0. Ir. ameer, W. amser, Br. amzer, possibly a 

Celtic ammesserd ; either a compound of am, time (ammen- 

sird, from sir, long ?), or amb-meumra, root mens, measure, 

Lat. mensus, Eng. measure. Ascoli and Stokes give the 

Celtic as dd-messera, from ad-mensura. 
aimsith, missing of aim, mischance : am-mis-ith, Gaelic root mil 

of eirmis, q.v. 
ain, heat (Diet.), light (H. M'Lean), 0. Ir. dne, fulgor, from dn, 

splendidus, latter a Celtic dnos; Got. _fo)i, fire (from pdn) ; 

Pruss. panno. Stokes suggests rather *agno-s, allied to Lat, 

ignis, Skr. agni, fire, 
ain-, privative prefix ; see an-. 
ainbhtheach, stormy, M. Ir. ainbthech, *an-feth-ech, Gaelic root 

fetJi, breeze, from vet, Eng. weather, Lat. ventus, etc. 

anfadh . 
ainbi, ainbith, odd, unusual: an-bitk, " un-\vorld-like." See Lith. 
aincheas, doubt, M. Ir. ainches, E. Ir. ances, dubium ; 
ainchis, a curse, rage, Ir. aingeis, E. Ir. aingcess, duces, curse,, 

anguish; an+geas, q.v., or Lat. august ia i 
aineamh, flaw, so Ir., E. Ir. anim, W. ana/, blemish, <>. Br„ 

anamon, mendce ; Gr. ovojxai, blame. 
ainean, a liver, liver of fish (X.H.) ; see ad ha. 
aineartaich, yawning (aineartaich, M'A.) ; see dinich below. 
aineas, passion, fury ; au-tJteas, from teas, heat, 
aingeal, angel, so Ir., 0. Ir. angel, \V. angel, Dr. ael ; from Lat. 

angelus, whence also the Eng, 
aingeai, light, fire, Manx ainle, Ir. aingeal (Lh., O'B. ). M. Ir. 

aingel, sparkling : *pangelos, Get.funie, M. E.ftinke : further 

ong, tire, hearth : Lit. anglis, coal, Skr. afigdra, glowing coal : 

T. E. ongli, ongdl ; allied is 1. E. ognis, fire, Lat. ignis. 


Fick 4 14. Skeat derives Se. ingle from tlie Gaelic. Also 

ainneal, a common fire. 
aingealachd, numbness : ang-eal-achr, root ang, choke (Lat. 

ango) ? 
aingealtas, perversity, malignity : from the following. 
aingidh, wicked, Ir. aingidhe, malicious, 0. Ir. andgid, ang it I,. 

nequam, wicked, andach, sin ; *an-dg-id, root deg of deagh, 

good, q.v. 
ainich, panting, also aonach ; root an-, long form of an, breath 

(see anail) : Skr. anana, mouth ("breather"), 
ainid, vexing : 
ainis, anise ; from the English. M. Ir. in ainis, gloss on "anisum 

cyminum (Juice." 
ainm, name, Ir. and 0. Ir. aitim, pi. anmann, B. of Deer anim, W 

enw, Br. hanv, *anmen- ; Gr. ovojxa ; Pruss. emmens, Ch. SI. 

wwg ; root ono, allied to no in Lat. nomen, Eng. name. 
ainmhide, a rash fool ; see dwto'fl?. 
aiiimhidh, beast, brute, lr. ainmhidhe, M. Ir., *anem-itio-8 t 

*anem-, life, soul ; Lat. animal, etc. Ir. is also ainmhintf. 

ainmig, rare ; an-minig, q.v, 
ainneamh, rare ; see annamh. 
ainneart, force; ai«-, excess (see aw-), and ueart. 
ainnighte, tame, from ainneadh, patience (Sh.) ; possibly from 

art-dam, root dam, tame, 
ainnir, virgin, E. Ir. ander, W. anner, heifer, M. Br. annoer (do.), 

*anderd : cf. Gr. av&y/oos, blooming, dOdfuoi, virgins (Hes.), 

ainnis, ainniseach, needy : an+dlth, want '? 

ainstil, fury, over-fizzing : an+rteall. 

air, on, upon. This prep, represents three Irish ones : 

(a) air-=0. Ir. ar, air, ante, propter, W, ar, er, Br. er, Gaul, are-, 
Celtic art, arei, Gr. irapa, irapai, by, before ; Lat. ;>n*e ; Eng. 
fore, for. This prep, aspirates in Irish, and in Gaelic idioms 
it still does so, e.g. air chionn. 

(b) air = 0. Ir.for, ''super,'' 0. W. and 0. Br. guor, Br. voar, car, 
Gaid. '■'/■-; Gr. vrrep; Lat. s^uper ; En-, or< /■. This pre]). 
did not aspirate; it ended originally in r in Gaelic; as an 
inseparable prefix (vero-, viro- in Gaul.) it aspirated, as in the 
modem form of old names like Fergus, now Fearghuu or 
t< ar!uis (gen. case). 

(c) air = 0. Ir. iar n-, after, pre-Celtic eperon ; Skr. apardm, 
afterwards, aparena, after: Got. afar, after, Eng. af-tvv. 
Further come Gr. twrt-, behind, «ri-, to, Lat. <s6-, o/?-. See iar. 


This is the prep, that is used with the inf. to represent a 
perfect or past participle in Gaelic — Tka mi air baaladh ; "I 
have struck." 

airbhinneach, honourable ; air+beann ? 

aire, distress, so Ir., 0. Ir. aircur, pressura ; cf. Lat. parous, 

aire, the Ark, Ir. aire ; from Lat, area. 

airchios, pity, clemency (Hend.) : see oircheas. 

aircill, to watch, listen, Ir. aircill ; seefaircUL 

aircleach, a cripple ; *airc-lach, from aire, q.v. 

aird, point (of the compass), lr. dird, E. Ir. aird, Gr. apBis, a 
point. Hence Sc. airt. 

aird, preparation, activity : 

airde, height, Ir. dirde, E. Ir. arde ; see ard. 

airdeil, ingenious : 

aire, heed, Ir., 0. Ir. aire, Old. Brit. Areanos, native watchers who 
gave intimation to the Romans ( Ammianus), pre-( !eltic parjd, 
par, seek : Gr. Trtipa ; trial, Lat. e.r-perior, Eng. experiment, 

aireach, keeper of cattle. There is confusion in Gaelic between 
aireach and 0. Ir. aire(ch), lord ; the Lo-aire, cow-lord, was 
the free tenant of ancient Ireland. For 0. Ir. aire, see 
airidh. G. hi reach owes its long vowel to ;i confusion with 
araich, rear. See airidh for root. 

aireamh, number, so Ir., 0. Ir. dram, W. eirif, *ad-rim-, Celtic 
rimd, number; Ag. S. rim, number, Eng. rhyme : <«r. 
dpiOfws, number. 

airean, ploughman, herdsman ; Ir. oireamh, g. oireamhan, plough- 
man, the mythic Eremon, Airemfon), *drjamon-, Skr. 
Arjamari, further Aryan (I) : root ar, plough. 

tairfid, music, harmony : see mrfid. 

airgiod, silver, so lr., 0. Ir. arget, W, ariant, lir. arc'hant, Gaul. 
Argento-, Argeuto-coxus (a Caledonian prince) : Lat. argentum : 
Gr. ii.pyvpos. Eng. argent is from the Lat. 

airidh, better airigh, hill pasture, sheiling (airghe, in Lh. for 
Gaelic) : cf. E. Ir. airge, dirge, place where cows are, dairy, 
herd of cattle : E. Ir. airgech, herdswoman (of Brigit) ; Ir. 
airghe, pi. dirighe (O'B.), a herd of cattle : airgheach, one 
who has many herds : *ar-egia ; Lat. armentum .' liut see 
araich, rear. Norse or Danish erg from Gaelic equals Norse 
setr (Ork. Sag.). This Norse form proves the identity of 
Gaelic with E. Ir. airge ; airge — ar-agw, *agio, herd. 

airidh, worthy, Ir. airigh (Ulster), airigh, nobleman (O'B.), < ). Ir. 
aire(eh), primas, lord ; Skr. drya, good, a lord ; drya, Aryan, 
dryaka, honourable man. *parei I 


airilleach, a sleepy person ; from jaireal, bed, M. Ir. airel (O'C.) : 

airleag, lend, Ir. alrliglm, 0. Ir. airliciud, lending : from hig, let, 

which is allied to Eng. loan, Got. leihvan, Ger. leihen. See 


airleas, pledge, earnest, arles ; from Sc. arles, older tries, which, 
through 0. French, comes from. Lat. *arrh'ula 1 dim. of arrha, 
pledge. Eng. earnest, whence W. ernes, is probably from the 
same origin. See earias. 

airleig, a strait : 

airmis, hit ; see eirmis. 

airne, a sloe, so Ir., M. Ir. ami, sloes, W. eirin, plums, Br. irinain, 
sloe, Celtic arjanio- (Stokes) ; Skr. arani tinder-stick 
"premna spinosa," araitka forest. 

aimeach, murrain in cattle : 

airneis, airneis (M'L. & I).), furniture ; Ir. airneis, cattle, goods, 
etc., M. Ir. airnis, tools, furniture. The word can hardly 
be separated from the Romance arnese, accoutrements, 
armour, whence Eng. Iiarness, armour for man or horse. The 
word is originally of Brittonic origin (Br. haruez, armour), 
from *eisarno-, iron ; see far mm. 

airtein, a pebble, so Ir., E. Ir. arteini (pi.), 0. Ir. art ; possibly 
Gaul, arto- (Arto-briga), Artemia, name of a rock. 

airtneal, airsneal, weariness : 

ais, milk (Carm.), M. Ir. as (O'Dav.). 

ais, wisdom (Carm.), ais (O'Cl.) See cnoc (Carm). 

ais, back, backwards ; so Ir., E. Ir aiss,dan\aiss, backwards : Gaelic 
air ais. The forms ais\ rithisd (rts), thairis, seem compounds 
from the root sta, sfo, stand ; cf. fois, bhos, ros : ais may be 
for ati-sta- or ati-sli-. Ascoli refers ais to an unaccented 
form of eis, track, which is used after tar and di (di a e'is, post 
eum; see dels) for "after, pest," but not for ''back," as is 
air em, with verbs of rest or motion. 

aisead, delivery (obstetrical), E. Ir. asait, vb. ad-saiter, is delivered : 
*ad-sizd- ; Lat. sldo, assMere] a reduplication of the root 
sed, of suidhe, q.v. From ad-sem-t, root sa/i as in taom 

aiseag, a ferry, Ir. aiseog (Fob): 

aiseal, axle ; it seems borrowed from Eng. axle, Norse uxvll. but j 
the W. echel, Br. altel, *alsila, makes its native origin 
possible, despite the absence of the word in Irish. 

aiseal, jollity (Sh., Arms.) : see auteach. 

aisean, rib, Ir., E. Ir. asna, \V. ei&en, asm. Cor. asen ; <f. Lat. 
assula, splinter, asser, beam (Stokes). Formerly it was 
referred to the same origin as Lat. os, ossis, bone, Gr. ofrreor, 


but the root vowel and meaning are both unfavourable to 

this etymology, 
aisearan, weanling (Argyle) ; from ais \ 
aisg, a request (Sh.), E. Ir. ascid ; *ad-skv-, root set/., as in sgeul, 

aisgeir, a ridge of high mountains, Ir. eiscir, aisgeir (Lh. for 

latter) ; *ad-tker- (I), as in Eng. skerry, G. sgeir, q.v. Cf. W. 

e&gair (Meyer), 
aisig, restore, so Ir., E. Ir. assec ; possibly = *as-ic, " out-bring, " 

ie = «e£ ; see ^*^, come, 
aisir, aisridh, path ; see attar. 
aisith, strife ; as-slth, as-, privative, and sitk, q.v. 
aisling, a vision, dream, so Ir., 0. Ir. aislinge ; possibly *e.>-liug-ia, 

"a jump out of one-self, ec-stasy," the root being leng of 

hum, (j.v. Nigra suggested the root sil or sell of seall, see, 

q.v. ; he divided the word as as-sil-inge, Stokes as ad-sell-angia 

(Beitrage, Vol. VIII.). 
aisneis, rehearsing, tattle, E. Ir. same, O.Ir. disndis ; aisnedim, I 

relate ; (as-ind-fiad-im, 0. Ir. in-fiadim, I relate) ; fiad = veid, 

know : see innis ; root vet, Lat. veto (Stokes), but this does 

not account for i of 0. Ir. aisndis. 
aisteach, a diverting fellow, Ir. aisdeach, witty : 
ait, glad, Ir., E. Ir. ait, 0. Ir. ait, eugc ! adverbium optantis : 
aite, a place, Ir., E. Ir. ait. Possibly Celtic pod-ti, *panti1 root 

pod, ped, Lat. oppidum, Gr. irk&ov, ground, Skr. paddm, place : 

as in eadhj q.v. Stokes has referred ait to the root that 

appears in Ger. ort, place, Norse oddr, 0. Eng. ord, point, 

Teutonic u-d-, I. E. uzdh- ; but this in Gaelic would give ud 

or '« I. 
aiteag, a shy girl, see faiteach. 
aiteal, breeze, ray, small portion. In the sense of "ray," cf. Gr. 

u.ktU, ray : in the sense of " quantulum," it may be divided 

as ad-tel, O. Br. attal, an equivalent, root tel t weight, money : 

see tuarasdat. actual i* ? 
aiteam, a people, a tribe (Arms.) : 
aiteamh, a thaw ; *aithtd-M, W. toddi, melt ; Lat. tabes ; Gr. 

-t'jKO), melt : Eng. thaw. The Ir. word is tionadh (0. Ir. 

tiwtid. evanescit), Manx tennue, the root of which is ten, Lat. 

tener, Eng. thin. 
aith-, " re-"' : see aih-. 
aitheamh, fathom, 0. W. atem, til um ; *(p)etemd ; Eng. fathom ; 

I. EL t»t, extend, Lat. pateo, etc. 
aithinne, fire-brand, lr., 0. Ir. aithinne : *aith-te'n-io- ? Root of 

telnet The toot <hkK kindle, as in 0, Ir. andud, accendere, 


adandad, lighting up, is also possible, *aith-and-io- being the 
form in that case, amhailte (Glen-moriston). 

aithis, a reproach, affront, so lr., (). Ir. athiss : *atirvid-tu- ; Got. 
idveit, Eng. £iw£ ; root vie?, wit, know. 

aithlis, a disgrace ; cf. leas in leas-mhac. 

aithne, knowledge, so Ir., 0. Ir., aithgne, W. adwaen : ati-gn-io- for 
Ir. ; I. E. #6??, #>i«, ^«6, to know ; Lat. cogi/osco : Gr. yiyvaJoTcco-; 
Eng. &?iow. 

aithne, command, lr.,0. Ir. aithne, depositum, command ; imm^nim, 
delego, assign; W. adne, custody; the root seems to he <~ni 
or an, judging from the verbal forms, though these scarcely 
agree with the noun forms. See tiomnadh further. 

aithreach, repentant, so lr., 0. Ir. aithrech, Corn, edreck, repent- 
ance, Br, azrec (do.), *ati-(p)reko-, *ati-(p)reh'd : root, prek, 
Lat. precor, Ger. fragen, ask, etc. Ascoli makes the root reg, 
come (see rach). t 

aithris, tell, so Ir., *ati-ris, E. Ir. ris, a story, *,i-t/\ rat, n't. 
Ger. rede, speech, Got. rathjo, speak, Lat. ratio. Cf. 0. lr. 
airissim, from iss. 

aitidh, damp : 

aitionn, juniper, Ir. aiteann, 0. Ir., aitenu, W. aith, eithin, Cor. 
eythinen, 0. Br. ethin (gl. rusco), *akto-, I. E. root, al; sharp, 
Lat. acidus, Eng. acid, edge, Gr. aKpos, extreme, etc. The 
nearest words are Lit. dfotina.% sting, Ch. SI. ostimu. Also 
aiteal. *at-tenn-, " sharp hush or tree" ; from root at, 3harp, 
E. Ir. aith, sharp, *atti-, atto-. For -tenn, see caorunn. Cf. 
Ir. teine, furze. 

aitreabh, a building, Ir. aitreibh, E. Ir. aittreb, W. adref, home- 
wards, Gaul, Atrebates ; *ad-treb-, the Celtic root Grefl corres- 
ponding to Lat. tribus, Eng. thorpe. 

al, brood, Ir., a/, W. «eZ, al : *(p)aglo- ; cf. Lat. propdgo, Eng. 

propagate. Hence alaire, brood mare. Ger. «<A7, nobility. 
alach, a brood, set, bank of oars (M'E.) : 

alach, nails: *al-lach, al-, from (p)agl-, Lat. palm, stake: root 
pag, pag, fasten, whence Gr. injyvvfii, Lat. pango, lix, Eng. 
alachag, alachuin, see ealachainn. 

alainn, beautiful, Ir. dluin, 0. Ir. dlaind : *ad-lainn : see loinn. 
Stokes prefers referring it to ail, pleasant, *pagli-, Eng. fair, 
root pag. But ra-laind, pleasant, *ad-pland (Holden). 
all-, over ; see thall. 
allaban, wandering : 

allail, noble, M. Ir. all, aill, *al-no-8, root at, as in Lat. alius. 
alladh, fame (either good or bad), lr. alladh, excellency, lame, 
E. Ir. allud ; see above. 


allaidh, fierce, wild, Ir. allta, 0. Ir. allaid ; possibly from all-, 

over, the idea being "foreign, barbarous, fierce;" cf. W. 

allaidd of like meanings, from W. all, other. See next. 
allmharach, a foreigner, foreign, fierce ; Ir. allmharach, foreigner, 

transmarine ; E. Ir. allmarach. From all-, beyond, and 

muir, sea, " transmarine " (K. Meyer), 
allsadh, a jerk, suspending, leaning to one side ; see ahhsadh. 
allsmuain, a float, great bnoy : 
allsporag, cow's throttle (M'A.) j see abhsporag. 
allt, a stream, Ir. alt, height, (topographically) glen-side or cliff, 

0. Ir. alt, shore, cliff, 0. W. allt, cliff, Cor. ah, Br. aot, shore ; 

all allied to Lat. altus. The Gaelic form and meaning are 

possibly of Pictish origin, 
all-tapadh, mishap, ill-luck (Wh.) ; mischance : from all- and 

aim, alum ; from the English, 
almsadh, charity (Hend.), M. Ir. almsabi. 
alp, also ealp (Wh.), ingraft, join closely together: alp in tinkers' 

Ir. a job of work, hill ; ealp = Sc. imper, graft, 
alt, joint, Ir., E. Ir. alt, *('p)alto-s ; root pel, whence Eng. fold, 

Norse, faldr, Ger. falz, groove ; Gr. -irXdo-ios, doubled, for 

TrAanos. " air alt " = in order that (Wh.). 
altach, a grace (at food), Ir. altughadh, 0. Ir. attlugud, rendering 

thanks, atluchur bude, I give thanks : *ad-tlukor, root, tluq : 

Lit. tulkas, interpreter ; Lat. loquor for tloquor. 
altair, altar, Ir., O. Ir. altoir, W. allor, Cor. altor, Br. auter ; from 

Lat. altar e, altar, " high place." 
altrum, fostering, Ir. altrom, 0. Ir. altram, W. alltraw, sponsor ; 

root al, nourish, whence Lat. alo, Got. alan, grow, Eng. old. 
am, time, Ir. am, pi. amanna, E. Ir. am, *ammen-, from *at-s-nien-, 

root at, Got. a]m, year ; possibly Lat. annus (at-s-no-). 
am-, privative prefix; this is the labialised form of an-, q.v. ; and 

being labialised, it is also aspirated into amh-. The forms 
'before " small " vowels in the subsequent syllable are aim-, 

amach, vulture, so Ir. : 
amadan, tool, Ir. amaddn : am+ment-, " non-minded," Celtic root 

m < at (<h <tr mad, farmad, etc.), mind; Lat. mens, mentis, Eng. 

mind, etc. The shorter root men is found in meanmna. 
amail, mischief ; E. Ir. adviillim, I destroy : ad+mill, q.v. 
amail, hindrance : ad+mall, q.v. But Norse hamla, hinder, 
amal, swingle-tree ; *ad-mol ; mol, a beam, especially "a mill 

shaft/' E. Ir. mol. Cf. Norse hamla, oar-loop, 
amar, channel, mill lead ; E. Ir. ammor, ammbur, a trough, 

*anib-or- ; Gaul, ambes, rivos, rivers, Amhris, river name: 


Lat. imber ; Gr. Sfxfipos, rain; Skr. arabv, water. Zimmer 
considers the Ir. borrowed from Ag. S. amber, amphora, Ger. 
eimer ; but the Gaelic meaning is distinctly against his 
theory. A borrowing from Lat. amphora is liable to the same 


amarlaich, blustering (M'A.) : 

amarlaid, blustering female ; not amarlaich. 

amart, need (Hend.). Hend. now questions it, aimbeairt. 

amhailte, large ember of wood (Glen-moriston). 

amas, hitting, 0. Ir. ammus, an aim : *ad-mes- ; see eirmis. 

amasguidh, aimsgith, profane, impure : *ad-mesc-id-, " mixed ;" 
see measg. 

amh, raw, Ir. amh, E. Ir. om, W. of; root om, dm, whence Gr. 
w/x,os ; Got. amsa ; Skr. amsas. 

amhach, neck : *om-dk-a ; Lat. humerus, shoulder (*om-es-os) ; 
Gr. w/xo5 ; Got. amsa ; Skr. amsas. 

amhain, entanglement by the neck (M'A ) ; from above. 

a mhain, only, Ir. amhain, E. Ir. amain ; cf. 0. Ir. nammd (W. 
namijn, but T) = na-n-md, "ut non sit major" (!). The main 
root is md or mo, more, with the negative, but the exact 
explanation is not easy ; " no more than" (I), amhain = a- 
(a[p]o) + main, *mani ; Gr. [jlolvos, sparlich, /xovo<s (St. Z.). 

amhainn, river ; better abhainn, q.v. 

amhaltach, vexing ; see aimheil. 

amhan, a marsh, or Ion (Glen-moriston). 

amharc, looking, seeing-; so Ir., M. Ir., amarc, amharc = a-(apo) + 
marc, Ger. merken, perhaps Lith. merkti, wink, blink (St.). 
Roots marc, marg. 

amhartan, luck, Ir. amhantur, abhantnr ; from Fr. aventure, Eng. 

amharus, suspicion, so Ir., 0. Ir. amairess, infidelitas, am + iress, 
the latter meaning "faith ;" 0. Ir. iress = air-ess, and *ess is 
from *sistd, standing, root std, stand, reduplicated ; cf. Lat. 
sisto, etc. The whole word, were it formed at once, would 
look like *am-(p)are-sistd, or *am-are-sistd. 

amhas, amhusg, wild man, beast man ; Ir. am has, n wild man, 
madman ; E. Ir. amos, amsach, a mercenary soldier, servant. 
Conchobar's amsaig, or mercenaries, in the E. Ir. saga of 
Deirdre, appear misunderstood as our amlmsgau, monsters ; 
there is probably a reminiscence of the Norse. " bear-sarks." 
Borrowed from Gaul. Lat. ambactus ( = servus, Festus), through 
*ambaxus ; Ceesar says of the Gaulish princes : " Circum se 
ambactos clientesque habent." The roots are ambi- (see mu) 
and ag, go, lead (see aghaidh). Hence many words, as Eng. 


ambassador, Get. amt, official position, etc. Ir. J., 1 54, 136, 
has dmhas in G. force, 
amhghar, affliction, Ir. amhgar ; am- (not) +gar : cf. 0. Jr. ingir, 

tristitia, from gdire, risus. See gair, laughter, for root. 

E. Ir. so-gar, do-gar, * (St.). 
amhladh, distress, dismay (Hend.). See amhluadh. 
amhlair, fool, boor, silly talker or behaver (Arg.) : Jr. amM6it\ 

0. Ir. amlabar, mute ; from am- (not) and labliair, speak, 

q.v. Cf. suilbhir. 

amhlaisg, bad beer, taplash : 

amhluadh, confusion, distress : 

amhra, wonderful ; *dm-porios (St.), airetpos. 

amhran, song, Ir. amkrdn, abhrdn, M. Ir. ambrdn, Manx, avraiu ; 
see bran. Cf. Ir. amhra, eulogy, especially in verse : amh <t, 
famous (Lee. 69). 

amhsan (ansan), Dial, osan, solan goose ; from Lat. anser? 

amhuil, like, as, Ir. amhluidh, 0. Ir. amail, amal, 0. W. amat 9 
W. ?nal, Br. evel ; from a Celtic samali-, which appears in 
samhail, q.v. 

amhuilt, a trick, deceit (H.S.D., M'E. amhuilt) : Cf. aith-mela. 

amhuinn, oven, Ir. olgheann ; borrowed from Eng. oven. 

amlach, curled, amlag, a curl, M. Ir. amlach, from the prep. 
ambi-, as in mu, q.v. 

amraidh, amraidh (M'E.), cupboard, Ir. amri (O'B/), W. almari ; 
all borrowed from Eng. (Gaelic from Sc. aumrie t) am'*ry and 
M. E. almarie, from 0. Fr. aimarie, from Lat. armarium, 
place of tools or arms, from arma, 

an, a', the, Ir. an, 0. Ir. in (mas. and fern.), a n- (neut.) ; a f- 
appears before vowels in the nom. masc. (an t-athair), and it 
is part of the article stem ; a Celtic sendo-s (in.), sendd (f.), . 
san (n.). Sendo-s is composed of two pronominal roots, 
dividing into sen-do- ; sen, judging by the neuter san, is a 
fixed neuter nom. or ace. from the Celtic root sc (I. E. .</", 
beside so-), allied to Ag. S. se, the, sed, now she. The -<7o- of 
sendo-s has been referred by Thurneysen and Brugmann to 
the pron. root to- (Eng. tka-t, Gr. to) ; it is suggested that to- 
may have degenerated into do- before it was stuck to the 
fixed form sen. Sen-to- could not, on any principle otherwise, 
whether of accentuation or what not, produce the historical 
forms. It is best to revert to the older etymology, and 
refer do- to the pronominal root appearing in the Latin fixed 
cases (enclitic) -dam, -dem, (qxii-dam, \-dem, etc.), the Gr. 8e, 
-Se (as in o-Sc, this), Ch. SI. da, he. The difference, then, 
between Gr. o-e>£ and Gaelic sen-do-* is this : the Gr inflects 


the first element (6 = so) and keeps the 8e fixed, whereas 
Gaelic reverses the matter by fixing the sen and inflecting the 
do- ; otherwise the roots are the same ultimately, and used 
for almost similar purposes. 

an, in, Ir. a n- (eclipsing), 0. Ir. i, i n-, W. yn, Br. en J Lat. in ; 
Gr. kv ; Eng. in, etc. Generally it appears in the longer form 
ann, or even as ann an ; see ann. 

an, interrogative particle, Ir. an, 0. Ir. in ; Lat. an ; Got. an. 

an-, negative prefix, Ir. an-, 0. Ir., an-, in- ; W., Cor., Br. an- ; 
Celtic an, I. E. n-, Lat. in-, Gr. a-, dv-, Eng. un-, Skr. a-, an-, 
etc. It appears before labials and liquids (save n) as am-, 
aspirated to amh- ; with consequent " small " vowels, it 
becomes ain-, aim-, aimh-. Before g, it becomes ion-, as in 
iongantas. Before c, t, s, the an- becomes eu- and the t and c 
become medials (as in beud, breug, feusag). See also next 

ana-, negative prefix, 0. Ir. an-, sometimes aspirating ; G. 
ana-creidimh, disbelief, 0. Ir. ancretem, but ainfhior, untrue ; 
M. Ir. ainfhir. This suggests a Celtic anas- for the first, and 
ana- for the second, extensions of the previous an- ; cognate 
are Gr. avt?, dvev, without ; Ger. ohne, Got. inu, without. 

ana-, an-, ain-, prefix of excess ; Ir. an-, ain-, M. Ir. an- ; Ir. 
aspirates where possible (not t, d, g), Gaelic does so rarely. 
Allied are Gr. dvd, up, Got. ana, Eng. on. Hence ana-barr, 
excess ; ain-neart, violence ; ain-teas, excessive heat, etc. 

anabas, dregs, refuse, also green, unripe stuff cut; from an-abaich. 

anabhiorach, centipede, whitlow : 

anacail, defend, save ; Ir. anacail, protection, E. Ir. anacul (do.). 
This Ascoli refers to the same origin as adnacul ; see adhlac. 

anacair, sickness, affliction, so Ir., an-shocair. Ir. Jl. 156. See 

anadas, regret (M'D.) : 

anagna, irregularity, unusualness (Hend.), ana+gndth. 

anail, breath, Ir. and 0. Ir. anal, W. anadl, anal, Cor. anal, Br. 
alan, Celtic anatld ; root an, breathe, Got. anan, to breathe, 
Skr. anila, wind. See anam also. 

anainn, eaves, top of house wall : 

anam, soul, so Ir., 0. Ir. anim (d. anmin), Cor. enef, M. Br. eneff, 
Br. ene, Celtic animon- (Stokes) ; Lat. animus, anima ; Gr. 
ave[xo<s, wind. 

anamaint, lust, perversity (Hend.), ana+rnein. 

anart, linen, Ir., E. Ir. anairt, 0. Ir. annart *an-arto- ; root pan, 
pan ; Lat. pannus, cloth ; Gr. irrjvos, thread on the bobbin ; 
Got. fana, cloth, Ag. S. fana, small flag, Eng. vane, fane. 



anart, pride : 

anasta, stormy ; *an-fadh-asta ; see anfadh, storm. 

ancachd, adversity (Hend.) : 

ail drasta, now ; for an-trdth-sa, " the time here," q.v. 

tanfadh, storm ; proper G. is onfhadh, q.v. 

anfhann, weak, Ir. anbhfann, M. Ir. anbfann, anhand ; an+fann,. 

" excessive faint." See fann. 
anlamh, annlamh, misfortune ; an- (not) + lamh ; see ullamh for 

ann, there, Ir., 0. Ir. and, *anda (Stokes) ; Cyprian Gr. avSa 
( = avri], this, she) ; Lit. andai, newly, ans, ana, ille, ilia ; 
Ch. SI. onu, that ; Skr, ana, this (he). 

ann, ann an, in, Ir. ann, E. Ir. ind, 0. Ir. ind-ium (in me), Celtic 
endo (Stokes) ; Lat. endo, indu, into, in ; Gr. eVSov, within, 
evSodev ; Eng. into. The roots are en (see an), in, and do 
(see do), to. In ann an, the two prepositions ann and an 
are used. The form anns is used before the article and 
relative ; the -s properly belongs to the article ; anns an, 
in the, is for ann san. 

fannaid, annoid, a church, M. Ir. annoit, 0. Ir. andooit, mother- 
church. Stokes refers it to L. Lat. antitas, for antiquitas y 
" ancient church." In Scottish place-names it appears as 
Annet, Glach na h-Annaid, etc. Cf. annone, church (O'Dav.), 
from Hebrew. 

annaladh, era, calendar, Ir. analach, chronicle ; from Lat. annalia. 

annamh, rare, M. Ir. annam, E. Ir. andam ; *an-dam-, " non- 
tame "; root dam, home, etc. ; Eng. domestic, tame. Hence 
annas, rarity. 

annlamh, vexation, etc. ; see anlamh. 

annlan, condiment, E. Ir. annland, W. enllyn ; possibly an + leann. 

annrach, anrach, wanderer, stranger ; either from *ann-reth-ach,. 
root reth, run (see ruith, faondradh), or from *an-rath-ack, 
"unfortunate," root rath, luck, q.v. 

annrath, distress, Ir. anrath; an + rath; see rath, luck. The- 
E. Ir. andrd appears to be of a different origin. 

annsa, dearer, better liked, so Ir., M. Ir. andsa, preferable : 

ao-, privative prefix ; for eu-, that is, for an- (not), before c and t. 
See an-. 

aobhach, joyous ; see aoibhinn. 

aobhar, cause, Ir. adhbhar, 0. Ir. adbar, *ad-bero-n ; root ber, I.E. 
bher, whence Lat. fero, Eng. bear, etc. 

aobharrach, a young person or beast of good promise, hobble- 
dehoy ; from aobhar, material. 

aobrann, ankle, 0. Ir. odbrann, W. uffarn : *od-bronn, *ud-brunn- t 
g out-bulge ;" ud- = Eng. out, and brunn-, see brie, belly* 


Stokes {Academy, June, 1892) makes od- to be for pod, foot, 
Gr. novs, 7ro8-os, Eng. foot, etc. 

aodach, clothes, Ir. eudach, 0. Ir. etach, *ant-ac-os ; root pan, as 
in anart q.v. Cf. Lit. pinti, plait, twine, Ch. SI. p§ti, wind, 
Lat. pannus, etc. Strachan cfs. Alb. ent, int, weave, Gr. 
aTTo/xcu, weave. 

aodann, face, Ir. eadan, 0. Ir. etan, Celtic antano- (Stokes) ; Lat. 
ante ; Gr. dvri, against ; Eng. and ; Skr. dnti, opposite. 

aodraman, bladder, Ir. iadtromdn ; see aotrom. 

aog, death ; see eng. 

aogas, aogasg, face, appearance, M. Ir. ecosg (O'Cl.), 0. Ir 6co&c y 
habitus, expression, *in-cosc ; see casg, check. Cf. 0. Ir. 
in-cho-sig, significat. 

aoghaire, shepherd, so Ir., M. Ir. aegaire, 0. Ir. augaire, *ovi-gar- ; 
for ovi-, sheep, see disg. The -gar- is allied to Gr. ayzipoy, 
dyopd, meeting place, market. 

aoibh, civil look, cheerful face, Ir. aoibh, pleasant, humour, E. Ir. 
deb, 0. Ir. oiph, beauty, appearance, *aibd (Thurneysen), 
mien, look, Prov. Fr. aib, good manners. Ascoli refers it to 
the root of eibheall (q.v.), a live coal, the underlying idea 
being " shining, sheen." This would agree as to the original 
force with taitinn, please, taitneach, pleasant. 

aoibhinn, pleasant, joyful, so Ir., E. Ir. dibind, 6ibind. See above 
word for root. 

aoideag, hair-lace, fillet ; from root of aodach. 

aoigh, guest, Ir. aoidhe, pi. aoidheadha, 0. Ir. oegi, pi. 6egid y 
*(v)oig-it ; cf. the Teutonic *faig-i}>-, whence Norse feigr, 
doomed to die, Ag. S. fdege, doomed, Eng. fey (Schrader). 
Stokes gives the Celtic as (p)oik4t, poih, whence Eng. foe 
(cf. Lat. hostis, hospes) ; but the Gaelic gh of aoigh is against 
this otherwise satisfactory derivation. As against Schrader's 
etymology, might be put a reference to the form found in 
Gr. oixo/xaL, go, Lit. eiga, going, further root ei, go ; the idea 
being " journey-taker." Commonly misspelt aoidh. 

aoigh, pleasant countenance, Ir. aoibh. 

aoine, fast, Di-haoine, Friday, Ir. aoine, Friday, 0. Ir. oine, fast,. 
Br. iun ; from Lat. jejunium, a fast, fast-day, Eng. jejune. 
Stokes suggests Gr. 7reivaa>, hunger, as cognate, making it 
native : *poin-io-. Unlikely. 

aoineadh, a steep brae with rocks, Manx eaynee, steep place : 

aoir, a satire, Ir. aor, E. Ir. der, 0. Ir. air. *aigrd, ato-xo?, Got. 
aivishi : aigh (St.). Prellwitz gives Gr. and Got. and root. 
Ascoli refers this word and 0. Ir. tathdir, reprehensio, to 
tctir, q.v. 

aoir, sheet or bolt-rope of a sail : 


aoirean, airean, ploughman, herdsman, Ir. oireamh, g. oireamhan, 
ploughman, the mythic Eremon, Airem(on), *arjamon-, Skr. 
Arjaman, further Aryan (?) ; root ar, plough. 

aoirneagan. See aonagail. 

aois, age, Ir. aois, 0. Ir. des, dis, 6is, W. oes, *aivestu- ; Lat. 
cevum, cetas, Eng. age ; Gr. cues, ah'i, always ; Eng. aye. From 
*ait-tu, Lat. oitor, utor, St-aira (Th. St. Arch. 276). 

aol, lime, Ir. aol, 0. Ir. del : *aidlo-, from aidh, light, fire, Gr. 
cutfco, gleam, (St.). See Mackay. 

aolach, dung, Ir. aoileach, 0. Ir. ailedu, stercora, W. add-all, 
eluvies. Ascoli compares 0. Ir. dil, probrum, but this word 
is probably cognate with Got. agls, aglus, difficult, shameful, 
and may not be allied to aolach. 

aolais, indolence : 

aolmann, ointment : founded on the Eng. ointment. Cf . iarmailt, 

aom, incline. Ir. aomadh, inclining, attracting : 

aon, one, Ir. aon, 0. Ir. din, den; W., Cor., Br. un; Lat. unus 
( = oinos) ; Got. ains, Eng. one. 

aonach, moor, market place, Ir. aonach, fair, assembly, 0. Ir. 
oinack, denach, fair, *oin-acos, from aon, one, the idea being 
"uniting, re-union." Some have compared the Lat. agoniuni, 
fair, but it would scarcely suit the Gaelic phonetics. 

aonach, panting ; see ainich. 

aonadh, ascent : 

aonagail, aonairt, aoineagan, wallowing (H.S.D.) ; see uainneart ; 
uan = foam. 

aonais, want ; see iunais. 

aorabh, bodily or mental constitution : 

aoradh, worship, Ir. adhradh, 0. Ir. adrad ; from Lat. adoratio, 
Eng. adoration. 

aotrom, light, Ir. eadtrom, 0. Ir. e'tromm ; *an-\-trom, "non- 
heavy." See trom. 

ap, ape, Ir. ap, W. ab ; from Eng. ape. 

aparan, apron, gunwale patch (N.H.) : from the Eng. 

aparr, expert ; from Sc. apert, from 0. Fr. aparte, military skill, 
from Lat. aperio, open, Eng. aperient, expert, etc. 

aparsaig, knapsack ; from Eng. haversack. 

ar, ar n-, our, so Ir. and 0. Ir. *(s)aron ; this form may 
have arisen from unaccented ns-aron (Jub.), like Got. uns-ar 
(us of Eng. and ar), Ger. unser, Eng. our (Thurneysen). 
Stokes refers it to a Celtic (n)ostron, allied to Lat. nostrum. 
See further at bhur. 


ar, seems ; ar learn, methinks, Ir., M. Ir. dar, E. Ir. indar, atar y 

with la, 0. Ir. inda, ata, da ; where ta, tar is the verb tha 

(thatkar), is, with prep, or rel. in before it. Tha leam-sa 

(Mrs Grant). See na, than. 
ar, plough, E. Ir. ar, W. ar, ploughed land ; Lat. aro ; Lit. ariu ; 

Got. arjan, Eng. ear, plough. 
ar, battle, slaughter, Ir. and 0. Ir. dr, W. aer, *agro- ; root ag, 

drive ; Gr. ay pa, chase ; see agh. 
ara, kidney, Ir. dra(nn), 0. Ir. dru, g. dran, W. aren, *nfron- ; 

Lat. nefrones ; Gr. ve^pfc ; Ger. nieren. Stokes refers dra to 

ad-reu, the ren being the same as Lat. ren. 
arabhaig, strife; cf. 0. Ir. irbdg, arbag, * 'air-bag-, Norse bdgr, 

arach, rearing ; see airidh, shealing. It is possible to refer this 

word to *ad-reg-, reg being the root which appears in e'irich. 
arachas, insurance, so Ir., E. Ir. arach, bail, contract, *ad-rig-, 

root rig, bind, which see in cuibhreach. 
aradh, a ladder, Ir. aradh, E. Ir. drad : 
araiceil, valiant, important, Ir. drach, strength, drachdach, 

puissant, *ad-reg-, root reg, rule, direct, 
araidh, certain, some, Ir. dirighe, M. Ir. diridhe, *ad-rei- ; cf. W. 

rhai, rhyw, some, certain, which Rhys compares to Got. 

fraiv, seed, 
ar-amach, rebellion ; for *eirigh-amach, " out-rising." 
aran, bread, Ir., M. Ir., ardn ; root ar, join, Gr. apapm-Ku, apros. 

See next, 
arbhar, corn, so Ir., E. Ir. arbar ; 0. Ir. arbe, frumentum ; Lat. 

arvum, field. Also Gaul, arinca, "frumenti genus Gallicum" 

(Pliny), Gr. apaKos, vetch, Skr. arakas, a plant, 
arbhartaich, dispossess ; *ar-bert- ; ar for ex-ro ? 
arc, fungus on decayed wood, cork, arcan, cork, a cork, stopple, 

Ir. arcan, cork (Lh.) : 
archuisg, experiment (Sh.) : 
arcuinn, cow's udder : 

ard, high, Ir., E. Ir. drd, Gaul. Ardvenna ; Lat. arduus ; Gr. 6p96s. 
ard-dorus, lintel, Ir. ardorus, fardorus ; drd- here is a piece of 

folk etymology, the real word being ar, air, upon. See air 

and dorus. 
arfuntaich, disinherit ; *ar-fonn-. See arbhartaich. 
argarrach, a claimant ; *air+gar ; see goir. 
argumaid, argument, Ir. argumeint, 0. Ir. argumint ; from Lat. 

arias, chimney, E. Ir. fork's, roof light ; air + leus, q.v. 
arm, weapon, Ir., 0. Ir. arm, W. arf ; from Lat. arma, whence 

Eng. arms. Stokes says unlikely from Lat. 


armadh, working wool in oil, the oil for working wool. Cf. 

armunn, a hero, Ir. armann, an officer, E. Ir. armand, from an 
oblique case of Norse drmab"r (g. drmanns), harmost, steward. 

aroch, hamlet, dwelling : 

aros, a dwelling, Ir. drus, M. Ir. aros, W. araws, aros ; *ad-rostu- j 
Eng. rest is allied to rostu-. 

arpag, a harpy ; from Lat. harpyia, Eng. harpy. 

arraban, distress : *ar-reub- ? 

arrabhalach, treacherous fellow ; see farbhalach. 

arrachar, rowing, steering (Arm.) : *ar-reg-, root reg, direct. 

arrachd, spectre, Ir., E. Ir. arracht ; *ar-rig- ; see riochd for root. 
Ir. has also arrach, contour, spectre. 

arrachogaidh, the first hound that gets wind of, or comes up to 
the deer (Sh.) : 

arraghaideach, careless (Sh.) : 

arraideach, erratic : from the Eng. 1 earraid, hermit 1 

arraidh, farraidh, suspicion (M'D.). 

arraing, a stitch, convulsions, so Ir. ; *ar-vreng- 1 Eng. wrench, etc. 

arral, foolish pride : 

arronta, bold ; see farranta. 

arrusg, awkwardness, indecency, arusg (M'A.) : 

ars, arsa, quoth, Ir. ar, E. Ir. ar. The s of the Gaelic really belongs 
to the pronoun se or si, said he, said she, " ar se, ar si." Of. 
M.G., " ar san tres ughdar glic" — said the third wise author 
(san being the full art. ; now ars an). The E. Ir. forms bar 
and /or, inquit, point to the root sver, say, Eng. swear, 
answer. Stokes refers it to the root ver, verdh, Eng. word, 
adducing E. Ir. fordat, ordat, oldat, inquiunt, for the verdh 
root. Thurneysen objects that ol or for is a preposition, the 
-dat being the verb ta on analogy with other forms indds, 
olddte. The original is al, propter, " further" (see thall), 
like Lat. turn ("turn ille" — then he), later or or for, and 
later still ar — all prepositions, denoting "further." 

arsaidh, old, Ir. drsaidh, 0. Ir. arsid : *ar-sta- ; sta, stand. It was 
not observed that Stokes had the word ; but the same con- 
clusion is reached. His stem is *(p)arostdt, from paros, 
before, and stdt, Skr. purdstdt, erst. 

arsnaig, arsenic ; from the Eng. 

arspag, large species of sea-gull, larus major : 

artan, a stone ; see airtein. 

artlaich, baffle ; see fairtlich. 

aruinn, a forest ; *ag-ro-ni-, root ag, Gr. ay pa, the chase. 


■-as, a, out of, from, Ir. as, 0. Ir. ass, a, W. a, oc, Br. a, ag, Gaul. 

ex- ; Lat. ex ; Gr. e£, etc. As- is also used as a privative 

asaid, delivery ; see aisead. 
asair, also fasair, the herb " asara bacca f borrowed from Latin 

asair, harness, shoemaker, Ir. asaire, shoemaker, assain, greaves, 

etc., 0. Ir. assa, soccus ; Gr. 7ra£, sandal (Hes.), Lat. baxea ; 

root pag, fit, Gr. Tnjyvvfxi (Stokes), 
asal, an ass, so Ir., M. Ir. assal, W. asyn, Cor. asen. G. and Ir. 

are borrowed from Lat. assellus, the W. and Corn, from Lat. 

asbhuain, stubble ; *as-buain, "out-reaping," q.v. 
ascaoin, unkind, wrong side of cloth (caoin is ascaoin) ; as-, 

privative, and caoin, q.v. 
ascart,' tow, Ir. asgartack, M. Ir. escart, W. earth, Br. skarz, 

*ex-skarto-, *skarto-, dividing, root sker, separate; Gr. o-kw/o, 

dung ; Eng. sham ; etc. 
asgaidh, present, boon, E. Ir. ascad, 0. Ir. ascid (Meyer) ; for 

root, see taisg. 
asgailt, a retreat, shelter ; see fasgadh, sgail : *ad-scath-, asgaid. 
asgall, bosom, armpit, so Ir., Br. aside, W. asgre, bosom. The 

same as achlais (q.v.) by metathesis of the s. 
asgan, a grig, merry creature, dwarf (Arm.). See aisteach. 
asgnadh, ascending, so Ir. ; *ad-sqendo- ; Lat. scando, etc. 
aslach, request, Ir., 0. Ir. aslach, persuasio, adslig, persuades ; for 

root, see slighe, way. 
aslonnach, prone to tell (Arm.), E. Ir. asluindim, I request ; *ad- 

sloinn, q.v. 
asp, an asp, W. asp, from the Eng. 
asran, a forlorn object, Ir. asrdnnach, astrannach, a stranger : from 

astail, a dwelling ; see fasdail. 
astail, a contemptible fellow (MA.) : 
astar, a journey, Ir. asdav, astar, E. Ir. astur ; *ad-sod,-ro-n, root 

sod, sed, go ; Gr. 686s, way, Ch. SI. choditi, go ; Eng. ex-odus. 

Stokes (Bez. Beit. 21 1134) now gives its Celtic form as 

*adsitro-, root sai of saothair, toil, 
asuing, asuinn, asuig, apparatus, weapon ; see asair (1). 
at, swell, Ir. at, 0. Ir. att, *(jo)at-to-, root pat, extend, as in 

aitheamh, q.v. Stokes gives Celtic as azdo- (Got. asts, twig, 
etc.) ; but this would be in Gaelic ad. 
tatach, request, B. of Deer attdc, & Ir. atach, 0. Ir. ateoch, I 
pray, *ad-tek- ; Eng. thig. 


atach, cast-off clothes (Uist, etc.) = ath-aodach. 

ataig, atuinn, a palisade, stake : 

atamach, fondling, caressing (M'A.) : 

ath, next, again ; see ath-. 

ath, flinch ; from ath-, back. Hence athach, modest. 

ath-, aith, re-, so Ir., 0. Ir. ath-, aith-, ad-, *ati, W. ad-, Br. at-, 

az- ; Gaul, ate : Lat. at, but, at- (atavus) ; Lit. at-, ata-, back, 

Slav, otu ; Skr. ati, over. Stokes divides Celtic ati- into two, 

meaning respectively "over" and " re- f but this seems 

ath, a ford, Ir., 0. Ir. ath, *jdtu- ; Skr. yd, to go ; Lit. j6ti, ride 

(Stokes). Beul-ath : 
ath, a kiln, Ir. dith, W. odyn. Stokes refers this to a pre-Celtic 

apati-, apatino-, parallel to Eng. oven, Got. auhns, Gr. mtvos.. 

Bezzenberger suggests the Zend, dtar, fire, as related, 
athach, a giant, Ir. f athach, athach ; root pat, extend ? 
fathach, a breeze, Ir., 0. Ir. athach; Gr. aT/zos, vapour, Kim. 

atmosphere ; Ger. atem, breath ; etc. 
athainne, embers, so Ir. ; *ath-teine (*?). See aithinne. 
athailt, a scar ; ath-ail ; see ail, mark, 
athair, father, so Ir., 0. Ir. athir ; Lat. pater ; Gr. 7ran)p ; Skr. 

pitdr- ; Eng. father. 
athair-neimh, serpent, Br. aer, azr ; for nathair-neimh, q.v. 
athair-thalmhainn, yarrow, milfoil, Ir. and M. Ir. athair talnuui ; 

" pater-telluris !" Also earr-thalmhainn, which suggests- 

borrowing from Eng. yarrow. 
athais, leisure ; ath+fois = delay, q.v. 
athar, evil effect, consequence (M'A., Whyte), *at-ro-n from ath, 

"re-." See comharradh. Sc. aur = athailt. 
athar, sky, air, Ir. aieur, air, sky, 0. Ir. aer, aier, W. awyr ; from 

Lat. aer, whence Eng. air. See St. for aer, *aver- 1 Cf_ 

padhal, staidhir, adhal. 
atharla, heifer ; possibly ath-ar-laogh, " ex-calf." Cf. E. Ir. 

aithimi, calf. 
atharnach, second crop, ground cropped and ready for ploughing 

(N. H.) ath-ebrn-ach 1 *ath-ar-nach, root ar, plough. 
athaTrach, alteration, Ir. atharrach, 0. Ir. aitherrech, Br. adarre, 

afresh, arre, *ati-ar-reg-, root reg of eirich. Stokes analyses 

it into ati-ex-rego, that is, ath-eirich. 
atharrais, mocking, imitating (M'K.) ; (Dial, ailis) : ath-aithris r 

" re-say," Ir. aithris, tell, imitation. See aithris. 



ba ! part of a lullaby ; onomatopoetic. Cf. Eng. baby, Ger. bube, 

ba, bath, foolish, Fernaig MS. bah: "deadly," (talky?), root &&•, 

kill (speak ?) ; see bas. Cf. Lat. fatuus. 
babag, tassle ; see pab. 

babhd, a surmise (M'A.), a quirk; from Fr. faut. 
babhsganta, baosganta, cowardly ; see bodhbh ; babhsgadh, fright, 

shock (Hend.). 
babhun, bulwark, enclosure for cattle, Ir. bdbhun. whence Eng. 

bawn, M. Ir. bddhiln (Annals of Loch Ce, 1199) ; from b6 and 

dun, q.v. 
bac, hindrance, Ir. bac, M. Ir. bacaim (vb.). See next word. 

bac, a crook, Ir. bac, 0. Ir. bacc, W. bach, Br. badh, Celtic bakko-s , 
*bag-ko-, Norse bak, Eng. back. Hence bacach, lame, E. Ir. 
bacach, W. bachog, crooked. 

bacag, a fall, tripping ; from bac, q.v. 

bac-moine, turf-pit or bank (N. H.) ; from Norse bakki, a bank, 

Eng. hank. Hence also place-name Back. 
bacaid, ash holder, backet ; from Sc. backet, from Fr. baquet. 
bacastair, baker, bacaladh, oven, Ir. bacail, baker ; all from the 

Eng. bake, baxter. 
bacan, stake, hinge, Ir. and E. Ir. bacdn. From bac. 
bach, drunkenness, Ir. bach ; from Lat. Bacchus. 
bachall, shepherd's crook, crozier, Ir. bachul, 0. Ir. bachall, W. 

bagl, crutch ; from Lat. bacxdum, staff ; Gr. fiaKT-qpia, Eng. 

bacteria. Bachull gille, slovenly fellow (M'D.). 
bachar, acorn, "Molucca bean," Ir. bachar ; borrowed from or 

allied to Lat. baccar, Gr. ftaKKapts, nard. 
bachlag, a shoot, a curl, Ir. bachldg ; from bachall (Thurneysen). 
bachoid, the boss of a shield, Ir. bocoide, bosses of shields ; from 

L. Lat. buccatus, Lat. bucca, cheek. See bucaid. 

bad, a cluster, thicket ; cf. Br. bot, bod, bunch of grapes, thicket ; 
common in Breton and Scotch place names ; probably a 
Pictish word. Cf. Eng. bud, earlier bodde. Cf. Lat. fascis 
(*fat$-scis), *bad-sk-, Norse, Eng. bastl 

badhal, a wandering, badharan ; possibly from the root ba, go, 

as in bothar, q.v. H.S.D. suggests ba + dol. 
badhan, a churchyard (Sutherland), ie. "enclosure," same as 

badhar (H.S.D.), badhar (Carm.), placenta of cow : 
bag, a bag ; from the Eng. 
bagaid, a cluster, troop, W. bagad, Br. bagod ; from Lat, bacca 

(Thurneysen, Ernault). 


bagaire, a glutton ; from bag in the sense of " belly." 

bagair, threaten, so Ir., E. Ir. bacur, a threat. The W. bygwl, a 
threat, etc., is scarcely allied, for it comes from bwg, a spectre, 
bogie, whence possibly the English words bogie, boggle, etc. 
G. bagair may be allied with the root underlying bac ; pos- 
sibly bag-gar-, "cry-back." 

bagaisde, baggage, lumber (of a person) (Wh.), from baggage. 

bagh, a bay, Ir. bddh ; from Eng. bay, Romance baja. 

baghan, a stomach (baoghan, with ao short). Dial, maghan 
(Sutherland) ; cf. Eng. maw, Ger. magen, Norse magi. 

baibeil, lying, given to fables ; from Eng. babble. 

baideal, tower, battlement, ensign, baidealach, bannered ; from 
M. Eng. battle, battlement, which is of the same origin as 

baidh, love, Ir. baidhe, M. Ir. bdid, bade, Hddi-s (Stokes). Cf. 
Gr. 4>(otiov, friendly (Hes.), for cfxodiov ; root bhci : bho, whence 
Gr. cfxos, man. 

baidreag, a ragged garment ; see paidreag. 

baidse, musician's fee ; from the Eng. batch 1 

baigeir, a beggar ; from Eng. 

baigileis, loose lumber or baggage (Argyle) ; from baggage. 

bail, thrift, Ir. bail, success, careful collection, M. Ir. bail, good- 
ness, E. Ir. bulid : <f>v\\a ; I. E. root bhel, swell, increase. 
See buil, bile. Hence baileach. Cf. adhbhal, pcXrepos. 

bailbheag, a corn poppy ; also beilbheag, mealbhag, meilbheag. 

bailc, a ridge, beam, W. bale, from Eng. balk. 

baile, seasonable rain, showers : 

bailceach, strong, a strong man, E. Ir. bale, strong, W. balch, 
superbus, Br. balc'h ; Lat. fulcio, support, Eng. fulcrum 
(Stokes). Likely a Celtic bal-ko-, root bal, as in bail. So 
Ost. ; Skr. balam, strength (adhbhal), Gr. /SeArepos ; Wh. St. 
boliji, greater ; Lat. debilis. 

baile, town, township, Ir., E. Ir. baile, *balio-s, a pre-Celtic 
bhv-alio-, root bhu-, be ; Gr, <£wAeos, a lair ; Norse bdl, a 
"bally," further Eng. build, booth. 

baileach, excessive ; see bail. Also buileach. 

bailisdeir, babbler, founded on Eng. Scandinavian balderdash. 

baillidh, a magistrate, bailie ; from Sc. bailzie (Eng. bailiff), Fr. 

baineasag, a ferret, Ir. baineasdg ; bdn + neas, " white weasel," q. v. 

baillidh, madness, fury, Ir. bdinidhe ; Ir. mainigh (O'Br.), from 
Lat. mania ; see ba. 

baillisg, a little old woman, female satirist (Carm.) =ban-e / isg; 
from ban, bean, q.v. 

bainne, milk, Ir., M. Ir. bainne ; also boinne, milk (Sutherland 
shire), a drop, Ir., M. Ir. bainne, milk. 0. Ir. banne, drop, 


Cor., Br. banne, gutta j root bha ; 0. Slav, banja, bath j Eng. 

bath, etc. 
bair, a game, goal, Ir. bdire, hurling match, goal, M. Ir. bdire : 

*bag-ro-, root bag-, strive ; see arabhaig. baireach, a hall. 
baircinn, side timbers of a house (Sh.) : 
baireachd, quarrelling (Carm.) ; cf. bairseag. 
fbairghin, bread, cake, Ir. bairghean, E. Ir. bar gen, W., Cor., and 

Br. bara, panis, *bargo- ; Lat. ferctum, oblation cake ; Ag. S. 

byrgan, to taste, Norse bergja, taste. 
bairich, lowing ; root of bo, cow. Cf. buirich. 
bairig, bestow ; from Eng. ware, as also bathar. 
•*. bairleigeadh, bairneigeadh, warning, summons ; from the Eng. 

bairlinn, rolling wave, billow ; bair-linn, from fbair, wave, bor- 
rowed from Norse bdra, wave, billow. For linne, see that 

bairneach, a limpet, Ir. bdirneach (FoL), W. brenig, Cor. brennic : 

from M. Eng. bernekke, now barnacle, from Med. Lat. bernaca. 

Stokes takes bdirnech from barenn, rock, as Gr. Arrets, limpet, 

is allied to Xkiras, rock, 
bairneachd, judgment (Sh.), Ir., W., Br. barn, root ber in brdth, 

bairseag, a scold (Sh.), Ir. bairseach, M. Ir. bairsecha, foolish 

talk, bara, wrath, W. bdr, wrath. Stokes refers bara to the 

same origin as Lat. ferio, I strike, Norse berja, smite, etc. 
baisceall, a wild person (Sh.) ; M. Ir. basgell (i. geltan), boiscell ; 

root in ba, foolish 1 + ciall. 
baiseach, a heavy shower, Ir. bdisdeach, rain, bais, water ; cf. 0. Ir. 

baithis, baptism, which may be borrowed from Lat. baptisma 

(Windisch). The root here is bad, of bath, drown. Ir. 

baiseach, raining (Clare), from baisteadh, Lat. baptisma (Zim.). 
baist, baptise, Ir. baisd, 0. Ir. baitsim ; from Lat. baptizo, which 

is from Gr. fiaTVTLfja, dip. 
+ baiteal, a battle ; from Eng. battle. 

balach, clown, lad, Ir. balach, clown, churl ; cf. Skr. balakas, a 

little boy, from bdla, young. But cf. W. bala, budding, root 

bhel. Rathlin Ir. bachlach. 
r balaiste, ballast ; from the Eng. 

balbh, dumb, so Ir., E. Ir. balb ; borrowed from Lat. balbus. 

bale, ridge, etc. ; see bailc. Also " calf of leg" (Wh.). 

bale, misdeed : 

balcach, splay-footed (H.S.D.). Cf. Gr. <j>o\k6s, bandy-legged (1). 

balg, belly, bag, Ir. bolg, 0. Ir. bole, W. lol, boly, belly, Cor. bol, 

Gaulish bulga (Festus) sacculus; Got. balgs, wine-skin, 

Norse belgr, skin, bellows, Eng. belly. 


balgair, a fox : 

balgum, mouthful, M. G. bolgama (pi.), Ir. blogam ; from balg. Cf. 

0. Ir. bole uisce, a bubble, 
ball, a member, lr., 0. Ir. ball ; Gr. <f>a\\6s ; Eng. phallus ; root 

bhel, swell, 
ball, a spot, Ir., M. Ir. ball, white-spotted on forehead (of a horse), 

Br. bal (do.). The Gaelic suggests a stem bal-no-, Celtic root 

bal, white, Gr. <£aAo§, shining, cf)d\apos (phalaros), white- 
spotted (of animals) ; I. E. bhel : bhale, shine ; whence Eng. 

bale-fire. Stokes says the Irish ball seems allied to the 

Romance balla, a ball, Eng. bale and ball (?). Hence ballach, 

spotted. W. bal, spotted on forehead, 
ball, a ball ; from Eng. 
balla, wall, Ir. balla (Four Masters), fala (Munster) ; from 

M. Eng. bailly, an outer castle wall, now in Old Bailey, from 

Med. Lat. ballium. 
ballaire, a cormorant ; from ball, spot, 
ballan, a vessel, tub, Ir. balldn, E. Ir. ballan. Stokes cfs. Norse 

bolli, bowl, Eng. bowl, and says that the Gaelic is probably 

ballart, boasting, clamour ; probably from Norse ballra, strepere, 

baldrast, make a clatter (Eng. balderdash), Ger. poltern. 
bait, a welt : see bolt. 
ban, white, Ir., 0. Ir. ban ; I. E. root bha, shine ; Gr. <]>av6s (a 

long), bright ; Skr. bhdnu, light ; further away is Eng. bale 

ban-, bana-, she-, female- ; see bean. 
banabachadh, worse of wear (M'D.) : 
banachag, dairymaid : 
banachdach, vaccination : 
banair, sheep fold ; see rather mainnir. 
bana is, a wedding, wedding feast, Ir. bainfheis, wedding feast, 

M. Ir. banais, g. baindse ; from ban +feisd ? 
banarach, dairymaid ; from ban- and aireach. 
fbanbh, a pig, Ir. banbh, E. Ir. banb, W. banw, Br. banv, banc, 

*banvo-s. The word appears as Banba, a name for Ireland, 

and, in Scotland, as Banff. M'L. and D. gives the further 

meaning of " land unploughed for a year." 
banc, a bank ; from the Eng. 
banchuir, squeamishness at sea (H.S.D., which derives it from 

ban and cuir). 
bangadh, a binding, promise (Sh., H.S.D.), Ir. bangadh. H.S.D. 

suggests Lat. pango, whence it may have come, 
bangaid, a banquet, christening feast ; from Eng. banquet. 


bann, a belt, band ; from Eng. band. It also means a " hinge." 

Dialectic spann. 
bannag, a Christmas cake ; from the Sc. bannock. See bonnach. 
bannag, corn-fan ; from Lat. vannus, Eng. fan. 
bannal, a troop, gang, Ir. banna ; from Eng. band. Cf. E. Ir. 

ban-ddl, assembly of ladies. Also pannail. 
bansgal (Dial, banasgal), a female, a hussy, Ir. bansgal, E. Ir. 

banscdl, 0. Ir. banscala, servae ; root of sgalag. 
bantrach, a widow, E. Ir. bantrebthach, landlady : ban + trebthach, 

farmer, from treb in treabhadh, aitreabh. 
baobh, a wicked woman, witch, Ir. badhbh, hoodie crow, a fairy, a 

scold, E. Ir. badb, crow, demon, Badba, the Ir. war-goddess, 

W. bod, kite, Gaul. Bodv-, Bodvo-gnatus, W. Bodnod ; Norse 

bod", g. bobvar, war, Ag. S. beadu, g. beadwe, *badtva- (Rhys). 

In Stokes' Diet, the Skr. bddhate, oppress, Lit. bddas, famine, 

are alone given. Also baogh. 
baodhaiste, ill usage from the weather : 
baoghal, danger, so Ir., 0. Ir. baigul, baegul ; cf. Lit. bai-me, fear, 

bai-gus, shy, Skr. bhayate, fear. 
baoghan, , a calf, anything jolly ; from baoth. 
baogram, a nighty emotion (Dialectic) ; founded on baogadh, a 

dialectic form of biog, q.v. 
baoileag, blaeberry ; cf. Eng. bilberry, Dan. bollebsdr. 
baoireadh, foolish talk ; founded on baothaire, fool, from baoth, q.v. 
fbaois, lust, so Ir., E. Ir. baes, *baisso- (Stokes) ; compared by 

Bezzenberger to Gr. (ftatSpos, shining, and by Strachan to the 

root gheidh, desire, Lit. geidu, desire, Ch. SI. zida, expetere, 

Goth, gaidw, a want. Possibly allied to Lat. foedus, foul, 
baois, madness, so Ir., E. Ir. bdis ; from baoth (Zim. Z 32 229) 

— bdithas. Cf. sglth, sglos. 
baoisg, shine forth : see boillsg. 
baoiteag, a small white maggot ; see boiteag. 
baol, nearness of doing anything (M'A.) ; baoghal 1 Cf. its use 

in Fern. MS. 
baoth, foolish, so Ir., 0. Ir. bdith, baeth ; root bai, fear, as in 

baoghal ; Cor. bad, Br. bad, stupidity, are not allied, nor is 

Goth, bauths, dumb, as some suggest. Hence baothair, fool, 
bara, a barrow, Ir. bara, E. Ir. bara ; from M. Eng. barowe, Eng. 

barail, opinion, Ir. baramhuil, M. Ir. baramail : bar + samhail ; 

for bar-, see bdirneachd, brdth. 
baraill, a barrel, Ir. bdirille, E. Ir. barille, W. baril ; from M. E. 

bar el, from 0. Fr. baril. 
baraisd, barraisd, borage ; Ir. barraist ; from the Eng. borage. 
baran, a baron ; Ir. barun, W. barwn ; from the Eng. 


barant, surety, warrant, Ir., M. Ir. bardnta, W. gwarant ; from 

M. Eng. war ant, now warrant. So St. 
: barbair, a barber, Ir. bearrbdir (Fol.), W. barfwr ; from the Eng. 
barbarra, barbarous, Ir. barbartha ; from Lat. barbarus, Eng. 

bar-bhrigein, silver-weed (Arm.) ; also brisgean (from brisg) : 
barbrag, tangle tops, barberry ; from Eng. barberry. In Lewis, 

the former is called bragaire. 
bare, a bark, boat, Ir. bare, E. Ir. bare, W. barg, Br. bare. These 

words are all ultimately from the Late Latin barca, whence 

through Fr., comes Eng. bark. 
bare, rush (as water), Ir. bdrcaim, break out ; cf. M. Ir. bare, 

multitude ; Lat. farcio, cram, frequens, numerous, 
bard, a poet, Ir. bard, E. Ir. bard, W. bardd, Br. barz, Gaul. 

bardos, *bardo-s ; Gr. <£/>a{co (<f>pa8-), speak (Eng. phrase). 
bard, dyke, inclosure, meadow, Ir. bard, a guard, garrison ; from 

Eng. ward, enclosed pasture land (Liddell 35). 
f- bargan, a bargain, W. bargen ; from the Eng. bargain. 

barlag, a rag, tatter-demalion ; cf. Ir. barlin, sheet, for braith-lin, 

barluadh, a term in pipe music ; from Eng. bar+G. luath. 
bamaig, a summons ; from the Eng. warning. 
barpa, barrow, cairn (H.S.D., a Skye word). Cape Wrath is 

Am Parph in Gaelic (An Carbh, Lewis) ; from Norse Hvarf, 

a turning, rounding, Eng. wharf. 
barr, top, Ir. bdrr, 0. Ir. barr, W., Cor. bar, Br. barr, * bar so- ; 

Norse barr, pine needles, Ag. S. byrst, Eng. bristle, burr ; Lat. 

fastiguim (for farstigium), top ; Skr. bhrshti, a point. Hence 

barrachd, overplus, barrlach, refuse, flotsam (Wh.). 
barra, a spike, bar, Ir. bdrra, W. bar, nail, etc. ; all from the Eng. 

barra-gug, potato bloom, bud. See gucag. Also barr-guc. 
barraisg, boasting, brag, barsaich, vain, prating ; see bairseag. 
barramhaise, a cornice (A. M'D.) ; barr+maise. Also barr- 

maisich (verb), ornament (M'A.). 
barrlait, a check (Carm.) : 
bas, palm of the hand, Ir., 0. Ir. bas, bass, boss, Br. boz, *bosta ; 

Gr. dyoo-ros. 
bas, death, Ir., 0. Ir. bas ; Celtic root ba, ba, hit, slay, whence 

Gaul. Lat. batuere (Eng. battle, etc.) ; Ag. S. beadu, war. 
I basaidh, a basin ; from Sc. bassie, Eng. basin. 
j bascaid, a basket, Ir. basgaod, W. basged ; from the Eng. basket. 
basdal, noise, gaiety ; from Norse basil, turmoil, 
basdard, a bastard, so Ir. and M. Ir., W. basdardd ; all from the 

Eng. bastard. 


basgaire, mourning, Ir. bascarrach, lamentation, clapping with 
the hands, M. Ir. basgaire; bas + gaire, "palm-noise;" for 
gaire, see goir. Also basraich. 
basganta, melodious : 

basg-luath, vermilion; from the obsolete adj. basg, red, E. Ir. 
base, and luath, ashes, q.v. Stokes cfs. base to Lat. bacca 
(for bat-ca), berry. 
bat, bata, a stick, Ir. bata ; from M. Eng. batte, stick, now bat, 
which comes from 0. Fr. batte, from Gaul. Lat. battuere, as 
under bds, q.v. The Br. baz seems borrowed from the Fr., 
though it may be native. 
bata, a boat, Ir. bad, M. Ir. bat, W. bdd ; all from Ag. S. bat, Eng. 
boat, Norse bdtr (Stokes). K. Meyer takes Ir. and G. from 
the Norse. 
batail, a fight ; see baiteal. 

bath, drown, Ir. bdthaim, 0. Ir. bddud (inf.), W. boddi, Br. beuzi ; 
I.E. gadh, sink, Gr. /3a0vs, deep, -/3Svw, sink, Skr. gdhds, the 
deep. Gl. fodio (Ern.). 
bath, vain, foolish (Hend.) ; see ba. Skye. 

bathaich, a byre, Ir. bothigh, W. bendy ; bo + tigh, "cow house." 
bathais, forehead, Ir. baithis, pate, E. Ir. baithes, crown of the 
forehead ; *bat-esti-, from bat, I.E. bhd, shine, Gr. <f>d(ri<$, 
appearance, phase. See ban further. Lat. fades, face, 
appearance, may be allied, though the latest authorities 
connect it with facio, make, 
bathar, wares ; from the Eng. wares. 

fbeabhar, beaver, Ir. beabhar (Lh.), Cor. befer, Br. bieuzr, Gaul. 
Bibrax ; Lat. fiber ; Eng. beaver, Ag. S. be'ofor. Gaelic and 
Ir. are doubtful. 
beach, a bee, so Ir., 0. Ir. beck, W. begegyr, drone, *biko-s ; a root 
hi- appears in Eng. bee, Ag. S. bed ( = *bija), Ger. biene 
( = *bi-nja), Lit. bitis. Stokes makes the Celtic stem beko-s, 
but does not compare it with any other language, 
beachd, opinion, notice, Ir. beacht, certain, E. Ir. becht, bechtaim, I 

certify; Hhig-to-; Lat. figo (St. Z.C.P. 71). 
beadaidh, impudent, fastidious, Ir. beadaidh, beadaidh, sweet- 
mouthed, scoffing ; E. Ir. bet, talking, shameless girl (Corm.) : 
*beddo- t *bez-do-, root bet, get, as in beid. 
beadradh, fondling, caressing, beadarrach, pampered : 
beag, little, Ir. beag, 0. Ir. becc, W. bach, Cor. bechan, Br, bic'han, 
bian, *bezgo- ; Lat. vescus (=gvesgus) 1 Some have connected 
it with Gr. [xiKpos, Dor. Gr. jalkkos, and Dr Cameron suggested 
Lat. vix, scarcely. 
beairt, engine, loom : see beart. 
beairtean, shrouds, rigging ; see beart. 


bealach, a pass, Ir. bealach, pass, road, E. Ir. belach ; cf. Skr. 
bila, gap, mouth; bilako-n (C.RR. 174). Cf. W. bwlch, pass, 
etc 1 See bile. 

bealaidh, broom, Ir. beallyi (Lh. Comp. Voc.) ; cf. Br. balan, 
M. Br. balazn, 0. Fr. balain ; also Fr. 6afa£, older balain, a 
broom. This might be referred to the common root 6Ae£, 
bloom (prolific as a root, like the corresponding root of broom, 
as in W. balannu, to bud), but the W. for " broom" is banadl, 
Cor. banathel, which M. Ernault has compared with Lat. 
genista, broom (root gen, beget 1). Jub. gives Br. as banadlon 
(R.C. 18 106). The Br. might be a metathesis of W. banadl 
(cf. Br. alan v. anail). It is possible that Gaelic is borrowed 
from the Pictish ; the word does not appear in the Ir. 
Dictionaries, save in Lh.'s Celt, part, which perhaps proves 

bealbhan-ruadh, a species of hawk (Sh., O'R.) ; for bealbhan, cf. 
tbealbhach, a bit, from beul, mouth 1 ? 

bealltuinn, May-day, Ir. bealteine, E. Ir. beltene, belltaine, *belo- 
te(p)ni& (Stokes), " bright-fire," where belo- is allied to Eng. 
bale ("bale-fire"), Ag. S. bael, Lit. baltas, white. The Gaul, 
god-names Belenos and Belisama are also hence, and Shake- 
speare's Gym-beline. Two needfires were lighted on Beltane 
among the Gael, between which they drove their cattle for 
purification and luck ; hence the proverb : " Eadar da theine 
Bhealltuinn " — Between two Beltane fires. 

bean, wife, so Ir., 0. Ir. ben, W. bun, benyw, Cor. benen, sponsa, 
Celtic bend, g. bnds, pi. n. bnds ; Gr. yw/j, Boeot. Gr. f3avd j 
Got. gino, Eng. queen, Sc. queyn ; Skr. gnd. 

bean, touch, Ir. beanaim, beat, touch, appertain to, 0. Ir. benim, 
pulso, ferio, Br. bena, to cut, M. Br. benaff, hit; *bina, root 
bin, bi (0. Ir, ro bi, percussit, bithe, perculsus), from I.E. bhi, 
bhei, hit ; Ch. SI. bija, biti, strike ; 0. H. G. bihal, axe ; Gr. 
(frirpds, log. Further is root bheid, split, Eng. bite. Usually 
bean has been referred to I. E. ghen, ghon, hit, slay; Gr. $&>-, 
slay, eirecf>vov, slew, <j>6vo<s, slaughter, deivu), strike ; Skr. han, 
hit ; but gh = G. b is doubtful. 

beann, top, horn, peak, Ir. beann, 0. Ir. benn, pinna, W. ban, 
height, peak, M. Br. ban, also benny, horn, pipe (music), 
Gaul, canto-bennicus mons, "white peak" mount ; pro to-Gaelic 
bennd ; root, gen-, gn-, as in Eng. knoll, Sc. knowe. In Scotch 
Gaelic, the oblique form beinn has usurped the place of 
beann, save in the gen. pi. 

beannachd, blessing, so Ir., 0. Ir. bendacht, W. bendith ; from Lat. 
benedictio, whence Eng. benediction. 


beannag, a skirt, corner, coif, Ir. beanndg ; from beann. 

beantag, a corn-fan ; see bannag. 

bearach, dog-fish (M'A.) ; 0. Ir. berach, verutns, from bior ; cf. 
Eng. " picked or horned dogfish " ; " bone-dog.'' 

bearachd, judgment (Sh., O'H .) ; root bera, bra, as in hrdth, q.v. 

bearbhain, vervain ; from Eng. vervain, Lat. verbena. 

beam, a breach, cleft, Ir. bearna, E. Ir. berna ; I. E. bher, cut, 
bore ; Lat. forare, bore ; Gr. <£a/oos, a plough, (f>apu>, split ; 
Arm. beran, mouth ; Ch. SI. bar, clip ; Eng. bore. Also bern, 
fen in E. Ir. 

bearr, shear, Ir. bearraim, 0. Ir. berraim, W. byrr, short, Cor. 
her, Br. berr, short, *berso- ; Gr. cfxipcros, any piece cut off ; 
root bhera, as in beam. 

bearraideach, flighty, nimble ; from bearr 1 

bearfc, a deed, Ir. bedrt, load, action, E. Ir. bert, bundle, birth; Gr. 
(fiopros, burden ; root, bher, in heir, q.v. Also beairt, engine, 
loom. It is used in many compounds in the sense of "gear,'' 
as in cais-bheart, foot-gear, shoes ; ceann-bheart, head-gear, 
helmet, &c. 

beartach, rich ; from heart ; W. berth, rich, herthe Id, riches. 

beatha, life, so Ir. 0. Ir. bethu, g. bethul, Celtic stem, bitdt-, 
divided into bi-tdt ; see bith (i.e , bi-tu-) for rot. It is usual 
for philologists to represent the stem of beatha as Invotdt, that 
is, bi-vo-tdt-, the bi-vo- part being the same as the stem bivo 
of bed. While the root bl is common to both beatha and bed, 
the former docs not contain -vo- ; it is the 0. Ir. nom. beothu 
(*bi-tus) that has set philologists wrong. Hence G. and Ir. 
beathach, animal. Ir. beathadhach, dial, of beathach. 

beic, a curtesy ; from Sc. beck, curtesy, a dkdectic use of Eng. 
beck, beckon. Hence beiceis, bobbing, etc. (M'A.). 

beil, grind ; a very common form of meil, q.v. 

beil, is ; see bheit. 

beilbheag, corn-poppy ; see mealbhag. Also bailbheag. 

beileach, a muzzle, Ir. beulmhach, a bridle bit, -mhach for ^ex- 
termination from bongim, beat ; from beul. 

beilleach, blubber-lipped, b&leach (H.S.D.); from beul. The first 
form suggests a stem bel-nac-. Cf. b^ilean, a prating mouth. 
Also meilleach. 

beilleag, outer coating of birch, rind ; also meilleag, q.v. 

beince, being (H.S.D.), a bench ; from Sc. bink ; Eng. bench. 
Cf. Ir. beinse, W. mainc, Br. menk. 

beinn, hill, ben ; oblique form of beann (f.n.), used as a fern, nom., 
for beann sounds masculine beside ceann, etc. See beann. 


beinneal, binding of a sheaf of corn, bundle ; from Sc. bindle, a 
cord of straw or other for binding, Eng. bundle \ from bind. 

beir, catch, bring forth, lr. beirim, 0. Ir. berim, W. cymmeryd, to 
take, accept, Br. kemeret ( — com-ber-) ; I.E. bfier, whence 
Lat. fero, Gr. </>e/3o>, Eng bear, Skr. bharami. 

beirm, bairm (Hend.), barm, yeast; from Sc. barm (pronounced 
berm), Eng. 6arm ; Lat. fermentum, 

beisear, plate-rack on dresser (Rob.). 

b^ist, a beast, Ir. bias', peist, 0. lr. beist, W. bwystjil ; from Lat. 
bestia (Eng. beast). Also biast. 

beith, birch, so Ir., O. Ir. bethe, W. bedw, Br. bezuenn, Celtic betvd, 
Lat. beta la, Fr. 6oWe. 

beithir, a serpent, any wild beast, monster, a huge skate, 
Ir. beithir, wild beast, bear, E. Ir. beithir, g. bethrac/t. In 
the sense of " bear," the word is, doubtless, borrowed ; but 
there seems a genuine Celtic word betrix behind the other 
meanings, and the beithir or beithir beimneach is famed in 
myth. Of. Lat. bestia, for bet-tia f Norse bera, bear (fern.), 
beirfjall, bearskin, Eng. bear (Zim. K.B. 1 286). 

beitir, neat, clean (M'E.) : 

bed, living, Ir., 0. Ir. bed, W. byw, Br. beu, *bivo-s ; Lat. vivus, 
living, vita ; Gr. /3iotos, a living ; Eng. quick \ Skr. jivd, 
living, ; I. E. gei-, gi-, live. See also beatha, bith. 

be6ir, beer, Ir. bedr ; from Ag. S. bebr, Norse bjdrr (Eng. beer). 

beolach, ashes with hot embers (M'A.) ; from bed + Uat/iach, 
"live-ashes." Another beolach, lively youth, hero, stands 
for beo-lach ; for -lach, see oglach. 

beuban, anything mangled : 

beuc, roar, Ir. beic, 0. lr. beccivi, W. beichio, baich, *beikkio ; Cor. 
begy, Br. begiat, squeal, baeguel, bleat, *baikio (Stokes). The 
difficulty of the vowels as between G. and W. (e should give 
wy) suggests comparison with creuchd, W. craith, *crempt- 
(Strachaii). Thus beuc, baich suggests benk-ku-, further 
guk-lco-, root gem, Lat. gemo, etc. The same result can be 
derived from the root geng- of geum, q.v. 

bend, mischief, hurt, Ir. bead, E. Ir. bet, *bt?ito-n ; allied to Eng. 

beul, mouth, so Ir., O. Ir. bel, *bet-lo-, I. E. get-, whence Eng. 
quoth, Got. qithan. The idea is the "speaker." Some 
connect W. gwejl ( = vo-bel), but this is probably *vo-byl, by I, 
edge (Ernault). 

beulaobh, front, E. lr. ar-belaib, 0. Ir. belib ; dat. pi. of beul ; also 
mixed with this is the 0. Ir. ace. pi. beulu. 


beum, a stroke, cut, taunt, Ir. and 0. Ir. bdim, nom. pi. btmen, 
blow, from the root beng, bong, which appears in buain; cf. ceum 
from ceng-men, leum from leng-men. This agrees with Cor. 
bom, blow. Some suggest beid-men or beids-men, root bheid, 
Eng. bite, which suits G. best as to meaning. The favourite 
derivation has been *ben-s-men, root ben of bean. 

beur, beurra, beurtha, sharp, pointed, clear ; gibe, jeer (Hend.) ; 
cf. Ir. bearrtha, clipped, from bearr ; from berr-tio-s, with i 
regressive into berr, giving beirr. 

beurla, English, language, Ir. beurla, speech, language, especially 
English; 0. Ir. bdlre; bel + re, bet, mouth, and the abstract 
termination -re (as in luibhre, buidhre, etc ). 

beus, conduct, habit, so Ir., 0. Ir. be's, Br. boaz, *bei$su-, *beid-tu-, 
root beid, I. E. bheidh, Gr. ttuOio, persuade, Lat. fides, English 
faith. Others derive it from bhend, bind, giving bhend-tu- as 
the oldest stem. Windisch suggests connection with Got. 
bansts, barn, Skr. bhdsa, cowstall. The Breton oa seems 
against these derivations. 

bha, bha, was, Ir. do bhdmar, we were (bha-), do bhi, was, M. Ir. 
ro bdi, was, 0. Ir., bbi, bdi, bui, a perfect tense, *bove(t), for 
bebove ; Skr. babhuva ; Gr. Tzk^v-Ke ; I. E. root bheu, to be, as 
in Lat. fui, was (an aorist form), Eng. be. 

bhan, a bhan, down ; by eclipsis for a(n) bh-fdn, " into declivity," 
iromfcin, a declivity, Ir., 0. \v.,fdn, proclive, W. gwaen, a 
plain, planities montana, *vag-no-, root, vag, bow, etc., Lat. 
vagor, wander, Ger. wackeln, wobble. Ir. has also fan, a 
wandering, which comes near the Lat. sense. In Suther- 
landshire, the adj. fan, prone, is still used. 

bheil, is, Ir. fuil, bh-fuil, 0. Ir , fail, fel, fit, root vel (val), wish, 
prevail, Lat. volo, valeo, Eng. will. 

bho, 0, from Ir. 6, ua, 0. Ir., 6, ua, *ava ; Lat. om-fero, " away "- 
take ; Ch. SI. u- ; Skr. ava, from. 

bhos, a bhos, on this side ; from the eclipsed form a(n) bh-fos, 
" in station," in rest, Ir. abhus, 0. Ir. ifoss, here, 0. fr. foss, 
remaining, staying, rest. See fois, rest, for root. 

bhur, bhur n-, your, Ir. bhar n-, 0. Ir. bar n-, far n-, *svaron 
(Stokes), *s-ves-ro-n. For sves-, see sibh. Cf. for form Got, 
izvara, Lat. nostrum (nos-tero-, where -tero- is a fuller com- 
parative form than Celtic -(e)ro-, -ro- of sves-ro-n, svaron). 

bi, bi, be, Ir. bi, be thou, 0. Ir. bin, sum, bi, be thou, 0. W. bit, 
sit, bwyf sim, M. Br. bezaff. Proto-Celtic bhv-ijo, for 0. Ir. 
bin, I am ; Lat. fio ; Eng. be ; I. E. root bheu, be. See bha. 
Stokes differs from other authorities in referring biu, l>i to 
Celtic beid, root bei, bi, live, as in bith, beatha, Lat. vivo, etc. 


bi, bigh, doorpost, threshold (Hend.), E. Ir. di hi = two posts. 

M'A. has high, post, pillar. 
biadh, food, so Ir., 0. Ir. biad, *bivoto-n, whence W. bywyd, vita, 

Cor. buit, cibus, Br. boed, food. Bivoto-u is a derivative from 

bivo- of bed, living, q.v. 
bian, a hide, Ir., E. Ir. bian, *beino- ; root bhei-, as in Eng. bite, 

Lat. findo. For force, cf. Gr. Scpfia, skin, from der, split, 

Eng. tear. Cf., for root, bean, hit. 
biasgach, niggardly ; from biast. In some parts biast is applied 

to a niggardly person. H.S.D. refers it to biadh + sgathach, 

catching at morsels, 
biast, a beast, worthless person ; see be'ist. The word biast, 

abuse, is a metaphoric use of biast. 
biatach, a raven (Sh.) ; cf. biatach, biadktach, a provider, farmer, 

from biadh. 
biatas, betony, beet, Ir. biatuis, W. betys ; from Lat. betis, beta, 

Eng. beet. Also biotais. 
biathainne, earth-worm, hook-bait, biathaidh (Dialectic) ; from 

biadh. Cf. Lat. esca, bait, for ed-sca, ed = eat. The word 

biathadh in many places means " to entice." 
biatsadh, provisions for a journey, viaticum ; formed from biadh, 

with, possibly, a leaning on viaticum. 
/ bicas, viscount (Arm.). Founded on the Eng., and badly spelt by 

Armstrong : either biceas dr biocas. 
bicein, a single grain (Arg.). From bioc, pioc ? (Wh.) 
* biceir, a wooden dish ; from Sc. bicker, Eng. beaker. Also bigeir, 

Did, a very small portion, a nip, a chirp. In the sense of "small 

portion," the word is from the Sc. bite, bit, Eng. bite, bit. In 

the sense of "chirp, a small sound," O'R. has an Ir. word 

bid, " song of birds." See biog. Hence bidein, diminutive 

person or thing. Cf. W. bidan, of like force. 
>♦ bldeag, a bit, bittie ; from Sc. bittock, dim. of Eng. bit. 
bidean, a fence (Stew.), bid (Sh.), Ir. bid, bidedn (O'R.), W. bid, 

quickset hedge, bidan, a twig ; ^bid-do-, root, bheid, split 1 
bidhis, a vice, screw, so Ir. ; from Eng. vice. 
bidse, a bitch ; from the English, 
bigh, bigh, pith of wood, gum. See bith. 
bil, bile, edge, lip, Ir. bit, mouth, E. Ir., bil, bile, W, by/, *bili-, 

bilio-. .Root bhi, bhei, split ; cf. Skr. bila, a hole, mouth of a 

vessel, etc. ; vil, edge : W. also myl. 
bileag, bile, a leaf, blade, Ir. billedg, bilebg, *bilid, I. E. root bhela, 

bhale, bhle, bhlb, as in Math ; Lat. folium ; Gr. <f>v\\ov, a 

leaf; further, Eng. blade. 


bilearach, bileanach, sea-grass, sweet-grass ; from bile. 

bileid, a billet ; from the Eng. 

bilistear, a mean, sorry fellow, a glutton, Ir., E. Ir. bille, mean, 

paltry. In the Heb. it means, " rancid butter " (H.S.D.). 
binid, also minid (Arg.), cheese, rennet, bag that holds the rennet, 

stomach, Ir. binid, 0. Ir. biuit, rennet ; *binenti-, " biter " 

root of bean ? Cf. muinne, stomach, 
binn, melodious, so Ir., 0. Ir. bind, *bendi, *bydi- ; 0. Br. banu 

(St.) ; Skr. bhandate, joyful, bhand, receive loud praise, 

bhanddna, shouting (Stokes, who acids Lat. jides, lyre). The 

idea may, however, be "high," root of beann, peak, binneach, 

high-headed. See next also, 
binn, sentence, verdict ; *bendi-, *benni-, ; cf. E. Ir. atboind, 

proclaims, *bonno, I ban. Cf. Skr. bhan, speak, Eng. ban. 

It is clear that Gaelic has an ablaut in e : o connected with 

the root bha, speak, 
binndich, curdle ; from binid, q.v. 
binnein, pinnacle ; from beann, q.v. 
bioball, pioball, Bible, Ir. biobla, W. bebil ; from Lat. biblia, 

Eng. bible. 
biod, pointed top ; root in biodag, bidean. 
biodag, a dagger, Ir. bidedg (O'R.), mioddg, W. bidog, 0. Br. bitat, 

resicaret, *biddo-, bid-do-, Celtic root bid, beid, I. E. bhid, 

bheid, Lat. findo, Eng. bite, Skr. bhid, split. Hence Eng. 

bodkin, possibly, 
biog, biog, a start, lr. biodhg, E. Ir. bedg, 0. Ir. du-bidcet, 

jaculantur, *bizgo-, root bis-, gis, root gi- of bed. Consider 

biugail, lively, quick. 
biog, biog, chirp ; onomatopoetic ; cf. Lat. pipe, chirp, Eng. pipe ; 

also Eng. cheep. Also bid, q.v. 
biogarra, churlish ; " cheepish," from biog, cheep, 
biolagach, melodious (M'F.) ; from fbiol, violin ; from Eng. viol, 

Fr. viole, violin, 
biolaire, water-cresses, Ir. biolar, E. Ir. biror, W. berwr, Cor., Br. 

beler, *beruro-, Lat. berula (Marcellus), Fr. berle, Sp. berro. 

Possibly allied to the root of Celtic bervo, seethe, 0. Ir. tipra, 

well, G. tobar, Eng. burn. Cf. Ger. brunnen kresse, water- 
cress, i.e., " well " cress. The dictionaries and old glossaries 

(Cormac, etc.) give bir, bior, as water or well. 
biolar, dainty, spruce (Sh.) ; for bior-ar, from bior, " sharp "1 
biolasgach, prattling, so Ir. (Lh., O'B.) ; from bil, lip. 
bionn, symmetrical (Carm.) : Sc. bien. 
bior, stake, spit, Ir. bior, 0. Ir. bir, W. ber, Cor., Br. ber, Celtic 

beru- ; Lat. veru; Gr. /Sapves, trees (Hes.) ; Lit. g\re, forest. 

Hence biorach, sharp. 


biorach, a heifer, colt, Ir. biorach, cow-calf : 

bioras, water-lily ; same origin as biolar, q.v. 

biorg, gush, twitch, tingle j from the roots of biolar (bior-) and 

biorraid, a helmet, cap, Ir. birreud, cap ; from Eng. biretta, from 

Late Lat. birretum. 
biorsadh, a keen impatience : " goading "; from bior. 
biorsamaid, a balance ; from Sc. bismar, Norse bismari. 
bior-snaois, bowsprit of a sailing boat (N. Lochaber), forepart of 

vessel : 
biota, a churn, vessel ; from Norse bytta, a pail, tub, Ag. S. bytt, 

Latin buttis, Eng. butt. 
biotailt, victuals, E Ir. bitdill, W. bitel, M. Br. bitaill ; from 0. Fr. 

vitaille, from Lat. victualia. Eng. victuals is from the French, 
birlinn, a galley, bark, M. Ir. beirling ; formed from the Norse 

byrtsingr, a ship of burthen, from byrSr, burden, vb. bera, 

Eng. bear. The Sc. bierling, birlinn is from the Gaelic. Cf. 

febirlig =fj6rtSungr. 
birtich, stir up ; from bior, goad, 
biseach, luck ; see piseach. 
bith, the world, existence, Ir., 0. Ir. bith, W. byd, Br. bed, Gaul. 

bitu-, *bitu s ; root bi, bei, live, I. E. gei, gi, whence Lat. 

vivo, Eng. be, etc. Hence beatha, bed, biadh, q.v. 
bith, being (inf. of bi, be), Ir., E. Ir. beith, 0. Ir. buith. The 0. Ir. 

is from the root bhu (Eng. be, Lat. fui) = *buti-s, Gr. </>ixris. 

The forms bith and beith, if derived from bhu, have been 

influenced by bith, world, existence ; but it is possible that 

they are of the same root gi as bith. Stokes, in his treatise 

on the Neo-Celtic Verb Substantive, takes bith and beith from 

the root ga, go, Gr. /3acri? (Eng. base), a root to which he 

still refers the 0. Ir. aorist bd, fui (see bu). 
bith, resin, gum, birdlime, Ir. bigh, 0. Ir. bi, pix, adj. bide, *geis-, 

a longer form of gis-, the root of giuthas, fir (Schrader). 

Otherwise we must regard it as borrowed from Lat. pix, picis, 

whence W. pyg, Eng. pitch, against which b and i (i long) 

bith, quiet (Arm.) : 
bith-, prefix denoting "ever-," Ir., 0. Ir. hith-, W. byth- ; from 

bith, world, 
biuc, difficult utterance : 
biuthaidh, foe, Ir. biodhbha, E. Ir., 0. Ir. bidbe, bidbid (gen.) 

culprit, enemy, 
biuthas, fame, biuthaidh, hero ; see flic, fiubhaidh. 


_^ blabaran, stammerer, Ir. blabardn ; from the Eng. blabber, speak 
inarticulately. It is of onomatopoetic origin. Cf. Eng. 
* bladair, a wide mouth, a flatterer, Ir. bladaire, flatterer j from 
the Eng. blatterer, bletherer, blusterer, blatter, prate ; from 
Lat. blaterare, prate. Also blad, a wide mouth (M'F.). 

bladh, fame, Ir. blddh, E. Ir. blad ; root blad-, blat-, speak, as in 
Lat. blatero, babble, Norse blaftr, nonsense, Sc. blether. See 
bladair. Cf. glaodh, shout. Hence bladhair, expressive, a 

bladhail, strong, from bladh, pith, W. blawdd, active ; *bldd- ; 
root bid-, swell, bloom, as in bldth, q.v. 

bladhm, a boast, etc. ; see blaomadh. 

blad-shronach, blad-spagach, flat-nosed, flat-footed ; blad- is from 
Eng. flat. 

blaisbheum, blasphemy ; from Lat. blasphemia, Eng. blasphemy. 

blanndaidh, rotten, stale ; from Norse blanda, whey "blend." 

blanndar, flattery, dissimulation, so Ir. ; from Lat. blandiri, 
Sc. blander, Eng. blandish. 

fblaodh, a shout, noise, Ir. blaodh, M. Ir. blaeded, W. bloedd. 
Hence blaodhag, noisy girl, blaoghan, calf's cry, etc. 

blaomadh, loud talking, lr. blaodhmanach, noisy person ; from 
*blaid-s-men ; see blaodh. 

f blaosg, a shell, Ir. blaosc, M. Ir. blaesc, testa, W. blisg ; see 

blar, a field, battle, peat-moss ; from bldr, spotted, the idea being 
a " spot." See next word. 

blar, having a white face, or white spot on the face (of an animal); 
*bld-ro-s, root bid-, from 1. E. bhale, shine, bhd; Gr. q>a\ap6s 
(second a long), having a white patch (on the head, as on a 
dog's head). Cf. Dutch blaar, a white spot on the forehead 
(whence Fr. blaireau, badger), M. Dutch, blaer, bald. See 
for roots bealltuinn, ban. Welsh has blawr, grey, iron-grey, 
which seems allied. This word enters largely into Pictish 
topography. It is not so used in Argyle (M'K.) nor in Ireland. 

bias, taste, lr. bias, O. Ir. mlas, W. bids, Br. bias, *mlasto- ; Czech 
mlsati, lick, be sweet-toothed, Uuss. molsati, suck (Bezzen- 
berger). Ultimately the root seems to be mel, as in meli-, 
honey, G. mil, and even meil, grind. Hence Fr. blase i 

blas-bheumnaich, blaspheme (Hend.). See blaisbheum. 

blath, bloom, blossom, lr., E. Ir. bldth, W. blawd, blodau, Cor. 
blodori, M. Br. bleuzenn, *bldto-n ; I. E. root bhela : bhlo, 
blossom forth ; Lat. Jlos, flower ; Eng. bloom, etc. 


blath, warm, kind, Ir., E. Ir. bldith, soft, smooth, mldith, *mldti- ; 

root mela, mid, to grind. The original idea is " ground soft." 

Cf. W. blawd, meal, 
blathach, buttermilk, Ir., M. Ir. bldthach ; mld-tac-, root md, mid, 

as in blath. The idea is "pounded, soured." Cf. braich, 

from mrac-, "soured," and Eng. malt, "soured," from melt. 

Hence Sc. bladach. 
bleachdair, a soothing, nattering fellow, Ir. bleachdaire, flatterer, 

cow-milker; a metaphoric use of the last word, "cow-milker," 

from bliochd, milk, q.v. 
bleag'h, milk (vb.), Ir. blighim ; see bleoghainn. 
bleaghan, a dibble for digging up shell-fish, a worthless tool ; 

possibly from Norse blab", Eng. blade. 
bleid, impertinence, solicitation, Ir. bleid, cajolery, impertinence. 

This seems another word formed on the word bladair, Mad, 

just like Eng. blatant, blate (talk, prate), 
bleideir, coward ; from Norse bleycS'i, cowardice, and Sc. blate (V). 
bleith, grind, Ir. bleithim, E. Ir. bleith, inf. to 0. Ir. melim, I 

grind, W. malu, Br. malaff \ root mel, grind, Lat. molo, Eng. 

meal, etc. 
bleoghainn, milking, E. Ir. blegon, inf. to bligim, mligim. ; Lat. 

mulgeo ; Gr. d-fxekyu) ; Eng. milk ; Lit. melzu. 
bliadhna, year, Ir. bliadhain, 0. Ir. bliadain, W. blydd, blivyddyn, 

Br. bloaz, blizen, *bleidni-, *bleido- ; I. E. ghleidh, whence 

Eng. glide: "labuntur anni " (Stokes). It is doubtful if 

I. E. gh becomes Celtic b. 
blialum, jargon ; from the Sc. blellum. 
blian, the flank, groin, Ir. blein, E. Ir. blen, 0. Ir. melen, for mleen, 

*mlakno- ; Gr. /xakaKos, soft (Strachan, Stokes). The mean- 
ing, if not the phonetics, is not quite satisfactory. 
blian, lean, insipid, blianach, lean flesh ; cf. W. blin, tired, 0. Br. 

blinion, inertes. These may be referred to *gleghno-, Lit. 

gleznus, tender, weak, Gr. fikrjxpos, languid. See, however, 

the derivation suggested for blian, above. For the Brittonic 

words, Stokes has suggested the stem bleno- ; Skr. gldna, 

bligh, milk ; see bleagh. 
bliochan, yellow marsh, asphodel, Ir. bliochan ; from *blioch = 

*melgos-, milk. For phonetics, cf. teach, from tegos-. 
bliochd, milk, Ir. bleachd, E. Ir. blicht, W. blith, *mlctu-, root 

melg, milk. See bleoghainn. 
bllonadh, basking (Islands) : " softening" 1 See blian. 
bliosan, artichoke (Sh., O'B., O'R.), Ir. bliosdn: *blig-s-an-, "milk- 

curdler T Its florets were used for curdling. 


blob, blubber-lipped (Sh.) ; from Eng. blub, puffed, protruding, 

blubber, etc. 
blocan, a little block, blog, block (Dialectic), Ir. bloc, blocdn ; from 

Eng. block. 
bloigh, fragment, half, Ir. blogh, blogh, fragment, E. Ir. blog, pre- 

Celtic bhlog ; ,'^Eng. block, further away Eng. balk, Or. 

<£aAay£. Stokes refers it to the root of Eng. pluck. (St. 

now Eng. plough, Ger. pflug). 
bloin'gein, any plant with crisped leaves, Ir. bloinigain (O'R.) ; 

G. and Ir. bloinigean garraidh is "spinage." Cameron 

refers the word to blonag, fat, 
blomas, ostentation (Sh.). Ir. blomas ; see bladhm. Ir. blamaire, 

means "boaster." 
blonag, fat, Ir. blondg, blainic, blunag, M. Ir. blonac, W. bloneg, Br. 

blonek, *b/on-, *blen-, root, bide, bhel, swell j a very prolific 

root. Rhys says W. is borrowed. [R.C. 17 102.] 
f blosg, sound a horn, Ir. blosgaidhim, resound, sound a horn, 

M. Ir. blosc, voice ; W. bloedd, a shout, from *blog&o-, for 

blotSgo- ; cf. meag, W. maidd. [Zeit 34 502.] Cf. Gr. <£Ao«r/3os, 

din ( = </>Aoo--yos), Lit. bldzgu, roar. 
b6, a cow, Ir., 0. Ir. bd, W. buiv, 0. Br. bou-, Hov-s ; I. E. gous, 

whence Lat. bos, Gr. f3ovs, Eng. cow, Skr. go. 
boban, bobug, a term of affection for a boy ; cf. M. Ir. boban, calf, 

boban, from bo. Eng. babe, earlier, baban, of uncertain origin, 

may be compared, 
boban, a bobbin ; from the Eng. bobbin. 
bobhstair, bolster ; from Sc. bowster, Eng. bolster. 
boc, a buck, Ir. boc, he-goat, 0. Ir. bocc, W. bwch, Cor. boch, Br. 

bouc'h *bukko-s ; Skr. bukka, goat. These may be analysed 

into bug-ko-, root bug, Zend, buza, buck, Arm. buc, lamb, Eng. 

buck, Ger. bock. 
boc, swell, Ir. hocaim ; a cf. W '. loch, cheek, from Lat. Lucca, puffed 

cheek (Eng. debouch, rebuke). 
bocan, hobgoblin, Ir. bocdn, E. Ir. boccdnach. With these are 

connected W. bwg (bwci, Cor. bucca, borrowed from M. E. %), 

Eng. bug, bugbear, bogie; the relationship is not clear (Murray). 

For Gadelic a stem bukko-, from bug-ko-, would do, allied 

possibly to Norse puki, a Puck, Ag. S. puca, larbula. boc- 

sithe, apparition, ghost (Perth : Wh.). 
bochail, proud, , nimble ; cf. the interjection f boch, Ir. boch, 

heyday ! "0 festum diem." 
bochuin, swelling, the sea (Carm.), boch-thonn (H.S.D.) : 



bochd, poor, so Ir., 0. Ir. bocht ; *bog-to-, a participle from the vb. 

(Irish) bongaim, break, reap, Celtic bongo, break ; Skr. bhanj, 

break, Lit. banga, breaker (wave). See buain. 
bocsa, a box, so Ir., pronounced in Ir. bosca also, W. bocys ; from 

Eng. box. Hence bocsaid, a thump, Eng. box. 
bodach, an old man, a carle, Ir. bodach, a rustic, carle ; *bodd-qco-, 

"penitus," from bod, mentula, M. G. bod (D. of Lismore 

passim), M. Ir. bod, bot, *hoddo-, *hozdo- ; Gr. ttoo-Bi], mentula. 

Stokes suggests the alternative form butto-s, Gr. /3vttos, 

vulva, but the G. d is against this. He also suggests that 

bodach is formed on the 0. Fr. botte, a clod. 
bodha, a rock over which waves break ; from Norse botsi, a 

breaker, over sunken rocks especially, 
bodhag, a sea-lark : 
bodhaig, body, corpus ; from the Sc. bonk, body, trunk, Norse 

bukr, trunk, Ger. bauch, belly. The G. word has been compared 

by Fick with Eng. body, Ag. S. bodig, and Murray says it is 

thence derived, but the d would scarcely disappear and leave 

the soft g ending now so hard, 
bodhan, ham, breech, breast : *boud-ano, *boud, bhud- ; cf. Eng. 

butt, buttock. 
bodhar, deaf, so Ir., 0. Ir., bodar, W. byddar, Cor. bodhar, Br. 

bouzar ; Skr. badhird. 
bodhbh, bobh, a fright (Perthshire), E. Ir. bodba, dangerous, 

*bodv-io-s ; from bodvo- in baobh, q.v. 
bodht, swampy ground : 
bog, soft, Ir. bog, 0. Ir. bocc, Br. bonk, 0. Br. buc, putris ; *buggo-, 

*bug-go-; I. E. bhug, bend, Skr. bhugna, bent, Got. biugan, 

Eng. bow, from Ag. S. boga. 
bogha, a bow, so Ir., M. Ir. boga ; from Ag. S. boga, Eng. bow. 

For root, see under bog. 
bdgus, a timber moth, bug ; from Eng. bug, Sc. bog. 
boicineach, small-pox ; root in bucaid, q.v. 
boicionn, a goat skin, skin; *boc-cionn, "buck-skin"; the word 

f cionn is in 0. Ir. cenni, scamae, W. cen, skin, Cor. cennen, 

Br. kenn-, pellis ; Eng. skinn, Norse skinn. -cionn, skin, 

Norse hinna, film (Leiden) I.F. 5 A 127. 
b6id, vow, Ir. mdid, M. Ir. moit, *monti-, root mon, men, think. 

A borrowing from, or leaning on, Lat. vbtum seems possible 

in view of the Gaelic form. M. Ir. in uoit ; from Lat. votum, 

as is also moid (Stokes). 
bdidheach, pretty; for buaidJieach, "having virtues," from buaidh, 

boidheam, flattery (H.S.D.) : 
b6igear, puffin, ducker ; also budhaigir, q.v. 


boil, boile, madness, Ir. buile, E. Ir. baile : 

boilich, tall talk, boasting ; cf. Eng. bawl, cry like cows (b6). 

boillsg, gleam ; Holg-s-cio- ; Lat. fulgeo, shine, Eng. effulgent, Lit. 

blizgii, glance, shine, Eng. blink, I.E. bhleg, * fulgeo. 
boineid, a bonnet, Ir. boineud ; from Eng. bonnet. 
boinne, a drop, Ir. bain (d. pi. bainnibh), 0. Ir. banne, Cor., Br. 

banne ; Celt, bannjd (Stokes). See bainne. Hence boinneanta, 

healthy, well-built, 
boirche, a buffalo (Sh., Lh.), so Ir. ; perhaps allied to Lat. ferus, 

Eng. bear. 
boireal, a small auger (M'F.) ; founded on Eng. bore. 
boiriche, rising ground, bank (M'D.) ; same root as Ger. berg, 

mountain, Eng. ice-berg. 
boirionn, female, feminine, Ir. bainionn, boinionn ; *bani-, from 

the word bean, ban, q.v. Hence biorionnach, a female, which 

is masc. in gender, having been originally neuter. Cf. 

doirionn for doinionn (Arg.). 
bois, the palm ; see bas. 

boiseag, slap in the face, palmful, Ir., M. Ir. boiseog, buffet, 
boiseid, a belt, budget ; from the English, 
boisg, gleam ; see boillsg. 

boiteadh, boiled food for horses (H.S.D.), Eng. bait : 
boiteag, a maggot ; see botus. 
boitean, a bundle of hay or straw ; for boiteal, from Sc. buttle, 

Eng. bottle, bundle of hay, from 0. Fr. botte. 
boitidh, the call to a pig, boit, a taste for (Dialectic) : 
bol, a bowl ; from the English, 
boladh, smell, so Ir., 0. Ir. bolad, *bulato- ; Lit. bu'ls, dusty air 

(Bezzenberger). Stokes has compared Lit. bulis, buttock, 

Skr. buli, vulva, 
bolailta, excellent ; root bol, as in adhbhal, q.v. 
bolla, a boll ; from Sc, Eng. boll. Hence also bolla, a buoy. 
bolt, a welt, Ir. balta, welt, border ; from the Lat. balteus, girdle, 

Eng. belt. Cf. Eng. welt, W. gwald. 
boma, a bomb ; from the English, 
bonn, foundation, so Ir., 0. Ir. bond ; Lat. fundus ; Skr. budhnd ; 

Eng. bottom. 
bonn, a coin, so Ir. ; possibly from Lat. pondo. 
bonnach, cake, bannock, Ir. boinnedg, oaten cake. This word, like 

the Sc. bannock, appears to be founded on Lat. panicum, 

panis, bread. 
bonnanach, a strapping fellow (Mrs M'Ph.), bonnanaich, active 

young men (Skye) : 
borb, fierce, so Ir., 0. Ir. borp ; allied to, or, more probably, 

borrowed from, Lat. barbarus. 


borbhan, a purling sound ; *borvo-, a stem identical with bervo-, 

seethe, Fr. Bourbon, Lat. ferveo, etc. Hence borbhanach, 

base, deep, 
bdrc, sprout, swell ; see bare. 
borc-lunn, swell- wave (Hend.) : 
b6rd, a table, Ir., M. Ir., bord, W. bwrdd ; from Ag. S., Norse 

b6rlanachd, morlanachd, compulsory labour for the proprietor ; 

from Eng. bordland, as under bbrlum. Hence M'Morland. 

The cairiste, done for proprietor (M'K. and-Carm.). 
b6rlum, a strip of arable land (Hebrides) ; a frequent place name ; 

from M. Eng. bordland, mensal land, especially the royal 

castle lands in the Highlands. 
b6rlum, a sudden flux or vomiting, a flux ; for bdrc-lum ; see bbrc. 
fborr, knob, pride, greatness, great, Ir., E. Ir. borr, Horso-, 

bhorso- ; Lat. fastus (for farstus), pride ; 0. H. G. parrunga, 

superbia ; allied to bdrr, q.v. Hence borrach, a haughty 

man, a protruding bank, a mountain grass. 
b6sd, a boast, Ir. bdsd (O'R.), W., Cor. bost ; all from Eng. boast, 

itself of unknown origin. 
b6sdan, a little box, Br. bouist ; the G. is from early Sc. boyst, 

M. Eng. boiste, from 0. Fr. boiste, Med. Lat. buxida (bossida), 

which is the Gr. 7rv£i8a. Heuce also Eng. box, G. bosca. 
bosgaire, applause (Sh.); bas+gaire, q.v., "palm-noise." 
bot, a mound, river bank ; cf. bught, botach, a reedy bog. 
bdt, a boot ; from M. E. bote, Eng. boot. Also bdtuinn, from Sc. 

booting, Fr. bottine, half-boot, 
botaidh, a wooden vessel (size, half anker); formed from M. E. 

butte, Eng. butt, Fr, botte. 
both, perturbation, a plash ; see bodhbh. 
both, bothan, a hut, bothie, Ir., M. Ir. bothdn, both, W. bod, 

residence, Cor. bod, bos, *buto- ; Lit. butas, house ; Eng. booth, 

Norse bud", Ger. bude ; root bhu, be. Hence Eng. bothie. 
bothar, a lane, street (A. M'D.), Ir. bothar (Con.), bbthar, E. Ir. 

bbihar, *bdtro-, *bd-tro-, root ba, go; Gr. c-/3r)v, went, /3<w(o, 

go ; Skr. gd, go ; Eng. path. 
botrumaid, a slattern, (M'F.) ; see butrais. 
botul, a bottle, Ir. buideul, W. potel ; from Eng. bottle. 
botunn (Lewis), deep water pool (in moors) ; Norse, botn. 
botus, a belly-worm ; from M. E. bottes, pi. of bot, bott, of like 

meaning ; Sc. batts. Origin unknown (Murray). 
bra, brath, a quern, Ir. brb, g. brdn, E. Ir. bro, g. broon, mill-stone, 

*brevon-, *bravon- ; Skr. grdvan- ; Lit. girnos ; Eng. quern. 
brabhd-chasach, bow-legged : 


i brabhdadh, bravado, idle talk, brabhtalachd, haughtiness 
(A. M'D) ; from Eng. bravado ? 

brae, curve as of waves before breaking, a bellow, branch or deer- 
horn (Carm.), reindeer (Carm.) : 

bracach, grayish, braclach, brake : see words in broc-ach, -lack. 

brachag, a pustule ; from brach, rot (vb.) ; see braich, malt. 
Also brachan, putrefaction. 

brachd, putrescence, fat, rich : 

bradach, thievish, braid, theft, Ir. bradach, thievish, roguish, 
E. Ir. broit, g. braite : *mraddo-, allied to brath, betray 1 
Scarcely from br-ont-, root bher, carry, Lat. fur, etc. 

bradan, salmon, Ir. braddn, E. Ir. bratan. Cf. Lit. bradci, water, 
Ch. SI. brozda, wade through. 

bradan, a ridgy tumour on the surface of the body (H.S.D.) ; 
metaphorically from above word 1 

bradhadair, a blazing fire, kindling of a fire (Hebrides). Possibly 
braghadair, from bragh, q.v. Cf. braghadaich, crackling. 

brag (Lewis), a sudden creeking noise, Norse brak. 
st bragaireachd, vain boasting, Ir. bragdireachd, from bragaire, 
boaster ; from the Eng. brag. 

bragh, an explosion, peal, 0. Ir. braigim, pedo ; Lat. fragor, crash, 
fragrare, Eng. fragrant. See bram. 

braghad, neck, throat, Ir. brdighid, 0. Ir. brdge, g. brdgat, W. 
breuant, 0. Br. brehant, *brdgnt- ; Eng. craw, Ger. kragen, 
collar, M. H. G. krage, neck ; Gr. f3p6yx<><$, windpipe, Eng. 
bronchitis. Bezzenberger (Stokes' Diet.), refers it to the root 
of Norse barH, weazand, Gr. (fidpvy£, Eng. phari/nx. Braghad 
is really the gen. of brdighe. 

bragsaidh, braxy ; from Sc, Eng. braxy. 

braich, malt, so Ir., E. Ir. mraich, W., Cor. brag, Br. bragezi, 
germinate, Gaul, brace (Plin.), genus farris : *mraki ; Lit. 
merhti, macerate, mdrka, flax-hole for steeping ; Lat. marcere, 
fade, marcidus, decayed, rotten. From W. bragod, comes 
Eng. bragget. 

braid, theft ; see bradach. 

braid, horse-collar ; see braighdeach. 

braighde, captives, pledges, Ir. brdighe, pi. brdighde, E. Ir. braga, 
g. bragat, hostage, prisoner, braig, a chain ; Gr. flpoxos, 
noose ; Eng. crank, Ger. kringel ; I. E. gregh, possibly allied 
to I. E. gregh, neck, as in braghad. Hence braighdeanas, 
captivity, also dialectic braigh, hostage, pledge. 

braighdeach, horse-collar, M. Ir. braigdech, older brdigtech ; from 
braghad. Also braid. 


braighe, upper part (of places) : this is the nom. case of braghad, 

which also appears in place names, as BrdHd-Albainn, Braid- 

braile, a heavy rain (Sh.) : 
braile, braighlich, a rattling noise (Perth). Sc. bruilze, Fr. 

brouille. See braodhlach. 
brailis, wort of ale, Ir. braithlis, M. Ir. braichlis, from braich. 
braim, bram, crepitus ventris, Ir. broim, 0. Ir. braigim, pedo, W., 

Cor., Br. bram, *bragsmen-, root brag, I. E. bkrag ; Lat. 

fragor, crash, fragrare, etc. Hence bramaire, a noisy fellow, 
braisleach, full-formed, bulky man, M. Ir. bras, great, W. Cor., 

Br. bras, grossus, *brasso- ; Lat. grossus, Fr. gros, bulky, 
braist, a brooch ; from the Eng. 
braithlin, linen sheet, so Ir.: *bratk + l\n; but brathl M'E. 

suggests plai-linn. 
braman, misadventure, the Devil ; also dialectic broman. M. Ir. 

bromdn means a " boor," bromdnach, impertinent. The root 

seems to be breg, brog, brag of breun, braim. 
bramasag, a clott-burr, the prickly head of a thistle (H.S.D.) : 
t bran, a raven, Ir., 0. Ir. bran, W. brdn, crow, Br. bran, crow ; 

*brand, for gvrand, with which cf. 0. Slav, gavranu, raven, 

but not or ana (do.), as is usually done. The further root is 

gra, gera, cry, whence Eng. crane, Gr. yepavos, crane, W. and 

Cor. garan. Used much in personal and river names, 
bran, bran, Ir., W. bran, Br. brenn ; G., Ir., and W. are from Eng. 

bran, from 0. Fr. bren, bran, whence Br. 
brang, a slip of wood in the head-stall of a horse's halter, resting 

on the jaw ; horse's collar ; brangas, a pillory ; from the Sc. 

branks f a head pillory (for tongue and mouth), a bridle with 

two wooden side pieces, brank, to bridle ; allied to Ger. 

pr anger, pillory, Du. prang, fetter, 
branndaidh, brandy ; from Eng. brandy, that is " brand or burnt 

branndair, a gridiron ; from Sc. brander, from brand, burn, etc. 
braodag, a huff (Hend), also (Perth) : 
braodhlach, brawling, braoileadh, loud noise, Ir. braoilleadh, 

rattling ; a borrowed word, seemingly from Sc, Eng. braid, 

confused with Sc. brulye, ~E,ng.'broil. 
braoileag, a whortleberry, Ir. broiledg, breileog. Sc. brawlins, 

brylochs, comes from the Gaelic. 
braoisg, a grin, Ir. braos : 
braolaid, raving, dreaming ; from breathal ? 
braon, a drop, rain, so Ir., O. Ir. broen ; cf. Eng. brine. The 

attempt to connect it with Gr. flpeXu), or with Lat. rigare, 


Eng. rain, is unsatisfactory. Stokes derives it from root 
ver (see fear thuinn), *vroen, but unlikely. 

braonan, praonan, an earth-nut, bunium flexuosam. Perhaps 
from braon, a drop — "a bead, nut." 

bras, brais, active, rash, Ir. bras, E. Ir. bras, W. brys, haste : 
*brsto-, I.E. gredh-, as in greas, q.v. 1 See also brisg, active. 

brasailt, a panegyric (M'A.) ; E. Ir. bras-scUach, panegyrical ; 
from 0. Ir. bras, great, W. and Br. bras ; cf. Lat. grossus, 
Eng. gross. See braisleach. 

brat, a mantle, Ir. brat, 0. Ir. bratt, W. brethyn, woollen cloth, Br. 
broz, petticoat, *bratto-, *brat-to-. For root brat, brant, sec 
breid. Ag. S. bratt, pallium, is borrowed from the Celtic. 
Hence bratach, flag. 

bra tag, the furry or grass caterpillar, Ir. bratog, " the mantled 
one," from brat. Cf. caterpillar = " downy cat," by derivation. 

brath, information, betrayal, Ir. brath, E. Ir. brath, treason, and 
mraih also, W. brad, treachery, Cor. bras, Br. barat, 0. Br. 
brat, *mrato- ; Gr. dfiaprdvo) (-[xapT-), sin, miss, ijpfipoTov (past 
tense). Cf. mearachd. M. Ir. maimed, treachery. 

brath, judgment, gu brath, for ever (pron. gu brack) "till Judg- 
ment," so Ir., 0. Ir. brath, judgment, W. brawd, M. Br. breut, 
Gaul, bratu-, *brdtu- ; Hrd, *bera, judge, decide, from I. E. 
bher, in the sense of " say," as in abair. The Ir. barn, judge, 
and W. barn, judgment, are hence, and may be compared 
to Gr. 4>prjv, <j6/oeves, soul, phrenology. Hence also breath or 
breith (*brt-), q.v. The sense " conflagration " given in the 
Diet, is due to " Druidic " theorisings, and is imaginary. 

brathair, brother, Ir. brdthair, 0. Ir. brdthir, W. brawd, pi. brodyr, 
Cor. broder, pi. bredereth, Br. breur, breuzr, pi. breudeur, 
*brdter ; Lat. frdter ; Eng. brother ; Skr. bhrdta ; etc. 

breab, a kick, Ir. preab, M. Ir. prebach, kicking ; perhaps from the 
root form of the following word. 

breaban, a patch of leather, Ir preabdn, parcel, piece, patch ; 
from, or allied to, 0. Fr. bribe, a piece of bread, alms, Sp. 
briba, alms ; also 0. Fr. bribeur, mendicant, briberesse, female 
vagabondage and harloting ; cf. Ir. preabdg, a wenching jade 
(O'B.). Eng. bribe is from the French. 

breac, speckled, so Ir., E. Ir. brecc, W. brych, Br. brec'h, small-pox, 
*mrkko-s, *mrg-ko-, root mrg ; Lit. mdrgas, speckled, pied J 
Gr.' dfiapvo-o-oi,' twinkle. There is an 0. Ir. mrecht, W. brith, 
of like meaning and origin, viz , mvk-to, from mrg-to-. Hence 
breac, small-pox, W. brech, and breac, trout, W. brithyll. 
breacan, plaid, Ir. breacdn, W. brecan, rug : from breac. Rhys 

regards W. as borrowed from Irish, 
breac-shianain, freckles : 


breacag, a pancake, W. brechdan, slice of bread and butter, 

brg-ko-, brg, as in bairghin, bread 1 ? (Rev. Celt. 17 102). See 

breachd, seizing = beireachd. 
breachdan, custard (Lh.), M. Ir. brechtdn, a roll, W. brithog ; from 

mrg-to-, Ir. brecht, W. brith, motley, mixed. See under breac. 
breagh, fine, Ir. breagh, M. Ir. breagha (O'Cl.), *breigavo-s, root 

breig, brig as in briah, q.v. % Ir. breagh or breaghda = Bregian, 

Tir Breg. (Ir. J. No. 119). 
f breall, knob, glens mentulse, D. of Lismore breyl, Ir. breall, 

brs-lo-, root bers, bars, as in G. borr, bdrr, Eng. bristle. Hence 

brilleanach, lewd, q.v. breall = bod (Glenmoriston). 
breaman, tail of sheep or goat, podex ; cf . Ir. breim, by-form of 

braim, q.v. 
breamas, mischief, mishap, the Devil ; an e vowel form of braman? 
breanan, dunghill (Sh.) ; from breun, q.v. 
breath, row, layer : *brtd, a slice, root bher of beam. 
breath, judgment, so Ir., 0. Ir. breth, *brtd, W. bryd, Gaul, vergo- 

bretus, *brto-s. For root, see broth. Spelt also breith. 
breathas, frenzy (M'A.) ; see breisleach, 
br6"id, a kerchief, so Ir., E. Ir. breit, *brenti-, roots brent, brat ; 

Skr. granth, tie, knot, grathndti ; Ger. kranz, garland, Eng. 

crants (Rhys). The Skr. being allied to Gr. ypovdos, fist, 

seems against this derivation (Stokes), not to mention the 

diificulty of Gr. and Skr. th corresponding to Celtic t. 

Possibly from root bher a, cut, Gr. <f>(ipo<s, cloth (Windisch). 

Cf. W. brwyd, braid, 
breisleach, confusion, delirium, nightmare, Ir. breisleach (O'R., 

Fol. ), breaghaslach (Lh.) from breith-, *bret, *bhre-t ; bhre, 

mind, as in Gr. <£pjv, mind 1 Cf. E. Ir. Breslech M6r 

Murtheimme ; brislech, "overthrow." 
breith, bearing, birth, so Ir. and E. Ir., *brti-s; Skr. bkrti- ; Eng. 

birth ; etc. : root bher, bear ; see beir. 
breitheal, confusion of mind ; from breith-, as in breisleach. Also 

breathal and preathal. 
breitheanas, judgment, Ir. breitheamhnus, E. Ir. brithemnas ; from 

brithem, a judge, stem britheman, to which is added the 

abstract termination -as ( = astu-). From britheamh, q.v 
breo, breoth, rot, putrefy : 

breochaid, any tender or fragile thing (M'A.) ; from breo. 
breocladh, clumsy patching, bre6claid, sickly person : breodh + 

clad ( = cail of buac^a^). See breoite. 
breoite, infirm, Ir. breoite, breodhaim, I enfeeble (Keat.), *brivod- ; 

cf. W. briw, break, *brivo-, possibly allied to Lat. frivolus. 
breolaid, dotage, delirium ; cf. breitheal, etc. 


breug, briag, a lie, Ir. breug, breag, 0. Ir. brec, *brenkd ; Skr. 
bhramca, loss, deviation. 

breun, putrid, so Ir., E. Ir. bren, W. braen, Br. brein ; *bregno-, 
*bragno-, foul, from root, breg, brag of braim. Straohan takes 
it from *mrak-no- ; Lat. marcidus, rancid, as in braich, q.v. 

briagail, prattling : 

briathar, a word, so Ir. and 0. Ir., *br$trd (0. Ir. is fern. ; G. is 
mas., by analogy 1), *bre, ablaut to brd- of brdth, q.v. Bezzen- 
berger would refer it to O.H.G. chweran, sigh (see gerain) 
and even to 0. H. G. chrdjan, Eng. crow. 

brib, a bribe, Ir. brib ; from the Eng. 

bricein-, a prefix to certain animal names ; from brcac. 

fbrideach, a dwarf (Arm., Sh.), Ir. brideach (Lh., O'B.). See 
brideag, little woman. Shaw also gives it the meaning of 
"bride," which is due to Eng. influences. 

brideag, a little woman, Ir. brideag, a figure of St. Bridget made 
on the Saint's eve by maidens for divination purposes. See 
Brighid in the list of Proper Names. Shaw gives bridag, 
part of the jaw, which H.S.D. reproduces as brideag. 

brideun, a little bird, sea-piet (M'A. for latter meaning) : seem- 
ingly formed on the analogy of the two foregoing words. 

brig, a heap (H.S.D , M'A.) : " brig mhoine," a pile of peats ; cf. 
Norse brik, square tablet, piece, Eng. brick. 

brigh, pith, power, Ir. brigh, 0. Ir. brig, W. bri, dignity, rank, 
Cor. bry, Br. bri, respect, Hrigd, *bi'tgo- ; Gr. fipt = /3ptap6s, 
strong, mighty, jSpifir) (l long), strength, anger ; Skr. jri, 
overpower, jrayas, extent ; an I.E. gri-, grl-, grei-. Bezzen- 
berger suggests Ger. krieg, war, striving : *greigh ? This 
may be from the root bri above. 

brilleanach, lewd, briollair, briollan, from breall, q.v. 

brim, pickle (Arg.) ; from Eng. brine. 

brimin bodaich, a shabby carle ; for breimein, a side form of 
bramari) root breg, brag? But cf. Norse brimill, phoca 
fetida mas. 

briobadh, bribing ; see brib, which also has the spelling briob. 

briodal, lovers' language, caressing, flattery ; also brionndal, 
caressing, brionnal, flattery; possibly from brionn, a lie, 
dream (Ir.), as in brionglaid, q.v. M. Ir. brinneall means a 
beautiful young maid or a matron. Cf. briagadh. Arran 
brid, whisper. 

briog, thrust, Ir. priocam ; from the Eng. prick. 

briogach, mean-spirited : 

brioghas, fervour of passion ; cf. W. brywus, bryw, vigorous. 

briogais, breeches, Ir. brigis ; from the Eng. breeks, breeches. 



briollag, an illusion (Sh.) ; Ir. brionn, dream, reverie. The G. 
seems for brion-lag. See next. 

brionglaid, a confusion, dream, Ir. brionngldid, a dream ; from 
brionn, a dream, a lie. In the sense of " wrangling," 
brionglaid is purely a Scotch Gaelic word, from So, Eng. 
brangle, of like force. 

brionnach, pretty (M'F.), fair (Sh.), glittering, Ir. brinneall, a 
beautiful young woman, a matron : 

brionnach, brindled, striped ; from the Eng. brinded, now brindled. 

brios, mockery (A. M'D.), half-intoxication (M'A.) : 

briosaid, a girdle (Arm.), from Eng. brace? 

briosg, start, jerk, so Ir. ; from brisg, active, q.v. 

briosgaid, a biscuit, M. Ir. brisca (F.M.) ; founded on Eng. biscuit, 
but by folk-etymology made to agree with brisg, brittle 

briosuirneach, ludicrous ; cf. brios, mockery, etc. 

briot, briotal, chit-chat, Ir. \briot, chatter, briotach, a stammerer : 
*brt-to, *br-t, root bar, ber, as in Lat. barbarus, Gr. /SdpfSapos, 
f3epPept£(o, I stammer. The reference of briot to the name 
Breatnaich or Britons as foreigners and stammerers is scarcely 

bris, break, so Ir., 0. Ir. brissim, *bresto, I break, root bres, bhres ; 
O.H.G. brestan, break, Ag. S. berstan, Eng. burst, Fr. briser, 
break. Distantly allied to *berso-s, short, G. bearr. Brug- 
mann has compared the Gaelic to Gr.-rrepOoi, destroy, from 
bherdho-, giving a Celtic stem brd-to-, and brd-co- for brisg. 

brisg, brittle, Ir. briosg, E. Ir. b?'isc, Br. bresq : *bres-co- ; root bres 
of bris above. 

brisg, lively, Ir. brisc, W. brysg ; all from the Eng. brisk, of 
Scandinavian origin (Johansson, Zeit. xxx.). 

brisgein, cartilage; from Norse brjdsk, cartilage, bris, Sw. and 
Dan. brush ; Ger. brausche, a lump (from a bruise). 

brisgein, brislein, white tansy ; from brisg, brittle. 

britheamh, a judge, Ir. breitheamh, 0. Ir. brithein, g. britheman; 
root brt-, of breath, judgment, q.v. 

broc, a badger, so Ir., E. Ir. brocc, W., Cor., broch, Br. broc'h, 
*brokko-s: *bork-ko-, "grey one"; root bherk, bhork, bright, 
Gr. cf>opKos, grey, Lit. berszti, Eng. bright ? Thurneysen cfs. 
the Lat. broccus, having projecting teeth, whence Fr. broche 
(from Lat. *brocca, a spike, etc.), a spit, Eng. broach, brooch ; 
he thinks the badger was named broccos from his snout, and 
he instances the Fr. brochet, pike, as parallel by derivation 
and analogy. If Gr. /3pvK(o, bite, is allied to Lat. broccus, the 
underlying idea of broc may rather be the "biter," "gripper." 


Bezzenberger suggests Russ. barsuku, Turk, porsuk, Magyar 

borz ; or *brokko-s, from *bhrod-ko-s, Skr. bradhnd, dun. 
brocach, greyish in the face, speckled, Ir. brocach, broc, W. broc, 

grizzled, roan j from broc. 
brochan, gruel, porridge, Ir. brochan, 0. Ir. brothchdn ; broth-chdn, 

*broti-, cookery; root bru, I. E. bhru, whence Eng. broth, 

Lat. defrutum, must. See bruith. 
br6chlaid, trash, farrago ; root bhreu, bhru, as in brochan ; bhreu 

varies with bhrou, G. brd. 
brocladh, spoiling, mangling ; see brebclaid. 
brod, a lid ; from Sc. brod, side form of Eng. board. 
brod, a goad, prickle, Ir. brod, E. Ir. brott, W. brath, Cor. broz, Br. 

brout, *broddos, from broz-do- ; 0. H. G. brort, edge, Norse 

broddr, sting, Eng. brod, brad, Ag. S. 6rore/, sting. 
brod, the choice of anything ; from the above, in the sense of 

" excess." Cf. corr. 
brod, pride, brddail, proud, Ir. brod, etc. Iu Arran (Sc.) we find 

protail, which is a step nearer the origin. From the Eng. 

fbrodail, mastiff, E. Ir. brotchu, W. brathgi ; from brod, " good." 
brdd, a crowd, brood, brodach, in crowds; from the Eng. brood % 
brog, a shoe, Ir. brog, M. Ir. brocc, E. Ir. broc, pi. broca, used in 

compounds for various nether garments ; from Norse brdhr, 

Ag. S. brdc, pi. brec, Eng. breech, breeks (Zimmer, Zeit. xxx.). 

See briogais. 
brog", stimulate, an awl ; from Sc. brog, prog. Cf. W. procio, 

thrust, poke, from M. E. prokien, stimulare. Thurneysen 

takes Sc. and G. from Fr. broche, Lat. *brocca (see broc). 

Hence brogail, "active," "in good form." 
brogach, r a boy, young lad, from brog ? 
broidneireachd, embroidery, Ir. broidineireachd ; from the Eng. 

broider, embroidery. 
fbroigheal, cormorant, Ir. broighioll : 
broighleadh, bustle ; from Sc. brulye (Eng. broil), Fr. brouiller, 

It. broglio. See braodhlach. 
broighleag, whortleberry ; see braoileag. 
broigileineach, substantial ; from broigeil, a by-form of brogail ; 

see brogach. 
broilein, king's hood ; pig's snout (Badenoch) : root bhru, brow 1 
broilleach, a breast, Ir., E. Ir. brollach : Hron-lach ; for *bron, 

see bruinne. 
broineag, a rag, ill-clad female, bronag, a crum (Dialectic) ; pos- 
sibly * from the root of bronn, distribute. Shaw spells it 

broinnag, M'F. as above. 


broinn, belly (Dialectic) ; the dat. of brii used dialectically as 
nom. ; see bru. 

broit, the bosom; properly the breast covering (H.S.D., for latter 
meaning) \ cf. G. brot, 0. Ir. broitene, pallidum. The word 
appears to be from brat, mantle, with a leaning for meaning 
on bruinne, breast. 

brolaich, incoherent talk (as in sleep), brolasg, garrulity, Ir. 
brolasgach, prattling ; cf. W. braid, hrol, boasting, Eng. 
brawl, Du. brallen, boast. 

brolamas, a mess (D. C. Mc. Ph.) (Glenmoriston) ; same root as 

broluinn, brothluinn, boiling, "ajstus," tide-boiling; from broth, 
boiling, as in brollach, etc. 

brollach, a mess ; cf. E. Ir. brothlach, the Fenian cooking pit, from 
broth, as in brochan, q.v. 

bromach, a colt, Ir. bromach : *brusmo-, *brud- 1 *bru, as in 
Eng. em-bryo ? 

bron, grief, Ir.. 0. Ir. bron, W. brwyn, smarting, sorrow, *brugno-s ; 
Gr. fipvx * ( v l° n g)> gnash the teeth ; Lit. grduziu, gnaw, 
Pol. zgryzota, sorrow. 

t bronn, grant, distribute, M. G. bronnagh (1408 charter), Ir. 
bronnaim, E. Ir. bronnaim, brondaim, bestow, spend : *brundo-, 
*bhrud-no-, I. E. root bhrud ; Ag. S. bryttian, deal out, Norse 
bryti, a steward (cf. Gr. Ta/xtas, steward, "cutter"), brytja, 
chop, Eng. brittle, Teut. brut, chop ; perhaps, Lat. frustum, 

brosdaich, stir up, Ir. brosduighim, E. Ir. brostugud, inciting. The 
word is from the root bros- in brosdo- of brod, q.v., being here 
bros-to-, which becomes brosso-, and later reverts to brost, 
brosd, or remains as in brosnaich. Stokes says it is founded 
on Low Lat. brosdus, brusdus, broidery, " done by a needle," 
or brosd, which is of Teutonic origin and cognate with G. 
brod, already given as the root. Hence brosgadh, stimula- 
tion, etc. The Ir. brosna, 0. Ir. brosne, faggot, may be hence ; 
the root bhrud, discussed under bronn, has also been suggested. 

brosgul, flattery, fawning (especially of a dog) ; possibly from the 
root form brost, in brosdaich, brosgad/t. 

brosnaich, incite ; see brosdaich. This is the best G. form ; 
brosdaich is rather literary and Irish. 

brot, broth ; from the Eng. broth. 

brot, a veil, upper garment, 0. Ir. broitene, palliolum ; G. is a by- 
form of brat. 

broth, itch, Ir. broth, *bruto- ; see bruthainn for root. Also 
(rarely) bruth. 


broth, lunar halo (Arg.), or brogh ; of. 0. Ir. bruth, heat, under 

bruthainn. Sc. broch, Ulster Ir. broth. 
brothag, the bosom, a fold of the breast clothes ; *broso-, root 

brus of bruinne, breast. 
brothas, farrago, brose, Ir. brothus, from M. E. brewis, Sc. brose. 

See bruthaist, the best G. form, 
bru, g. bronn, belly, so Ir., 0. Ir. bru, brand, W. bru : *brHt 

*brus-nos, root brus, I. E. bhrus, bhreus ; Teut. breust-, Norse 

brjost, Eng. breast, Ger. brust. Stokes icfers it to the root 

bru, to swell, Gr. fipvio, am full, kp-fSpvov, embryo (whence 

Eng. embryo), or to Skr. bhruuci, embryo. See bruinne. 
bruach, a bank, brink, Ir., 0. Ir. bruach : *brou-ko-, I. E. Mini, 

brow, Gr. 6q>pvs, eyebrow, Eng. brow. Lit. bruvh, 0. Ir. bmiad, 

(dual). Also E. Ir. bru, bank, border. Stokes suggests 

either the root of bruth, bruise, or Lit. briau-na, edge. 
bruachaire, a surly fellow, one that hovers about, Ir. bruach- 

aireachd, hovering about ; from bruach. 
bruadar, bruadal, a dream, Ir. bruadair, W. breuddwyd : *braud 

or *brav- : fraus, fraud ? 
bruaillean, bruaidlean, trouble, grief ; from bruadal above, 
bruais, crush to pieces, gnash (Dialectic) : *bhraud-so-, Lat. fraus, 

Eng. brittle. 
bruan, thrust, wound ; from the root of bruth. 
bruan, a fragment ; *bhroud-no-, from *bhroud, break, Ag. S. 

breostan, break, Eng. brittle, etc., as under bronn. Strachan 

also suggests *bhroucno-, Lett, bruht, crumple, and Stokes the 

root of bruth. 
bruc, seaweed cast ashore (Lewis) ; Norse bruk, dried heaps of 

brucach, spotted in the face, smutted, Ir. brocach : "badger-like"; 

see broc. The Sc. broukit, brooked, is of uncertain origin 

(Murray). Hence brucachadh, irregular digging, brucanaich, 

the peep of dawn (MA.), etc. 
brucag, bruchag, a chink, eylet (Sh.), dim candle light (H.S.D.). 

Sh. gives bruchag, H.S.D. brucag, which appears only to apply 

to the "dim candle light"; from brucach. 
bruchd, belch, burst out, so Ir., E. Ir. brdchtaim, eructo, vomo, 

W. bry their o (vb.), brythar (n.). 
bruchlag, a hovel ; from brugh, q.v. 
bruchlas, the fluttering of birds going to rest (Sh.) : 
bruchorcan, stool bent, heath rush ; said to be derived from f/w', 

a hind, and corc-an, oats, "deer's oats." Also bruth-chorcan. 
brudhach, a brae ; see bruthach. 
brudhaist, brose ; see bruthaist. 


brugh, large house, a tumulus, so Ir., E. Ir. brug, mrug, land, 
holding, mark, W. bro, country, region, land, Cym-mro, a 
Welshman, pi. Cymmry (*co?)i-mroges), Br. bro, country, Gaul. 
Brogi- : *mrogi (for Gadelic) ; Lat. mar go ; Got. market, 
border-country, Ag. S. mearc, border, Eng. mark, march. 

bruich, boil, cook ; guttural ised form of bruith (cf. brath, brack). 
See bruith. The Ir. bruighim appears in O'R., and has been 
compared to Lat. frigo, Gr. <j>pvyo), roast ; but it is evidently 
a bad spelling of bruith. 

bruid, captivity, Ir. bruid, M. Ir. *brat, g. braite, E. Ir. ace. broit, 
*braddd. For root, see bradach. 

bruid, bruidich, stab, goad, Ir. bruidighim : the verb from brod, 
a goad. 

bruid, a brute, Ir. bruid ; from Eng. brute. 

bruidheann, bruidhinn, talk, conversation, Ir. bruighinn, scolding- 
speech, a brawl (also bruitheann), 0. Ir. fris-brudi, renuit, W. 
cyfrau, song, 0. Br. co-brouol, verbialia, *mru, say ; Skr. bru, 
bravati, says, Zend mru, speak. O'Grady (S. Gad. xvi.) 
connects E. Ir. brudin, hospitium ; says meaning really is 
"quarrel" He gives Ir. as bruidhen. Stokes E. Ir. brudin, 
Hrodina, Eng. board (Z. 33), 

bruidlich, stir up ; see bruid, stab, goad. 

bruill, bruise, thump ; a derivative from briith, q.v. 

bruillig, a person of clumsy figure and gait (H.S.D., which refers 
the word to bru, belly) ; from bru ? 

bruim-f heur, switch grass, so Ir. : from braim-jheur, a term to 
denote its worthlessness. 

Bruinidh, the Brownie ; from Sc. Brownie, the benevolent farm- 
house goblin, from Eng. brown. Cf. the Norse Svart-dlfr or 
dark elves. 

bruinne, breast, 0. Ir. bruinne, W. bron, Cor. and M. Br. bronn, 
*brus-no, root bhrus, bhreus ; Norse brjdst, Ger. brust, Eng. 
breast. Stokes gives the root as brend, from I. E. grendh, 
swell, be haughty, Gr. /3pevdvonai, strut, bear oneself loftily, 
Lat. grandis, Ch. SI. gradt, breast. Usually correlated with 
Got. brunjo, breastplate, M. H. G. briinne, N. brynja, coat of 
mail, M. Eng. brynie, Sc. byrnie : a satisfactory enough deri- 
vation, and ultimately from the same root as the first one 
given above (I. E. bhru). Indeed Stokes says the Teut. is 
borrowed from the Celtic. 

bruinneadh, the front (Dialectic), 0. Ir. bruinech, prow, Cor. 
brenniat, prow, *bronjo-, to which Bez. compares Ger. grans, 
prow (I. E. gk = G. b ?). From root of bruinne. 

bruis, a brush, Ir. bruis (vulg.) ; from the Eng. brush. 


bruiteach, warm ; from *bruth, heat ; see bruthainn. 

bruith, boil, cook, so Ir., E. Ir. bruith, cooking, *broti-, from the 

root bru, I. E. bhru; Eng. broth (Teut. brofio-. I. E. bhruto-), 

and breiv (I. E. bhreu) ; Lat. defrutum, must ; Thrac. Gr. 

flpvTov, beer, 
brunsgal, rumbling noise; bronn+sgal ? From bru, in any case, 
brusg, a crumb, particle of food, Ir. bruscdn, brusgar, broken ware, 

useless fragments, brus, refuse of corn : from *brus, short 

form of *brus in brilth. 
brutach, digging, the act of digging (N. H. according to H.S.D.) : 

*brutto-, *bhrud-to-, root bhrud, break ? See bronn. 
bruth, bruise, pound, Ir. bruighim, E. Ir. bruim, *brihs, strike, 

graze, pound ; Pre. Celt, bhreus ; Ag. S. brf/san, bruise, Eng. 

bruise (influenced by Fr.); perhaps 0. Slav, brusnati, corrum- 

pere, radere. 
bruthach, a brae : *brut-acos, root bru, from bhru, brow T ; see 

bruach. Sc. brae is of a similar origin, founded on Norse 

bra, eyelid, brow (Murray), 
bruthainn, sultriness, heat, Ir., 0. Ir. bruth, fervor, W. brwd, hot, 

Br. brout, hot (fire), 0. Br. brot : *brutu-. For further root 

see bruith. Wider are Lat. ferveo, fervor, Eng. burn, etc. 
bruthaist, brose ; from early So, Eng. browes, Sc. brose ; from the 

Fr., but allied to Eng. broth. 
bu, was, Ir. budh, 0. Ir. bu : Proto-Gaelic *bu for a Celtic bu-t ; 

Gr. €(f>v (v long), aorist tense ; Lat. fuit ; Skr. dbhut, was ; 

I. E. e-bhu-t. The root is bheu, bhu ; Eng. be, etc. Both G. 

and Ir. aspirate, which shows the t of the 3rd sing. 

disappeared early, 
buabhall, unicorn, buffalo, M. Ir. buabhall, W. dual ; from Lat. 

bubalus, buffalo, gazelle, whence (bilfalus) Eng. buffalo. 
buabhall, a trumpet, Ir. bubhall, buadhbhall, M. Ir. buaball, W. 

bual, bugle ; cf. M. Ir. buabhall, horn, W. bual, buffalo horn, 

M. Ir. corn buabhaill ; whence the further force of "trumpet." 
buachaill, a herdsman, so Ir., 0. Ir. bochaill, buachaill, W. bugail, 

Cor., Br. bugel ; Gr. /3ovkoAos, cowherd (Lat. bucolicus, Eng. 

bucolic), [$ov-, cow, and -koAos, attendant, Lat. colo, c^tivate. 
buachar, cow-dung, Ir. buacar, buachar (Con.), Br. beuzel ; for the 

stem before the suffix -ar, cf. W. buwch (*boukkd), though 

bou-cor- or bouk-cor-, "cow-offcast," may properly be the 

derivation for the Gadelic. See bo and, possibly, cuir. Cf. 

buadhghallan, buaghallan, ragwort, Ir. buadhghallan, M. Ir. 

buathbhallan, buathfallan : "virtue bearing wort?" More 

probably it is buaf-bhallan, "toad-wort," from buaf, toad, 


reptile, from Lat. bufo. The Welsh call it " serpent's weed," 

llysiau'r nedir. Ir. baufanan is " mugwort " ; buadharlann 

buaic, a wick, Ir. buaic ; from Eng. wick, Ag. S. weoca ? 
buaic, bleaching lees, Ir. buac ; from M. E. bouken, steep in lye, 

Eng. buck, Ger. bauchen ; Fr. buer, from a Lat. type ^bUcare. 

See fucadh. 
buaicneach, small-pox (Snth.) ; founded on a later form of Lat. 

bucca, as in bucaid, q.v. 
buaidh, victory, virtue, so Ir., 0. Ir. buaid, W. budd, 0. Br. bud, 

Gaul, boud-, in many personal names, whether as the only 

root (cf. Boudicca, "Victrix") or in compounds, either initial 

or as second part : *boudi- ; Norse bf/ti, exchange, Ger. beute, 

booty, Eng. booty, Fr. butin (do.), 
buaidheam, fits of inconstancy ; cf. buathadh. 
buail, strike, so Ir., E. Ir. bualaim : *budlo- or *boudlo-, *hmt(l, 

Pre-Celt. bhoud, bheud ; Ag. S. beatan, Eng. beat, beetle, Ger. 

bcutet, beetle (Strachan). See buille. Stokes gives the form 

*buglad, root bug, bhug, as in Ger. pochen, Eng. poke. 
buaile, a fold, pen, so Ir., E. Ir. buale ; Lat. bovile ; from *bov-, cow. 
buaill, place for resting and milking (Lewis). Cf. Norse b6l. 
buain, reap, Ir., 0. Ir. buain, inf. of bongaim, reap, break : *bogni- 

or *bongni- ? For root, see bocluL 
buair, tempt, vex, Ir. buaidhirim, E. Ir. buadraim, 0. Ir. buadartha, 

turbulentus : *boud-ro- ; possibly from bhoud, strike, the idea 

coming from a form *boudro-, a goad, goading 1 G. has 

buaireadh, buair, a rage, 
bual-chdmhla, sluice (M'L.) (an fhamh bhual, water vole); M. Ir. 

bual, flowing sluice water, E. Ir. roth-buali, water-wheel, 

*bogla, Eng. beck, Ger. bach (St.) (Zim.). 
bualtrach, cow-dung, so Ir. buartlach (Dial. Ir.) ; from buar, cattle. 
buamastair, a blockhead : 
buan, lasting, Ir. buan, lasting, fixed, E. Ir. buan : " being, 

during," from *bu, be, I. E. bhu, be ; Lit. butinas, being, 

during, from buti, be ; Norse biia, dwell, Got. hauan, etc. 

Stokes gives the G. stem as buvano-s, and cfs. Skr. bhuvana, 

existence. Hence buanaich, persevere, 
buana, an idle person who lives on the best his neighbours can 

afford (Lewis) (M'A.) : 
t buanna, a mercenary, a billeted soldier, so Ir. : 
buannachd, profit ; from buain, reap, with irregularly doubled n 

(see cinne, linn, seann, bann- for ban-, miann) 1 Cf. Ir. 

buannacht, soldiers billeting from a tenant (Joyce). 
buar, cattle, so Ir., E. Ir. biiar, cattle of the cow kind ; from bo, 

cow : *bovdro- : cf. Lat. boarius. 


buarach, cow-fetter, Ir., E. Ir., buarach : for bd-drach, "cow-fetter," 

drach being for ad-rig-os, root rig of cuibhreach, q.v. 
buathadh, a rushing, a mad fit : 
bub, roar, Ir. bub : onomatopoetic. Cf. Lat. baubor, bay, Gr. 

l3av£(o, bark, Lit. bubauti, roar, 
buban, coxcomb, Ir. bubdn ; cf. Eng. booby. 
bucach, a boy (dial.) : " growing one f founded on Lat. bucca as 

in the following word, 
bucaid, a pustule, Ir. bocbid, a spot, E. Ir. boccdit ; from Brittonic 

Lat. buccdtus, from bucca, putted cheek (Eng. debouch, rebuke). 
bucall, a buckle, Ir. bucla, W. bwcl) from M. Eng. bukyll, Eng. 

buckle, from Fr. boucle, from Lat. bucula, cheek-strap, from 

bucca, cheek, 
buchd, size (Sh. buc) • from Sc. bouk, i.e., bulk. 
buchainn, melodious (A. M'D.) : 
buchallach, nestling (adj.): *buth-chal, "house tending?" 

buchallach (M'L. Teachd. Gaidh.) : 
budach, poult (Suth.) : see put. 

budagochd, snipe (M'L.), woodcock (H.S.D.). It seems a reminis- 
cence of Eng. woodcock. 
budhaigir, the puffin, buigire, (M'A , for St Kilda), Sc. bowger, the 

coulter-neb ; somehow from Norse bugr, curve, " bent-bill 1 " 
budhailt, a window-like recess in a wall ; from Sc. bowall, boat, 

bole. Origin unknown (Murray), 
budhag, a bundle of straw : root bud, which underlies Fr. botte, 

bundle V See boitean. 
bugha, a green spot by a stream (Skye), bogha (Rob ). 
buideal, a bottle, cask, Ir. buideul, W. potel ; from Eng. bottle. 

See botul. 
buidealaich, a conflagration, Ir. buite, fire, buitealach (Lh.f, O'Cl., 

; B.), bott (O'Cl.) : *bud-do-, root bhud (Lat. fustis, bhud-tis, 

Eng. beetle), giving the idea of "faggot, firewood 1 ?" 
buidlie, yellow, so Ir., 0. Ir. buide ; Lat. badius, Eng. bay. 
buidhe, now buidheachas, thanks, Ir. buidhe, 0. Ir. buide [W. 

boddaw, please, bodd, will 1], *bitdo-, I. E. bhud/i, bheudh ; Gr. 

7revOofxaL, learn by inquiry ; Ag. S. beodan, command, Eng. 

buidhe, glad to, had to, 0. Ir. buithi, participle of necessity, from 

the verb bi, be : "Is amlid is buithi do chach " — Thus ought 

it to be with every one (9th Cent, glosses) ; G. "Is buidhe do 

gach neach." 
buidheann, a company, Ir. buidhean, 0. Ir. buden, W. byddin t 

0. Br. bodin, manus, *bodind ; 0. H. G. chutti, troop, band, 

0. Fries, kedde, Ger. kette t covey ; I.E. go : go, drive ; cf. Lit. 

gutas, herd. 



buidhinn, gain, win, buinnig, act of gaining, gain ; from the Eng. 

win, winning. 
buil, effect, use, Ir. boil, *bol, *bel : Pre-Celt. bhel, bhol ; Gr. 

ofakos, advantage, w^eAew, help, 
buileach, total, entirely ; another form of baileach. E. Ir. has 

bulid, blooming, 
buileastair, a bullace or sloe (M'D., Sh.) ; from M. E. bolaster = 

bullace-tree, from bolace, now bullace. 
builionil, a loaf, Ir. builin ; from 0. Fr. *boulange, ball-shaped 

loaf (?), which Diez suggests as the basis of Fr. boulanger, 

buille, a blow, so Ir., E. Ir. bulle, buille = bollia = bus-lid = bhud-s-lid; 

root bhud, beat, as in buail, q.v. Stokes gives the stem as 

*boldja, allied to Lit. beldziu, belsti, give a blow, baldas, a 

beetle ; Ger. poltern. 
buillsgean, centre, Ir. boilscedn, M. Ir. bolscm, middle, midriff = 

bolgdn, from balg, bolg, belly, 
buin, belong to, Ir. beanaim. The Ir. is from the verb bean, 

touch ; the G., which has the idea of relationship or origin 

(Cha bhuin t dhomh : he is not related to me), seems to 

confuse bean and bun, stock. 
buinne, a cataract, tide, Ir. buinne, a spout, tap, E. Ir. buinne, 

wave, rush of water : G. buinneach, flux, diarrhoea, so Ir. ; 

see boinne. Also puinne (Suth.) (W. Ross;. 
buinneag, a twig, sprout, Ir. buinnedn, E. Ir. buinne : *bus-nid ; 

root bus, as in Eng. busk, bosky, Ger. busch, etc. 
buinnig, winning ; see buidhinn. 

tbuinnire, a footman, so Ir. ; from bonn, sole of the foot, 
buir, buirich, roar, bellow (as a bull), Ir. buireadh, roaring; E. Ir. 

bur aim ; *bu-ro-, I. E. root gevo, gH, cry ; Gr. /3oaw, shout ; 

Lit. gauju, howl ; Skr. gu, cry. Strachan gives as G. stem 

bucro-, root buq as in Lat. buccina, horn, Gr. /3vkttjs, howling, 

Skr. bukkdras, lion's roar, Norwg. bura, to bellow, Shet. 

boorik, cow. 
buirdeiseach, a free man, burgess, Ir. buirgeiseach ; from the Eng. 

buirleadh, language of folly and ridicule ; from the Romance 

bur la, to jest, etc. See burraidh. 
buirseach, a deluge of rain ; a rousing fire (Heb.) : 
buiseal, a bushel, Ir. buiseul ; from Eng. bushd. 
buit, bashful (Badenoch) : " fugy," as a fowl ; see put. 
buiteach, a threat (Suth.) : a form of boidich ? 
buitseach, a witch, so Ir. ; from Eng. witch ; " buidseach agus 



bulas, pot hook ; from the Sc. booh, a pot hook in two parts or 
"bools," M. Eng. I>ool, a pail handle, round part of a key, 
Ger. biigel, arc : from Tent, beugan, bend, Eng. bow. Dialectic 

bumailear, a bungler ; from Sc. bummeler, from bummil, bungle, 
Eng. bumble ; of onomatopoetic origin (Murray). Cf. Ger. 
bummler, a lounger. 

bun, root, stock, bottom, Ir., E. Ir. bun, W. bon, stem, trunk, 
0. W. boned ; Armen. bun ; N. Pers. bun, Zd. buna- (Bugge). 
Rhys has suggested a connection with Ger. bilhne, a stage, 
boards. Ag. S. bune, " stalk, reed," may be allied. It cannot 
be connected with bonn, for the stem there is bhudh-no-, root 
bhudh. The ultimate root of bun, in any case, is simply bhu, 
bhU, grow, swell, Gr. </>ixo, <\>v\ov, a tribe, Eng. boil (n.), Ger. 
beule, a swelling, Skr. bhumis, earth ; bhu, grow, is identical 
with bhu, be. 

bunach, coarse tow, refuse of flax, so Ir. ; from hun. 

bunait, foundation, Ir. bundit : bun -{-ait., q.v. 

bungald, a hussy (Dial.) ; from Sc.bungy, pettish. 

bunndaist, a bounty, grassum, Ir. bunntaiste ; from Eng. poundage. 

buimlum, steadiness, bunntam, bunntamas, solidity, shrewdness ; 
from bun, foundation. Cf. Ir. buntomhas, well founded 
opinion : bim + tomhas, q.v. 

bunnsach, a twig, so Ir., E. Ir. bunsach ; see buinneag. 

bunnsach, a sudden rush ; from buinne. 

bunntam, solidity ; see bunnlum. 

buntata, potato, Ir. potdta, fataidhe ; from the English. It con- 
tains a piece of folk-etymologising in the syllable bun-, root. 

buntuinn, belonging ; see buin. 

burach, turning up of the earth, digging ; from the Sc. bourie, 
Eng. burrow. The Sc. bourach, enclosure, cluster, knoll, 
heap, etc., is the Eng. bower. 

burgaid, a purge, Burgadoir, Purgatory ; see purgaid, Purgadoir. 

bur lam, a flood, rush of water (Arg.) ; see bbrlum. 

burmaid, wormwood ; from the Eng. M. Ir. in uormoint. 

burn, water ; from Sc. burn, water, spring-water, Eng. bourne, 
burn, a stream, Teut. brunnon-, a spring, Norse brunnr, well, 
Ger. brunnen. 

burrachdadh, raging : 

burraidh, a blockhead, Ir. burraidh ; from Sc. burrio (1535), Fr. 
bowrieau, Lat. burrce, nonsense, Eng. burlesque, etc. 

burral, a howl, lamentation, so Ir. ; for the root, which is here 
short (*bur-ro- ?), see biiir. Cf. bururus, however. 

burras, a caterpillar : 


burr-, as in burr'caid, clumsy person, burr'ghlas, a torrent of 

rage, etc , seems from borr, great, excessive, q.v. Burr'sgadh, 

a burst of passion, may be from Eng. borasco, squall of wind, 
burt, mockery ; from Sc. bourd, M. Eng. bourd, jest, Fr. bourde, 

a lie. 
bururus, infant lisping, warbling, purling ; cf. Eng. purr and purl 

(Skeat). Evidently onomatopoetic. 
bus, a mouth, kiss, Ir., M. Ir. bus, *bussu- ; Pre-Celt. guss- ; Teut. 

kuss, Ger. kiissen, kiss, Eng. kiss (Kluge). Bezzenberger cfs. 

Lit. buczuti, kiss; others give buc-sa, allied to Lat. bucca, 

busgadh, dressing j from the Sc., Eng. busk. 
busgaid, a bustle (M'D.) ; formed from Eng. busy ; cf. Ag. S. 

bysgu, business. 
bustail, puffing, blowing (Heb.) ; from bus. 
butadh, a push ; see putadh. 
butag, oar pin ; see putag. 
buth, a shop ; from the Eng. booth, Norse bub', shop, root bliu, be. 

See bothan. 
buthainnich, thump, thrash, bang j from the root bhud, beat 

(Eng. beat) 1 See next, 
buthuinn, long straw for thatch ; cf. sputhainn, straw not 

threshed, but seedless (Arg.), which seems from spoth. 
butrais, butarrais, a mess : 

c', for co, cia, who, what, q.v. 

ca, ca, where, Ir cd, how, where, who ; a by-form to cia, ce, q.v. 

cab, a gap, indentation, mouth, Ir cab, mouth, head, gap, cabach, 
babbling, indented. The word is borrowed from two English 
words — gap and gab (M. E. gabben, chatter); G. has also gab, 
directly from gab of the Sc. Hence cabach, gap-toothed. 

cabag, a cheese ; Sc. cabback, kebbock. The latter form (kebbock) 
is probably from a G. ceapag, cepac, obsolete in G. in the sense 
of " a cheese," but still used for the thick wooden wheel of 
wheel-barrows ; it is from G. ceap. Sc. cabback is a side form 
of kebbock, and it seems to have been re-borrowed into G. as 
cabag. The real G. word for "a cheese" is now mulachag. 

cabaist, cabbage, Ir. gabdisde ; from the Eng. 

caball, a cable, Ir. cabla ; from Eng. cable, which, through Fr., 
comes from Lat. capulum. 

cabar, a rafter, caber, deer's horn, Ir. cabar, W. ceibr, rafters, 
0. Br. cepriou, beams ; from a Med. Lat. *caprio, a rafter, 
capro, caprones (which exists as a genuine 8th century word), 


Fr. chevron, rafter. Caprio is from caper, goat ; Lat. capreoli, 
goat-lets, was used for two beams meeting to support some- 
thing, props, stays. 

cabasdar, cabstar, a bit, curb, W. cebystr, Br. kabestr ; from Lat. 
capistrum, halter, " head-holder," from caput. 

cabhag, hurry : 

cabhlach, a fleet, Ir. cobhlach, cabhlach, E. Ir. coblach ; *cob-lach ; 
from *kub, *qug, curve, root of Lat. cymba, boat, Gr. ku/xjSi/, 
boat, cup, especially Lat. cybaea, a transport (*Kv/3ata). 

cabhladh, ship's tackle, Ir. cdblduiyhe ; cf. cabhlach, and Eng. 

cabhruich, sowens, flummery, Ir. cdthbhruith ; from cdth and 
bruith, q.v. 

cabhsair, causeway, Ir. cabhsa ; from Eng. causey, causeway, from 
0. Fr. caucie, from Lat. caiciata (via). 

cabhsanta, dry, snug ; from Sc. cosie, colsie, Eng. cosy, whose 
origin is unknown. 

cabhtair, an issue, drain in the body (M'D., who, as cautair, 
explains it as " an issue or cauter ") j from Eng. cauter. 

cabhuil, a conical basket for catching fish ; from M. Eng. cawell, 
a fish basket, still used in Cornwall, Ag. S. cawl. Cf. Br. 
kavell, bow-net, 0. Br. cauell, basket, cradle ; from Lat. 
cauuella, a vat, etc. (Loth, Ernault). 

cablaid, turmoil, hindrance, trouble (Wh.) : See capraid. 

cabon, capon (M'D.), Ir. cabun ; from Eng. capon. 

cac, excrement, so Ir., E. Ir. cacc, Cor. cauyh, Br. kac'h, *kakko- ; 
Lat. caco ; Gr. kolkkt) ; Skr. cdka, g. caknds. 

each, the rest, others, Ir., 0. Ir. each, quivis, W. pawb, all, Br. pep, 
*qdqe ; root qo, qo, qe of co and gach, q.v. 

cachdan, vexation, Ir. cacht, distress, prisoner, E. Ir. cachtaim, I 
capture, W. caeth, slave, confined : *kapto-, caught ; Lat. 
capio, captus ; Got. hahan, Eng. have. 

cachliadh (Arm.), cachaleith (H.S.D.), a gate; co + cliath, "co- 
hurdle j" see cliath, death, hurdle, wattle. Also cachliag, 
(C.S.). It has also been explained as cadha-chliath, "hurdle- 
pass." Carmichael gives alternate cliath-na-cadha. 

cadadh, tartan cloth, hose tartan, Manx cadee, cotton ; Eng. 
caddow (16th cent.), an Irish quilt or cloak; doubtless from 
Eng. caddis, worsted, crewel work, etc., Fr. cadis, woollen 
serge. See also catas. 

cadal, sleep, Ir. codladh, 0. Ir. cotlud, vb. contnlim : *con-tul-, root 
tol ; Ch. SI. toliti, appease, placare, Lit. tilas, quiet (Persson). 
The root tol, tel, appears in tlath, gentle, Lat. tolerare, Sc. 


cadan, cotton (Sh.) ; from Eng. cotton. Properly codan, which is 

the usual dialect form. See cotan. For Ir. cadds, cotton, 

see catas. 
cadha, a pass, narrow pass, entry ; cf. Ir. caoi, way, road, E. Ir. 

cdi, which Stokes, however, refers to the root ci as in Lat. 

cio, move, Gr. klw, go, a derivation whicli does not suit the 

G. phonetically. Cae (Meyer), 
cadhag, jackdaw, Ir. cabhog, M. Ir. caog ; *ca-6g, the ca-er or 

crier of ca y caw ; of onomatopoetic origin. Cf. Eng. caw ; 

also chough, from a West Teut. kdwa-. 
cadha g, a wedge (M'A. for Skye) : 
cadhan, wild goose, barnacle goose, so Ir. ; cf. Eng. caw, for possibly 

the name is onomatopoetic. Corm. (B) cadan. 
cadh-luibh, the cud-weed (Sh. gives cad-luibh, and O'B.), Ir. 

cadh-luibh ; from M. Eng. code, a cud. M'A. omits the word ; 

it is clearly Irish. The G is cnamh lus, which is its Lat. 

name of gnaphalium in folk etymology, 
cadhmus, a mould for casting bullets ; from Sc. cawmys, cnlmes 

(16th century), caums, Eng. calm, came. 
cagailt, a hearth, Ir. cagailt, raking of the fire (O'R.) : 
cagar, a whisper, Ir cogar, M. Ir. coccur ; cechras, qui canet, 

cairche, sound ; root kar, of Lat. carmen, Gr. Krjpv^, herald 

cagaran, darling : *con-car- ; root car, dear, as in caraid. 
caglachan, something ground to pulp or dust (M'D.) : 
cagnadh, chewing, Ir. cognadh, M. Ir. cocnum, 0. Ir. cocnom : 

*con-cndmh ; see cndmh. 
caibe, a spade, turf cutter, Ir. coibe, cuibe (O'R., Fob), W. caib, 

0. Cor. cep. 
caibeal, a chapel (M'D.) ; from Lat. capella. The G. really is 

seipeal, q.v. 
caibheis, giggling, laughing : 
caibideil, caibdeil, a chapter, Ir. caibidil, E. Ir. caiptel, W. 

cabidwl; from Lat. capitulum, whence 0. Fr. chapitre, Eng. 

caidir, cherish, so Ir. See the next word, 
caidreabh, fellowship, affection, vicinity, so Ir., M. Ir. caidrebh, 

Celtiberian Contrebia : *con-treb- ; see aitreabh, treabh. 
caig, conversation, claque (Arg.) ; teaze (Perth) : 
caigeann, a couple (of animals), coupling : *con-ceann; from 

ceann, q.v. 
caigeann, a winding pass through rocks and brushwood, a rough 

mountain pass (Dial. = cadha-eiginn). 
caigeann, scrimmage (M'D.) : 


cail, condition, vigour, appetite, anything (cdileigin), Ir. cdil, W. 

cael, to have, get, enjoy, *kapli-, *kapelo- : root qap ; Lat. 

capio, Eng. have. 
cailbhe, a partition wall (of wattle or clay, etc.); from calbh, q.v. 
cailc, chalk, Ir., E. Ir. cailc, W. catch ; from Lat. calx, calcis, 

whence also Eng. chalk. 
caile, girl, wench, Ir. caile, hussy, E. Ir. cail? ; cf. Br. plac'h, girl ; 

Gr. 7raAAa/o}, concubine, Lat. pellex. Usually caileag, girl, 
caileach, husks, Ir. cdithleach : cdith-lach ; see cath. From cdth 

comes also cailean, a husk. 
caileadair, philosopher, star-gazer ; from the Eng. calender, a 

mendicant dervish, from Pers. qalander. 
cailidear, snot, rheum (M'F., cailidhir in Sh.). O'R. improves 

this into cailidear. 
cailis, chalice, Ir. cailis ; from Lat. caiix, cup, Eng. chalice. 
cailise, kails, ninepins (M'D.) ; from Eng. kails, M. Eng. cailis, 

from keyle, a peg, Ger. kegel, a cane, ninepin. 
cailleach, old wife, nun, so Ir., 0. Ir. caillech, " veiled one ;" from 

caille, veil, which is from the Lat. pallium, cloak, Eng. pall. 
caillteanach, eunuch, so Ir. ; from caill, lose. See call. 
caimein, a mote, Ir. cdim, a stain, blemish ; from cam. 
caimeineach, saving (Carm.) : 

caimhleachadh, caingleachadh, restraining (Carm.). 
caimir, a fold : 

caimleid, camlet; from the Eng. 
Cain, a tax, a tribute, Ir. cdin, E. Ir. cdin, statute, law : *kap-ni-, 

root qap, as in cail 1 Stokes refers it to the root kds, order, 

Skr. cds (do.), Lat. castigare, castus, Got. hazjan, praise. 

Hence Sc. cain. 
cain, white : from Lat. cdnus. 
Cain, scold, revile, Ir. cdin, M. Ir. cdined, scolding : *kag-nio or 

kaknio (?) ; Gr. Ka\d(o), laugh, Kayxd^w, Lat. cachinnus ; 

0. H. G. huohon, mock ; Skr. kakhati, laugh, 
cainb, hemp, Ir. cndib, M. Br. canap ; from Lat. cannabis, allied to 

Eng. hemp. 
caineal, cinnamon ; from Sc. and obsolete Eng. cannel, canel, 

cinnamon, from 0. Fr. canelle, from Lat. canella, dim. of 

canna, cane, 
caingeann, a fine (Heb.), Ir. caingean, a rule, case, compact, etc. : 
Caingis, Pentecost, Ir. cingcis, E. Ir. Cingcigais ; from the Lat. 

quinquagesima (dies, 50th day from the Passover), 
cainneag, a mote : 
caiimeag, a hamper (Skye) : 


cainnt, speech, Ir. caint ; from can, say, q.v. Stokes gives the 

stem as *ka?i($)ti, root kans, Skr. fasti, praise, from cams, 

speak, Lat. censeo. 
caiptean, a captain, Ir., M. Ir. caiptin ; from M. Eng. capitain, 

from 0. Fr. capitaine, Lat. capitaneus, caput, head, 
cair, a blaze, sea foam, etc. ; see rather caoir. 
cair, the gum, Ir. cdir (cairib, Fol.) : 
cair, a peat moss, dry part of the peat moss (Dial.) ; from Eug. 

carr, boggy ground, Norse kjarr, brushwood. Also cathar, 

cairb, the bent ridge of a cart saddle (sratkair). Shaw gives 

Further the meanings "plank, ship, fusee (cairb a' ghunna 

(Hob), ehariot"; Ir. corb, coach. The word is the primary 

stem from which carbad, chariot, springs ; see car bad. As 

" fusee " or " fusil," i.e., " musket," it seems a curtailed form 

of cairbinn. 
cairbh, a carcase, carrion ; also cairb (Dial.) ; allied to corpus ? 
cairbhist, carriage, tenants' rent service ; from M. Eng. cartage, 

in all senses (Cf. the charter terms — -"Areage and callage 

and all due service "), now carriage. 
cairbinn, a carabine ; from the Eng. 
cairbinneach, a toothless person (Sh.) ; from f cairb, a jaw, gum, 

Ir. cairb. See cai^b above, 
cairc, flesh, person : 
caird, a delay, respite, Ir. cdirde ; cf. 0. Ir. cairde, pactum. A 

special legal use of a word which originally means " friend- 
ship." See next 
cairdeas, friendship, so Ir., 0. Ir cairdes ; from caraid, q.v. 
caireag", a prating girl (Sh., who gives caireog) ; probably from 

cair, gum : " having jaw.'' 
caireal, noise ; see coirioll. 
f cairfhiadh, a hart or stag, Ir. cdirrfhiadh : *carbh-fhiadh. For 

*cnrbh, a deer ; cf. W. canv, hart, stag, Cor. caruu, Br. earn ; 

Lat cervus ; Gr. Kcpaos, horned, 
cairich, mend, Ir. cdirighim, E. Ir. c6rai</an, arrange, from cdir, <|.v. 

Cf. cairem, sutor, Z. 775. 
cairidh, a weir, Ir. corn, M. Ir. coraidh for cora, g. corad, W. 

cored, 0. W. and 0. Br. coret, from Celtic korjd, I set, put. 

See cuir. 
cairgein, sea moss, Ir. moss. Eng. carrageen, so named from 

Carragheen (Waterford), in Ireland. This place name is a 

dim. of carraig, rock, 
cairis, corpse, carcase; founded on M. Eng. cors, Sc. corrssya (pi. 

in Blind Harry), now corse. 
cairmeal, wild liquorice ; see carrameille. 


cairnean, an egg-shell : 

cairt, bark (of a tree), Ir. cairt ; Lat. cortex ; root qert, cut, Lit. 

kertu, cut, Eng. rend. 
cairt, a cart, so Ir., W. cart ; from the Eng. cart. 
cairt, a card, so Ir. ; G. is from Sc. carte, which is direct from 

the Fr. carte. The Eng. modifies the latter form into card. 

They are all from Lat. charta, paper. E. Ir. cairt meant 

" parchment." 
cairt, cleanse, Ir. cartaighim, E. Ir. cartaim, W. cartku, purge, 

kar-to-. The root idea isa" clearing out ;" the root ker, kar, 

separate, is allied to sker in ascart, and especially in sgar. 
cairteal, a quarter ; from Late Lat. quartelhts, Norse kvartill, 

Lat. quartus, fourth, 
caisbheart, cais'eart, foot gear (shoes or boots), Ir. coisbheart ; 

from cas + beart, q.v. 
caisd, listen, Ir. coisteacht, listening, E. Ir. coistim, 0. tr. coitsea, 

auscultet : co-etsim, co and e'isd, listen, q.v. O'R. gives the 

modern Ir. coisdeacht with o long, which would seem the 

most natural result from co-eisd. 
caise, cheese, Ir., E. Ir. cdise, W. caws, Br. kaouz ; from Lat. 

cdseus, whence Eng. cheese. 
caiseal, bulwark, castle, Ir. caiseal, E. Ir. calsel, caissle ; from Lat. 

caisean, anything curled, etc. ; from cas, curled, q.v. 
caisg", check, stop, Ir. coisgim, 0. If. cose, castigare, W. cosp, *kon- 

sqo-, *seqo, I say ; Lat. insvque ; Gr. cvveirc, say, eVi-o-7re, dixit ; 

Eng. say, Ger. sagen. 
Caisg, Easter, Ir. Cdisg, 0. Ir. case, W. pasc ; from Lat. pascka, 

Eng. paschal. 
caisil-chrd, a bier, bed of blood, M. Ir. cosair chrd, bed of blood — 

to denote a violent death, E. Ir. cosair, bed. The expression 

appears in the Ossianic Ballads, and folk-etymology is 

responsible for making G. casair into caisil, bulwark. The 

word cosair has been explained as co-ster-, root ster, strew, 

Lat. stemere, Eng. strew. 
caisleach, a ford, footpath ; from cas-lach, rather than cas-s/ighe, 

foot- way. 
caislich, stir up, caisleachadh, shaking up, etc. ; from cas, sudden, 
caismeachd, an alarm (of battle), signal, march tune. The cor- 
responding Ir. is caismirt, alarm, battle, M. Ir. caismert, E. Ir. 

caisrig, consecrate ; see coisrig. 
caisteal, a castle, M. Ir. castel, E, Ir. castiall ; from Lat. castellum, 

whence Eng. castle. 



caiteach, a rush mat for measuring corn, Ir. cditeach, winnowing 
sheet ; from caite, w'innowed, from cath. 

caiteag, a small bit (H.S.D.), a basket for trouts (M'A. for 
Islands), basket (Sh.), a place to hold barley in (M'L.). For 
the first sense, cf. W. cat, a piece, Sc. cat, a rag. In Irish 
Lat. the trout was called catus (Giraldus). 

caiteas, scraped linen, applied for the stoppage of wounds (M'F.) ; 
from Sc. caddis, lint for wounds, M. Eng. cadas, caddis, cotton 
wool, floss silk for padding, from 0. Fr. cadas. See G. catas. 
caiteas = sawdust, scrapings (M'D.). 

caitein, nap of cloth, shag, Ir. caitin, catkin of the osier, little 
cat. The Eng. words caddis, catkin, and cotton seem to be 
mixed up as the basis of the G. and Ir. words. Cf. W. ccden, 
shaggy hair. 

caith, spend, cast, Ir., 0. Ir. caithim, *katjo, I consume, castaway ; 
Skr. Qatayati, sever, cast down, destroy, pat-ana, causing to 
fall, wearing out, root pat. AUied to the root of cath, war. 

caithear, just, right, Ir. caithear (Lh.), caithfidh, it behoves, 
M. Ir. caithfid ; from caith, doubtless (Atk.). 

caithream, shout of joy, triumph, Ir. caithreim ; from cath, battle, 
and re'im, a shout, E. Ir. rim. This last word Strachan 
refers to the root req (*rec-m or *rec-s-m), Ch. SI. reky, speak, 
Lith. rekiu. 

caithris, night-watching : 

cal, kail, cabbage, Ir. cdl, W. cawl, Cor. caul, Br. kaol ; from Lat. 
caulis, a stalk, whence likewise Eng. cole (colewort) and Sc. 

cala, caladh, a harbour, Ir. caladh, M. Ir. calad. It is usual to 
correlate this with It. cala, Fr. cale, bay, cove (Diez, Thur- 
neysen, Windisch), and Stokes even says the G. and Ir. words 
are borrowed from a Romance *calatum, It. calata, cala, Fr. 
cale, cove. More probably the Celtic root is gel, gal, hide, as 
in Eng. hollow, M. Eng. holh, hollow, cave, also Eng. hole, 
possibly. The root of cladh, has also been suggested. 

caladair, a calendar, Ir. calaindeir ; from M. Eng. kalendar, 
through Fr. from Lat. calendarium, an account-book, from 
calendar, the Calends or first of the month. 

calaman, a dove ; the common form of the literary, q.v. 

calanas, spinning of wool ; seemingly founded on Lat. colus, 
distaff. See cuigeal. 

fcalbh, head, pate, bald, so Ir., E. Ir. calb ; from Lat. calva, 
scalp, calvus, bald. H.S.D. gives as a meaning " promontory," 
and instances " Aoineadh a' Chailbh Mhuilich," which surely 
must be the Calf of Mull ; and Calf is a common name for 


such subsidiary isles — from Norse kdlfr, Eng. calf. Cognate 
with Lat. calva, calvaria (St. Lee). 

calbh, a shoot, osier twig, Ir. colbha, plant stalk, sceptre, hazel 
tree, E. Ir. colba, wand ; see colbh. 

calbh, gushing of water or blood (H.S.D.) from above 1 

calbhair, greedy of food (Suth.) ; from cail ? 

calc, drive, ram, caulk, Ir. calcaim ; from Lat. calco, calx, the heel, 
Eng. in-culcate. 

caldach, sharp, pointed (Sh., M'L.) : 

calg, awn, beard of corn, bristles, Ir. calg, colg, E. Ir. colg, a 
sword, O. W. colginn, aristam, W. cola, beard of corn, sting, 
call/, penis, Br. calc'h (do.), *kalgo-, *kolgo- ; Gr. koAo/3os, 
stunted ; Got. hoiks, poor ; further is Lat. cellere, hit, culter, 
knife ; etc. The main root is qel, qld, hit, break ; see 
claidheamh, cladh. The Caledonian hero Calgacos derives 
his name hence. Hence calg-dhireach, direct, " sword- 
straight" to a place. 

call, loss, Ir. caill, E. Ir. coll, W. coll, Cor. colled, jactura, M. Br. 
coll, *koldo- ; Eng. halt, Got. halts, 0. H. G. halz, lame ; root 
qel, as above in calg, q.v. 

calla, callda, tame, callaidh (M'A., also Sh., who gives the 
meaning "active" to the last form) ; cf. W. call, wise; from 
Lat. callidus 1 

callag, calltag, the black guillemot, diver ; compare Eng. quail, 
Fr. caille. 

callaid, a partition, fence ; the same as tallaid, q.v. 1 

callaid, a wig, cap (M'F.) ; from Eng. calotte, skull-cap. 

callan, a noise, Ir. calldn, caltdich ; from Eng. call 1 

calltuinn, hazel, Ir., E. Ir. coll, W. collen, Cor. coil-widen. M. Br. 
quel-vezenn, *koslo- ; Lat. corylus ; Norse hasl, Eng. hazel. 
*coll + tann. 

Calluinn, New Year's Day, Ir. calldin, Calends, or first day of the 
month, E. Ir. callaind, the Calends, particularly the first 
Jan., W. calan, Calends ; from Lat. calendar (Eng. Calends). 

calm, a pillar (M'A.), Ir. columhan, colbh ; from Lat. columna, etc. 

calm, calma, brave, Ir., E. Ir. calma. Cf. W. celf, skill, art, 
celfydd, skilled, 0. Br. celmed, efficax. The root cal is to be 
compared with that in Ger. held, hero, *haleth or *calet. The 
I.E. root is qel, as in Lat. celsus, high, columna, column, Eng. 

caiman, dove ; see calaman. 

calmarra, the pike (Wh.) % 

calpa, the calf of the leg, so Ir., E. Ir. calpda, bonus pes (Corm.), 
colpa, tibia ; from the Norse kdlfi, whence also Eng. calf. 


calpa, principal set to interest, Sc. calpa, death-duty payable to 

the landlord, from N. kaup, stipulation, pay. 
calum, hardness on the skin (H.S.D. ; cathlum in M'D.) ; from 

Lat. callum, callus. It is not the obsolete caladh, hard, 

E. Ir. calad, W. caled, 0. Br. calat, *kaleto-, root kal, hard ; 

Got. /callus, stone, Norse helle, hallr ; Skr. gild, stone. 
cam, crooked, one-eyed, Ir. cam, O. Ir. camm, W. cam, Br. kam, 

Gaul, cambo-, root kemb, wind ; Gr. KOjxfios, a band, bond ; Lit. 

kinge, door-bar. It has been referred to the root of Gr. 

o-/ca/x/36s, crooked (see ceum), and to Lat. camera, whence Eng. 

chamber. Hence camag, club, camas, bay. 
camag-gharuidh, hollow above the eye, Ir. camdg-ara, " the bend 

of the ara," 0. Ir. aire, g. arach, tempus ; Gr. iraptid, cheek, 
camart, wry-neck : 

camastrang, quarrelsome disputation (M'D.) : 
camhach, talkative ; * com-ag-ach, root ag in adhan ? 
camhal, a camel, Ir. camhall, E. Ir. camail, W. camyll \ from Lat. 

camhan, a hollow plain, Ir. cabhdn (County Cavan) ; from the 

Lat. cavus. 
camhanaich, break of day, twilight, Ir. camhaoir ; (M'A. sgamh- 

anaich, " lights") : 
camlag, a curl : 
+ camp, campa, a camp, Ir., M. Ir. campa ; from the Eng. camp. 
v campar, vexation, grief ; from Sc. cummar, Eng. cumber. 

can, say, sing, Ir. canaim, 0. Ir. canim, W. cana, sing, Br. kana ; 

Lat. cano, sing ; Gr. Kavd^a ; Eng. hen. s 
cana, porpoise, young whale, Ir. cana (O'R), cdna (O'B.), whelp, 

pup, M. Ir. cana (do.) ; from Lat. canis ? 
canach, mountain down, cotton, lr. canach, 0. Ir. canach, lanugo ; 

Gr. kvtjkos, thistle, kvk)k6<s, yellow ; Skr. kdncanas, golden, a 

plant; *qonak-. Stokes refers it to *ca$naka,, Lat. cdnus, 

white (*casno~), Ag. S. ham, grey, Eng. hare. 
canain, language, Ir. cdnamhuin. Seemingly a long-vowel form 

of the root qan, sing, cry. See cainnt. 
canal, cinnamon ; see caineal. 
, canan, a cannon ; from the Eng. 

cana stair, a canister ; from the Eng. 
+ cangaruich, fret ; from Sc. canker, fret, Eng. canker. 

cangluinn, trouble, vexation ; from Sc. cangle. 
4 canna, a can, so Ir., E. Ir. cann ; from Eng. can. 
cannach, pretty, kind ; *cas-no-, root, (/as, Lat. cdnus, white (cas- 

nus), Ag. S. hasu, grey, Eng. hazel Or it may be allied to 

Lat. caudidus, white, Skr. cand, shine. 


canntaireachd, articulate music, chanting, Ir. cantaireachd, sing- 
ing, cdntaire, a singer ; from Lat. cantor, cano, I sing. 

canran, wrangling, grumbling, muttering, Ir. cannrdn ; from can, 
say, sing. 

cantal, grief, weeping (Sh., M'L.), Ir. cantlamh : 

caob, a clod, a bite, Ir. caob, clod, M. Ir. co?p, E. Ir. caip, cdep, 
clot, lump, 0. Ir. caebb oo, jecur. 

caoch, empty (as a nut), blind, so Ir., 0. Ir. caech, W. cony, foolish, 
Cor. cuic, *kaiko-s ; Lat. caecus ; Got. haihs, one-eyed. 

caoch, caothach, rage ; see cuthach. 

caochan, a streamlet ; from caoch, blind % 

caochail, change, die, caochladh, a change, Ir. caochluighim, 
0. Ir. coimchldim c6em-chloim : imchloud, imchload, inversio ; 
for co-imm-clbim ; from cloim, muto : see claoidh. The aspira- 
tion of the mn of imb is unusual, but the history of the word 
is also unusual, for it actually appears as claemchlod in E. Ir. 
oftener than once, and Ir. claochlddh, claochladh. 

caod Chaluim-chille, St John's wort (Sh ) : 

caog, wink ; apparently from Eng. cock (the eye). Cf. Norse 
kaga, keek ; Sc. keek ; Shet. coag, peep slily. 

caogad, fifty, so Ir., 0. Ir. coica(t), *qe?iqekont ; Lat. quinquaginta ; 
Gr. TrevTrjKovra. See coig. 

caoidh, lamentation, Ir. caoi, caoidh, E. Ir. cot, cdi, inf. to dim, 
ploro, *keio, root qei, w T hich appears in caoin, q.v., and in 
Eng. whine, ivhuper, etc. Bezzenberger suggests *keipo, and 
compares Lit. szeptis, grimace, Ch. SI. o-sipnyti, raucescere. 
A former derivation of Stokes' is repeated by Rhys {Manx. 
Pray. 2 , 26) : *qeri, root qes as in Lat. questus. 

caoillean, a twig or osier for wicker, M. Ir. coelacli ; from caol, 

caoimheach, a bedfellow (Sh.), Ir. caoimhthech, E. Ir. com-aithech , 
neighbour ; see aitheacli. Also caomhach, friend, bedfellow 
The latter seems from, or influenced by, caomh. 

caoimhceas, kindness. This word is supposed by folk etymology 
to be from cc.omh, kind, whereas it is really allied to O. Ir. 
coibnes, aftinitas, *co-ven-estu-, root ven of fine, q.v. 

caoin, kind, mild, so Ir., 0. Ir. chin, kiud, beautiful [W. cainl] : 
*koini-, root koi, kei of caomh, q v. Stokes gives base as 
kaini-, and Bezzenberger compares Gr. kolivvo-Oou, excel, Ch* 
SI. slnati, gleam forth. If the base idea were " beauty," Eng. 
shine might be compared. 

caoin, the exterior surface of cloth, right side, rind, sward ; from 
caoin, gentle, polished 1 


caoin, weep, so Ir., 0. Ir. cdinim, cdinim, 0. W. cuinhaunt, 
deflebunt, Br. couen, queiniff, *koinio ; qein, qin ; Eng. whine, 
Norse hvina, whirr ; Gr. Kivvpos, wailing. See caoidh. 

caoiaich,^dry, make dry (as hay by the sun), caoin, seasoned ; 
from the adj. caoin 1 

caoir, a blaze, stream of sparks, a coal, Ir. caor, E. Ir. cder, *kairo, 
Eng. hoar (*kairo-), Teut. root hai in Norse heift, atmospheric 
clearness, 0. H. G. hei, heat, Eng. heat ; Skr. ketus, light. 
More near are Gr. Kipis (lamp, Hes.), Skr. kirdna, a ray, 
kirikd, sparkling. The root skei of Eng. shine, Got. skeirs, 
clear, has been also suggested, caoran, a peat ember. 

caoirean, a plaintive song j also caoi-ran, moaning (H.S.D.). The 
root word is caoidh ; possibly ran, roar, forms the latter part. 

caoirnean, a drop of sheep or goats' dung, a drop or globule ; cf. 
Ir. caoirin, a little berry, little sheep, from caor, berry, caora, 
sheep. The two ideas seem confused in Gaelic. In Argyle, 
gaoirnean ; (Arg. ao here is northern ao). From skar, sham % 

caol, slender, so Ir., U. Ir. cdil, W., Cor. cul, 0. Br. culed, macies, 
*koilo- ; Lett, kails, naked ; Lat. caelebs, single 1 Gr. /cotAos, 
hollow % Hence caol ; caolas, a firth or Kyle. 

caolan, gut, intestine, Ir. caoldn, E. Ir. coeldn, 0. W. coilion, exta ; 
from caol. 

caomh, tender, kind, so Ir., E. Ir. coem, 0. Ir. cdim, W. cu, O.W. 
cum, Br. cuff, cun, debonnaire, *koimo-, root kei, lie ; Gr. 
Kot/xaw, put to rest, Kitfxai, lie ; Got. hdims, a village, Ag. S. 
ham. Eng. home. The idea is rt restful." 

caomhach, bedfellow, friend, Ir. caomthach, friend ; see caoimJieach, 
and cf. Ir. caomhaighim, I protect, cherish, from caomh. 

caomhain, spare, save, caomhnadh, sparing, Ir. caomhnaim, 
preserve, keep, protect, caomhaighim, caomhnuighim, preserve. 
The last form seems the most original, if we refer the root to 
0. Ir. anich, protegit, aingim, I protect (a-nak), root nak and 
nank, as in adhlac, thig, etc. The form nak is more particu- 
larly allied to Skr ndcati, reach, Lit. neszu, draw. The G. 
verb may have been *com-anich-. It is possible to derive it 
from caomh with caomhuin as an inf. form which usurped the 
place of the present stem. 

caonnag, strife, tumult, Ir. caonnog, strife, a nest of wild bees : 
*kais-no-, root kais, kai, heat, Eng. heat, G. caoir % 

caor, berry of the rowan, a mountain berry, Ir. caor, 0. Ir. cder, 
bacca, W. cair, berries, ceirion, berry, *kaird. It is seemingly 
the same word as caoir, blaze, the idea arising probably from 
the red rowan berries. 


caora, a sheep, Ir. caora, g. caorach, 0. Ir. cdera, *cairax, from 

*ka{p)erax, allied to Lat. caper, a goat, Gr. Kairpos, a boar, 

Kng. heifer. Cf. W. caertwrch, roebuck, 
caorrunn, the rowan tree, Ir. caorthann, E. Ir. caerthann, W. 

cerddin, Br. herzin, *cairo-tann, from caor, berry, and *tann, 

tree, Br. tann, oak, Cor. glas-tannen. The connection with 

0. H. G. tanna, fir, oak, M. H. G. tan, wood, Ger. tanne, fir, 

Eng. tan, tanner (Gr. 0ap.vo<s, bush X) is doubtful ; it would 

necessitate the idea of borrowing, or that the Celtic word was 

dann. Ogam Maqui Cairatini, McCaorthainn. Rhys says 

W. is borrowed from Gadelic (C.F.L. 292). 
capa. a cap ; from the Eng. cap. 

capraid, drunken riotousness (Dial) ; from Lat. crdpula. 
capull, a horse, mare (more commonly), so Ir., E. Ir. capall, Br. 

caval ; from Lat. caballus, whence Eng. cavalry, etc., caple (M. 

Eng. capil, from Celt.). Norse kapall, nag, seems borrowed 

from Gaelic. The W. is ceffyl, with remarkable vocalisation. 

Capal-coille 1 
car, a turn, twist, Ir. cor, M. Ir. cor ( = cuairt (O'Cl), 0. Ir. curu, 

gyros, W. cor-wynt, turbo, M. Br. concent, *kuro- ; Lat. curvus ; 

Gr. Kvpros, curved. See cruinn. 
car, friendly, related to, Ir. cdra(d), a friend. See caraid for the 

usual root, 
caradh, condition, usage ; from chirich, mend, 
caraich, move, stir, Ir. corruighim, from corrach, unsteady. The 

G. confuses this with car, turn, 
caraid, a friend, so Ir , 0. Ir. cara, g. carat, *karant- ; 0. Ir. verb 

carim, caraim, I love, W. caraf, amo, Br. quaret, amare, Gaul. 

carantus, Caractacus, etc.; Lat. cdrus, dear, Eng. charity, etc.; 

Got. hors, meretrix. 
caraid, a pair, couple, Ir. cdraid, E. Ir. cdrait : 
carainnean, refuse of threshed barley, Ir. carra, bran ; see 

caraist, catechism ; from Sc. carritch, a corruption of catechise. 
caramasg, contest, confusion (Arm. M'F.) : from car and measgl 
caramh, beside ; see caruibh. 
caramh, caradh, condition, treatment : 

carathaist, compulsory labour, cairiste, cairbhist, which last see. 
car bad, a chariot, so Ir., 0. Ir. carpat, W. cerbyd, 0. Br. cerpit, 

Gaul. Carpentoracte, Carbantia, *karbanto- ; Lat. corbis, a 

basket ; Norse hrip, pannier for peats on horse-back. Lat. 

carpentum (Eng. carpenter, etc.), seems borrowed from Gaulish. 

The root idea is " wicker," referring to the basket character 

of the body 4 of these chariots. 


carbad, jaw, jaw-bone, so Ir., W. car yr en (car of the mouth), Br. 

karvan. The idea is " mouth chariot," from the resemblance 

between the lower jaw and the old wicker chariots. Loth 

cfs. W. car/an, beam, rail, row. 
carbh, engrave, carve ; from the English, 
carbh, a particular kind of ship or boat (Islay) ; from Norse 

karji, a galley for the fiords, 
carbhaidh, carraway-seed ; from the English, 
carbhanach, a carp, Ir. carbhdn, Manx, carroo : from Norse karji, 

Eng. carp. 
carcair, a prison, sewer in a cow-house, Ir. carcar, prison, E. Ir. 

carcair (do.) ; from Lat. career, prison, barrier. cacair in 

carcais, a carcase ; from the English. 
card, card wool, Ir. cardaighim ; from the Eng. card. 
cargo, a cargo, load ; from the English. 
Carghus, Lent, torment, Ir. Corghas, M. Ir. corgus, W. garaivys ; 

from Lat. quad) agenma. 
carlag, a lock of wool (Sh., H.S.D.), carla, a wool-card (Sh. Coneys 

for Ir.) ; *card-la-, from card of Eng. For phonetics, cf. 

carlas, excellence, Ir. oarlamh, excellent, *co-er-lam-, erlam, 

clever, *air-lam1 For lam, see ullamh. 
cam, heap of stones, cairn, Ir. corn, E. Ir., W. earn, Br. karri, 

*kar-no-, root kar, be hard ; Gr. K/oai/aos, rock (xpa-, Kap) ; 

further Eng. hard, harsh. See carraig. 
cam, a horning. The G. seems a confusion between corn, horn, 

Eng. horn, put to the horn, and cam. M'F. gives air cham 

for "outlawed," carn-eaglais, excommunication, 
cam, a sledge, cart, peat cart, Ir. carr, dray, waggon, E. Ir, carr, 

biga, W. carr, biga, 0. Br. carr, vehiculum (gl.), Gaul. 

carros, Latinised into came* (whence, through Fr., Eng. 

chariot, career, carry, cargo, charge) ; from Celt, karm- ; Lat. 

currus yguors-), from qrs ; Eng. horse, hurry. 
carnaid, red ; from Eng. carnation. 
carnag, (1) a she-terrier, (2) a small fish found in stony shores at 

ebb-tide. The first meaning from cam, cairn. Terriers were 

used for cairn hunting, 
carr, the flesh of the seal and whale (Heb. ; Carmichael); founded 

on obsolete cam, flesh 1 
carr, the itch, mange, superficial roughness, Ir. carr ; carrach, 

scabby, M. Ir. carrach, *karsdko-, from kars, be rough, hard ; 

cf. Eng. harsh (*horsqs), and hard, Lit. krasta, the itch 

(*kors-ta-) ; further root kar, to be hard, rough. For carr, 

rocky shelf, Ir. carr, rock, see carraig. 


carrachan, a frog-fish, called " cobler," Ir. carrachdn, the rock 

fish called cobler (Coneys). From carr, a rock. Also the 

word means "the wild liquorice root "— carra-meille, q.v. 
carragh, a pillar stone, Ir. carrthadh, cartha, E. Ir. corthe. The 

root, despite the vocalic difficulty caused by the E. Ir. form, 

is likely the same as in carraig ; yet cf. kor of cuir, set. 
carraid, conflict ; from the root kars in carr, " rough-work 1 " 
carraig, rock, so Ir., 0. Ir. earric, W. careg, 0. VV. carrecc, Br. 

karrek, *karsekki- (so Rhys, R. C. 17 102, who thinks W. 

borrowed), from root kars, hard, rough ; Norwegian, herren, 

hard, stiff, harren, hard, Eng. harsh, hard (root kar). See 

carra-meille, wild liquorice, wood pease, Ir. carra-mhilis. The 

name is explained as "knots of honey," the carra being the 

same as carr, and meille the gen. of mil. Hence Sc. carmele, etc. 
carran, spurrey, spergula arvensis, Ir. carrdn, scurvy grass. From 

the root kars of carr. Carran also means a "shrimp," and is 

of the same origin. 
carran-creige, the conger ; see carran above, 
carrasan, hoarseness, wheezing, Ir. carsdn ; from the root kars, be 

rough. See carr. Cf. Kopv£a, catarrh, rotz. 
cart, a quart, Ir. cart ; from the Eng. quart, Lat. quartus. 
cartan, a small brown insect that eats into the flesh, Ir. cartdn, a 

small brown insect that eats into the flesh, a crab. A 

Gadelicised form of partan, q.v. 
carthannach, affectionate, charitable, Ir. carthannach ; from Lat. 

carthuinnich, dwell apart as in a cave, separate (M'F.). Cf. 

caruinnean, refuse of threshed corn, caruinnich, winnow. 

Possibly from the root kar, separate, a form of the root of 

sgar, q.v. 
caruibh, an caruibh, beside, near. This is the dat. pi. of car. 
cas, foot, leg, Ir. cos, 0. Ir. coss, W. coes, *koksd ; Lat. coxa, hip ; 

M. H. G. hahse, bend of the knee ; Skr. kdkshas, armpit, 
cas, steep, sudden, Ir. casach, an ascent, M. Ir. cass, rapid, *kasto- ; 

Eng. haste. 
cas, curled, Ir., M. Ir. cas, curly, casaim, flecto ; *qasto-, root qas ; 

Norse haddr (has-da-), hair, Eng. hair ; Lit. kasa, hair-plait, 

Ch. SI. kosa, hair (Kluge). Stokes compares it with Lat. 

quasillum, a basket, root quas. 
cas, gnash the teeth, lr. cais, hate, W. cds, hate, Br. cas, *cad-s-to- ; 

Eng. hate, Ger. hass, Got. hatis. Of the same ultimate origin 

as cas, sudden (Strachan). 



cas, fire (as a stone) (Suth.), seemingly founded on Eng. tost. 
Cf. casadk ar a rke'ile — met (It.). 

cas, a difficulty, Ir. eds ; from Lat. casus (Eng. case). 

casach, fishing tackle (part attached to hook) : from cat. 

casad, casd, a cough, Ir. casachdach, W. pels, pesweh, Br. pas, 
*qasto- ; Eng. host, Ag. S. hvdsta, Ger. husten ; Lit. kdsiu ; 
Skr. kdsate, coughs. 

casag, a cassock, Ir. casdg ; from the Eng. The E. Ir. word is 
casal, from Lat. casula. 

casaid, a complaint, accusation, Ir. casaoid, 0. Ir. cossoit. The 
word is a compound, beginning with con, and seemingly of 
the same origin asfaosaid, q.v. Stokes thinks that the word 
is borrowed from the Lat. causatio ; this is not likely, how r - 
ever. Root sen, W. cynhenn, quarrel. 

casair, sea drift, Ir. casair, a shower, E. Ir. casair, hail, W. cesair 
(do.), Br. kazercli (do.), *kassri-, *kad-tri- ; from root cad as 
in Lat. cado, fall. The Ir. and G. (I) casair, phosphorescence, 
seems to be the same word. 

casail, a path, Ir. casdn ; from cas, foot. 

casan, a rafter, roof- tree ; from cas 1 

casgair, slay, butcher, so Ir., 0. Ir. coscar, victory, destruction ; 
* co-scar ; see sgar. 

casnaid, chips of wood (Arm.), Ir. casnaidh ; *co-+snaidh, q.v. 

caspanach, parallel (Sh.), Ir. cospanach (O'R.) ; *co-spann ; see 

castan, a chestnut ; from Lat. castanea, through M. Eng. casta ne, 

castaran, a measure for butter (\ stone) ; from the Eng. castor. 

castreaghainn, the straw on a kiln below the grain (Arm., not 
H.S.D.) : 

cat, a cat, so Ir. E. Ir. catt, W. cath, Cor. kat, Br. kaz, Gaul 
Gattos ; Lat. catta, perhaps also catulus ; Eng. cat, Ger. katze, 
etc. It is a word of doubtful origin ; possibly, however, 
Celtic, and applied first to the wild cat, then to the tame- 
Egyptian cat introduced in the early centuries of the Chris- 
tian era. 

cata, cata, sheep-cot, pen ; from Eng. cot. 

catadh, catachadh, taming, catadh (M'F.) ; cf. tataich. 

catag, potato cellar (Dialectic) ; see cata. 

catas, refuse at carding of wool, Ir. cadds, cotton, scraping of 
linen rags ; from Eng. caddis. See further under caiteas. 

eath, battle, Ir., 0. Ir. cath, W. cad, 0. W. cat, Cor. cas, Gaul. 
catu- ; 0. H. G. hadu-, right, Ag. S. heado-, Ger. hader, con- 
tention ; Skr. catru, enemy; Gr. kotos, wrath. 


cath, chaff, husks of corn, lr., O. Ir. caith, W. coden, a bag, husk, 

pod (1), *kuti-, root kdt, /cat, as in caith, spend, cast, 
cathachadh, provoking, accusing, fighting, Ir. cathaighim ; from 

cath, fight, 
cathadh, snow-drift, Ir. cdthadh, snow-drift, sea-drift ; cf. M. Jr. 

ciia, gen. ciiadh, W. cawod, 0. Cor. cowes, nimbus, Br. Jcaouad, 

*kavat (Stokes) ; allied to Eng. shower. It is possible to 

refer the G. word to the root of caith, cath. 
cathair, a city, Ir., E. Ir. cathair, 0. Ir. ciihir (*kastrex), W. 

caer, Br. kaer, *kastro-; Lat. castrmn, fort (Stokes). The 

root seems to be cat, cats ; the phonetics are the same as in 

piuthar for the final part of the word, 
cathair, a chair, Ir. cathaoir, E. Ir. cathair, W. cadair, Br. kador ; 

from Lat. cathedra, whence also, through Fr., Eng. chair. 
cathan, a wild goose with black bill (Heb.) ; see cadhan. 
cathan-aodaich, a web (M'D.) : 
cathar, mossy ground ; see cair. 
cathlunn, a corn (Sh. ; not in H.S.D,); formed on Lat. callum. 

See calum. 
catluibh, cudwort ; see cadhluibh. 
ce, ceath, cream, M. Ir. ceo, milk ; cf. Br. koavenn, which suggests 

a form keivo- (cf. gte from gleivo-), root kei, skei, shade, cover, 

as in Gr. o-Kia, shadow, Ger. schemen (do.) 1 The Br. koavenn 

has been referred to *co + hufen, W. hufen, cream. . Cf. ceo, 

mist, "covering." 
c6, the earth, used only in the phrase an cruinne ce, the (round) 

earth, Ir., E. Ir. ce, for bith eke, on this earth. The ce is 

supposed to be for "this," from the pronominal root kei, Gr. 

kcivos, he, Lat. ce, cis, Eng. he. The root kei, go, move (Lat. 

cio, Gr. Ktw), has also been suggested, 
ce, give % 

ce, spouse (Carm.), Ir. ce : 
eaba, ceibe, the iron part of a spade or other delving instrument; 

see caibe. 
ceabhar, a fine breeze (Heb.) : 
ceabhar (Carm.), sky, (Prov.) ci'ar : 
ceach, an interjection of dislike ; see the next word, 
ceacharra, dirty, mean, obstreperous (Carm.), Ir. ceachair, dirt, 

M. Ir. cecharda, *kekari- ; from kek, the e form of the root 

kak seen in cac, q.v. 
ceachladh, digging, Ir. ceachlaim, 0. Ir. ro-cechladatar, suffoderunt, 

*ce-clad-, a reduplicated or perfect form of the root clad of G. 

cladh, q.v. 
cead, permission, so Ir., 0. Ir. cet, *ces-do- ; Lat. cedo, I yield (for 



ceadan, bunch of wool, Ir. ceadach, cloth, coarse cloth, W. cadach, 
clout. Rhys regards W. as borrowed from Ir. For all, cf. 
cadadh, caiteas. 

ceadha, the part of the plough on which the share is fixed. Also 
ceidhe. Both words are used for Eng. quay. 

ceafan, a frivolous person (Dialectic) : 

ceaird, a trade, E. Ir. cerd ; see ceard. 

ceal, stupor, forgetfulness, Ir. ceal, forgetfulness ; from the root 
qel of ceil, conceal. Cf. E. Ir. eel, death, ceal, end (Carm). 

fceal, same, similar hue (Carm.) : 

cealaich, the fire-place of a kiln : 

cealaich, eat (Kirk), Ir. cealaim ; root qel as in Lat. colo ? 

cealaich, conceal : 

cealair, a virago (Badenoch) : 

cealg, guile, treachery, so Ir., E. Ir. celg, *kelgd ; Arm. ke\ch c , 
hypocrisy. The further root is gel of ceil. 

ceall, g. cille, a church, so Ir., E. Ir. cell ; from Lat. cella, a cell, 
a hermit's cell especially, whence the Gadelic use. Hence 
cealloir, superior of a cell, and the name Mackellar. "A 
retired spot" (Hend.). 

cealtar, broad-cloth, Ir. cealtair, clothes, E. Ir. celtar, celt, raiment ; 
from qel, cover, as in ceil, q.v. 

ceana, whither, for c'iona, c'ionadh ? Cf. Ir. cd h-ionad. See 

ceanalta, mild, kind, so Ir. ; from *cen, as in cion, jcean, love, 
desire. See cion. 

ceangal, a tie, binding, so Ir., E. Ir., cengal, W. cengl ; from Lat. 
cingulum, vb. cingo, I bind, Eng, cincture. 

ceann, head, so Ir., 0. Ir. cend, cenn, W., Bi. penn, Gaul, Fenno-, 
*qenno-. Perhaps for qen-no-, root qen (labialised), begin, 
Ch. SI. koni, beginning, as in ceud, first. The difficulty is 
that the other labialising languages and the Brittonic branch 
otherwise show no trace of labialisation for qen. Windisch, 
followed by Brugmann, suggested a stem kvindo-, I. E. root 
kvi, Skr. cvi, swell, Gr. UivSos, Pindus Mount ; but the root 
vowel is not i, even granting the possible labialisation of kn\ 
which does not really take place in Greek. Hence ceannag, 
a bottle of hay, ceannaich, buy ( = "heading" or reckoning 
by the head ; cf. Dial, ceann, sum up), ceannaidh, head- 
wind (Hend.), ceannas, vaunting (Hend.). 

ceannach, a purchasing, so Ir., E. Ir. cennaigim, 1 buy, O. Ir. 
cennige, lixa, caingen, negotium. 

ceannairc, rebellion, turbulence, so Ir. ; *ceann + arc ; for root 
arc, see adharc. For meaning cf. Eng. headatvou^, W. 
^eraffest (do.). 


ceannard, commander, chief, Ir. ceanndrd, arrogant, commanding, 
" high-headed," from ceann and ard ; M. kinnoort, Ir. ceann- 
phort, commander, authority, head post or city : ceann + port. 

ceannrach, ceannraig (Cam.), a bridle or horse's head-gear, 'Ir. 
ceannrach ; from ceann + rack. For rack (root rig), see 
cuibhreach, arachas. 

ceannsaich, subdue, tame, Ir. ceannsaiyhim ; from ceannas, superi- 
ority, " head-ness," from ceann and the abst. termination as. 
Similarly ceannsal, rule. 

ceap, a block, shoemaker's last, so Ir., E. Ir. cepp, W. cyff, Br. kef ; 
from Lat. cippus. 

ceap, catch, stop. This word seems borrowed from the Sc. kep, of 
like meaning, a bye-form of Eng. keep. The Ir. ceap, bound, 
bind, stop (I), seems from ceap above. 

fceapach, a tillage plot, Ir. ceapach. This Stokes refers to a 
Celtic keppo-, garden, root kep, kap, Lat. campus, Gr. K?J7ros, 
garden, Ger. hube, piece of land. Satisfactory though the 
meaning be, the derivation is doubtful as involving the pre- 
servation of p, even though flanked by a second p (or -no-, 
i.e., kep-nb-, which is still more doubtful). Perhaps from 
ceap, a block, in the sense of a "holding." Hence the common 
place-name Keppoch. 

ceapag, a verse, an impromptu verse, carelessly sung verse, E. Ir. 
cepoc, a chorus song : a. rare word in Ir., and said to be Sc. 
Gaelic for Ir. aidbsi, great chorus. From ceap, catch 1 cf. 
Eng. catch, a chorus verse. Zimmer suggests that it stands 
for Ce Poc, "kiss here," (!) sung by the girls as a refrain at 
gatherings ! 

ceapaire, bread covered with butter, etc., Ir. ceapaire ; from ceap, 
a block. Cf. ceapag, a wheel-barrow wheel. 

cearb, piece, article of clothing, so Ir., E. Ir. cerj), cutting, cerbaim ; 
*krbh t skrbh ; Gr. Kapfos, twig, Eng. shfub; *(s)kei% cut, 
divide. Cf. W. carp, rag, cerpyn. Bezzenberger cfs. M. H. G. 
herb, asper. St. now skerb, Eng. sharp. 

cearc, a hen, so Ir., M. Ir. cere, *cercd ; from I. E. qerqo, to sound, 
hence " a noise-making bird " ; Gr. KepKos, a cock, Kpe£, a 
fowl ; Lat. querquedida, a teal, 0. Prus. kerko, a diver ; Skr. 
krka-vdkus, a cock. 

cearcall, a hoop, so Ir. ; from L. Lat. circtdus, circidlus, a hoop, 
from circulus, a circle. 

ceard, a craftsman, Ir. ceard, E. Ir. cerd, W. cerdd, art; Lat. cerdo, 
craftsman ; Gr. KepSos, gain. 

ceardach, a smithy, Ir. ceard cha, 0. Ir. cerddchae ; from cerd + cae, 
the latter word cae meaning a house in Ir., a Celtic kaio-n, 
allied to Eng. home. 


ceard-dubhan, scarabseus, dung-beetle, hornet (H.S.D. for fcrm), 
ceardaman (M'A.) ; see cearnabhan. cearr-dubhan (Carm.), 
" wrong-sided little black one." 

cearmanta, tidy (Arm.) ; cearmanaich, make tidy (Perth.) : 

ceam, a corner, quarter, Ir. cearn, cearua, angle, corner, E. Ir. cern; 
evidently an e form of the stem found in corn, horn, q.v. 

cearnabhan, a hornet, Ir. cearnabhan ; from *cemo-. Cf. Eng. 
hornet (*krs-en-), Lat. crabro. 

cearr, wrong, left (hand), E. Ir. cerr, *kerso- ; Lat. cerritas, crazed ; 
Gr. eyK(ipo-ios, slantwise ; Lit. skersas, crooked. 

cearrach, a gamester, Ir. cearrbhach, a gamester, dexterous 
gambler. Cf. G. cearr bhag, cearrag, the left-hand, the use 
of which was considered in plays of chance as "sinister." 

ceart, right, so Ir., E. Ir. cert ; Lat. certus, certain, sure, cerno, 
discern ; Gr. Kplvio, judge, KpLn'js, a judge, Eug. critic. 

ceasad, a complaint (M'F.), Ir. ceasacht, grumbling, M. Ir. 
cexnaighim, complain, ces, sorrow, *qes-to- ; Lat. questus, 
queror, I complain, querela, Eng. quarrel. 

fceasg, floss (Carm.), animal with long flossy hair or wool, Ir. 
ceaslach, long hair or wool on fleece legs. See Ceus. 

ceasnaich, examine, catechise, Ir. ceasnuighim ; from Lat. qumstio, 
quaistionis, Eng. question. Stokes (Bk. of Lis.) lias suggested 
that the Lat. and Gadelic are cognate ; though possible (qais, 
qis may become by umlaut ces in G.), it is improbable from 
the stem form in n persisting in the G. verb. 

ceathach, mist; this is really the old stem of ceo, mist, E. Ir. 
ciach, q.v. Ir. ceathach, showery, is from cith, a shower. 

ceathairne, yeomanry, the portion of a population fit for warfare ; 
see ceatharn. 

ceatharn, a troop, so Ir., E. Ir. ceithem, *keternd; Lat. caterva, 
troop, catena, a chain ; 0. SI. ceta, company (Stokes). It 
has also been regarded as borrowed from Lat. quaternio, 
which in the Vulg. means a "body of four soldiers," quater- 
nion. Hence Eng. caterau. kern. 

ceidhe, quay, coulter-place, Ir. ceigh, quay. See ceadha. 

ceig, a mass of shag, clot, ceigein, a tuft, a fat man. From 
Scandinavian kagge, round muss, keg, corpulent man or 
animal, whence Eng. keg ; Norse, kaggi, cask, Norwegian, 
kagge, round mass. 

ceig, a kick ; from the Eng. 

ceil, conceal, Ir., ceilim, 0. Ir. celim, \\ . celu, I. E. qel ; Lat. celo, 
Eng. con-ceal \ Ag. S. helan, hide, Eng. Hell ; Gr. /caAiVrw, 
hide : Skr. kdla, darkness. 

ceile, spouse, fellow, so Ir., 0. Ir. cele, socius, W. cilydd (y gilydd 
= a cheile of G.=eguille of Br.), *keiljo-, " way-farer," from 


kei, go (Lat. cio, move, Gf. kicd, go, Kev«t>, move, kinetics). 
The idea is the same as in lr. srlig, wife, from set, way. 
Strachan thinks that G, and W. demand a stem ceglio- ; and 
Dv Stokes thinks that, if cele, servus, is different from cele, 
fellow, it must come from kak-lio- (better keklio-), and be 
allied to Lat. cacula, a servant. Hence ceilidh, a gossiping 
visit or meeting. 

ceileach, martial (H.S.D.), lr. ceallach, war, M. Ir. cellach, war ; 
Teut. hildi-, war, Lat. per-cellere, hit. 

ceileir, chirping of birds, Ir. ceileabhar, ceileabhrach, musical, 
M. Ir. ceilebradh eoin, singing of birds, E. Ir. celebrad, a 
celebrating or observance, a welcome of joy ; from Lat. 

ceillidh, wise, sober, Ir. ceillidhe ; from ciall. 

ceilp, kelp ; from Eng. 

cein, remote ; really the oblique form of cian, q.v. 

ceir, wax, Ir., M. Ir. ceir, W. cwyr, 0. W. kuyr, Cor. coir, Br. ccar ; 
from Lat. cera, wax. 

ceir, ceire, the buttock ; see peire. 

ceireanaich, fondle, make much of (Perth) ; cf. ceirein, plaster. 

ceirein, a plaster, a " clout," Ir., M. Ir., ceirin, a plaster ; from 
ceir, wax. Eng. cerate. 

ceirtle, a clew, ball of yarn, Ir. ceirsle (so G. too), ceirtlin, 0. Ir. 
certle, glomus, *kertillid ; from I. E. qert, wind, bend ; Skr. 
kart, spin ; Lat. cartilago, Eng. cartilage ; Gr. KapTaXos, 
basket ; Eng. hurdle. 

C^is, a case, hamper ; from Eng. case. Ir. ceis, basket, M. Ir. ceiss, 
is a different word, possibly allied to, if not borrowed from, 
Lat. cista (Stokes). From Ir. ceis comes ceis-chrann, poly- 
pody, given in H.S.D. from O'R. Cf. 0. Ir. cass, basket, 
Lat. quasillus. 

ceisd, a question, so Ir., E. Ir. ceist ; from Lat. quoestio. Hence 
ceisdein, a sweetheart, founded on " ceisd mo chridhe " — 
darling (i.e., question, anxiety) of my heart. 

ceiseach, large, corpulent woman ; see cebs. 

Ceitein, May, 0. Ir. cetam (g. cetaman), cetsoman (cetshaman) in 
Cor. Gl., where it is explained as cet-sam-sin, the first weather- 
motion of sam or summer. The word means the " first of 
summer" — cet + sam-, the sam of samhradh, q.v. The termi- 
nation is possibly influenced by other time words. See 

ceithir, four, Ir. ceathair (m), ceithre (adj.), 0. Ir. cethir, W. 
pedwar, Cor. peswar, Br. pevar, Gaul, petor-, *qetveres, I. E. 
qetvdr ; Lat. quatuor ; Gr. rcTTa/oes ; Got. fidvor, Eng. four ; 
Lit. keturi : Skr. catvdras. 


ceo, mist, Ir. ceo, E. Ir. ceo, g. ciach, *cevox, g. *cevocos, I. E. 
sqevo-, Lat. obscurus, Norse skp, cloud, Eng, sky. The idea 
is "covering." 

cedb, a dark nook, corner : 

ceoban, small drizzle; ced + boinne or -bainne, "mist-drop." The 
Ir. is cebbhrdn, for ceo + braon. This last is G. ciuran, q.v. 
Hence ceopach (for ceobnach ?) Also cebpan. Ir. ciabkr&n, 
drizzle, fog, M. Ir. ciabor, mist. 

ceol, music, Ir., E. Ir. ceol, g. ciiiil, *kipolo-, a Gadelicisecl form of 
*pipolo ; onomatopoetic root pip, Lat. ptpilo, chirp, pipilum, 
ontcry, pipo, chirp, Ag. S. pipe, Eng. pipe (hence W. pib, G. 
piob, etc ). Stokes and Rhys have given a Celtic qeqlo- for 
stem, allied to W. pib, pipe. For phonetics, see febil. Stokes 
now suggests alliance with Ger. heulen, hoot, howl, 0. H. G. 

ceds, the hip, podex ; see ceus, poples. Hence cedsach, broad- 
skirted, bulky, clumsy. 

ceosan, burr or light down of feathers ; see ceus, wool of legs, etc. 

ceud, first, Ir. cead, 0. Ir. ce't, W. cynt, formerly, cyutaf, first, Br. 
kent, kenta (do.), Gaul. Cintu-, *kentu- ; allied to W. cann, 
with Gr. Kara, down, against ( = knta), Lat. contra. Further 
allied is possibly (and this is the usual derivation) I. E. qen, 
begin, Lat. re-cms, Eng. recent; Gr. kcuvos ( = Kavios), new; 
Skr. hand, young; Ch. SI. koni, beginning. Some again have 
compared Tent, hind as in Eng. hindmost. 

ceud, a hundred, so Ir., 0. Ir. ce't, W. cant, Cor. cans, Br. kant, 
*knto-n ; Lat. centum; Gr. ckoltov ( = se-knton) ; Got. hund, 
Eng. hund-red ; Lit. szimtas ; Skr. gatdm. 

ceudfadh, sense, Ir. ceadfadh, 0. Ir. cetbaid, W. canfod, to perceive, 
*cant-buti-, " with-being," from ceud, with, first, and ba, be. 

ceudna, the same, so Ir., 0. Ir. cetna, * centinio-s ; from ceud, first. 

ceum, a step, Ir. ceim, 0. Ir. ceimm, W., Cor. cam, 0. W. cemmein, 
gradibus, Br. kam, *higmen-, verb *kengo, I go, Ir. cingim, 
Gaul. Cingeto-rix, " king of marching men " — of warriors : 
I. E. kheng, limp ; Ger. hinken, limp ; Skr. hhanj, limp 

ceus, ham, poples : *cencso- ; Lit. kenkle, hough, bend of the knee, 
kinka, knee joint; Ag. S. hoh ( = A«»x), Eng. hough (Strachan 
for Lit.). The gen. is ceois, whence ceds, etc. 

ceus, the coarse part of the wool on sheep's legs (Heb.), M. Ir. 
ceslach ; from ceus, ham. 

ceus, crucify, Ir. ceasaini, ceusaim, 0. Ir. cessaim, suffer, *kerds6, 
suffer : I. E. qentho ; Gr. irkvdos, 7rd6o<s, suffering, Eng. pathos ; 
Lit. kenczu, suffering. 

eeutach, becoming : Bee ciatach. 


cha, cha'n, not, Jr. nocha «-, <) Ir. ni con aspirating. The 

particle no or nu is no part of this negative : only ni and con, 

"non quod," con being the same as gu y n. Aspirating power 

of it is as yet unexplained. Ulster Ir. cha. 
Chaidh, went, ivit, Ir. dochuaidh, 0. Ir. dochdid, he went, *coud- j 

Skr. codati, make haste, cod avail, drive, coda, a goad ; Eng. 

shoot. See deach. 
chaoidh, for ever, Ir. choidhche, E. Ir. chaidche, coidchi ; for co- 

aidche, gu oidhche, " till night." 
cheana, already, Ir. cheana, E. Ir. chena, in sooth, quidem, jam, 

ol chena, ar chena, 0. Ir. cene, olchene ; from cen-e, " without 

this," root in gun, without, cion, want, 
chi, will see, Ir. chidhim, chim, 0. Ir. atchi, videt, *ad-cesio, 

*kesid ; Skr. caksh, see, for *ca-kas ; Lat. canus (*cas-no- 1), 

grey ; Ag. S. ham, grey, Eng. hare. See chunnaic, faic. The 

aspiration of chi is due to the lost ad- initial, which is 

confused with the verbal particle do, a. 
cho, CO, as, so, Ir. comh, W. cyn ; from com, with. See comh-. 

Gaelic "Cho dubh ri feannaig" = Welsh "Cyn ddued a'r fran." 
chon, to ; dialectic form of gu. The n belongs to the article. 

Also thun ; q.v. Compare chugad and thugad to chon and 

thun in phonetics, 
chuala, heard, Ir. do chuala, 0. Ir. rochtiala, W. cigleu, *kuklova ; 

root kleu as in cluinn, q.v. 
chugad, towards thee, so Ir., 0. Ir. chucut, *cu-cu-t, where the 

prep, cu or gu, to, is reduplicated. See gu. The t or -ut is 

for tu, q.v. So with chuga, chuige, etc. 
chum, chum, a chum, to, for, in order to, Ir. chum, do chum, 0. Ir. 

dochum n-, dochom n- ; an idiomatic use of com, side 1 Cf. 

Eng. side, beside. 
chuil, to, until ; see chon. 
chunnaic, saw, Ir. choncadar, they saw, 0. Ir. conaca, vidi ; from 

con + faic ; for con, see comh-, and see faic. The old past was 

chunnairc, still used in Ir. as chonnairc, from con + dearc, q.v. 
cia, who, what, Ir. cia, 0. Ir. cia, W. pwy, Cor. pyu, Br. piu, *qei ; 

Lat. qui (Old Lat. quei). See further under co. 
ciabh, a lock of hair, so Ir., E. Ir. ciab : *kes-abu-, kes of cas ? 
Ciadaoin, Di-ciadaoin, Wednesday, Ir. Ceadaoin, 0. Ir. cetdin, 

first fast, "Day of the First Fast." The first weekly fast 

was the latter half of Wednesday, the next was Friday — 

Di-h-aome. Thursday is the day "Between two fasts" — 

Diardaoin, q.v. See further under Di~. 
ciagach, sly-humoured (Dialectic) : 
cial, side or brim of a vessel ; sec ciohhull, 



ciall, sense, understanding, Ir., 0. Ir. ciall, W. pwyll, Cor. pull, 
Br. poell, *qeisld : I. E. qei, observe, see, shine ; Or. ttlvvtos, 
wise ; Skr. crtati, perceive, cittam, thought, cinoti, discover ; 
further Ger. heiter, clear. 

ciamhair, sad (Sh,, Arm.), Ir. ciamhair, ciamliaire (O'Cl., O'Br.) : 

cian, remote, so Ir., 0. Ir. cian, *keino- ; from the pronominal 
root kei, there, Gr. k£lvos, ille, Lat. cis, citra, Eng. lie. Others 
have referred it to root qei, qi, Skr. ciras, long, Got. hveila, 
time, Eng. while. Hence cianail, sad, lonesome, Ir. cia»- 

cianog, a small measure of arable land (Heb. : H.S.D.); see cionag. 

ciar, dusky, Ir., E. Ir. ciar, *keiro-s, "shadowy"; root sqhei, Gr. 
a-Ki€p6<s, shady, rata, shadow, Skr. chdya, shadow, Ag. S. 
scimo (do.). It has been compared to Eng. hoar, Norse hdrr, 
but the vowels do not suit. 

cias, g. ceois, border, skirt, fringe : 

ciatach, ciatfach, elegant, becoming, Ir. ce'arifadhach, discreet, 
belonging to the senses ; from ceudfadh, q.v. 

cibein, rump (of a bird, M'D.), Ir. cibin, the rump (Con.). Cf. Ir. 
yiob, a tail. 

cibeir, a shepherd ; from Sc, Eng. keeper. 

cibhearg, a rag, a little ragged woman (Sh.) : 

cidhis, a mask, vizard (M'D.), luchd cidhis, mas(jueraders ; from 
Sc. gyis, a mask, gysars, masqueraders, M. Eng. gisen, to 
dress, Eng. gid&e, disguise ; all from 0. Fr. guise, modus, 
desguiser, disguise. The Sc. was directly borrowed in the 
Stuart period. 

cigil, tickle (Sh.) ; see ciogail. 

cileag, a diminutive, weakly person (Arg.) : 

cilean, a large codfish ; from Norse keila, gadus longus or " long 
cod." Also cilig (Sutherland). 

cill, a church ; locative case of ceall, q.v., used for the most part 
in place-names. 

cillein, a concealed heap, repository, Ir. cill in, a purse or store of 
hoarded cash (O'B), dim. of ceall, cell, church, q.v. 

cineal, offspring, clan, Ir. cineul, 0. Ir. cenel, W. cenedl, 0. \\ '. 
cenetl, Cor. kinethel, *kenetlo-n : I. E. qen, begin ; Gr. kcuvos, 
new (kolvjos) ; Lat. ve-cens, Eng. recent ; Ch. SI. koni, begin- 
ning ; Skr. kand, young. 

cinn, grow, increase, spring from, Ir., E. Ir. cinim, spring from, 
descend of ; root qen of cineal, q.v. Also cinnich, grow, 

cinneadh, cinne, tribe, clan, Ir. cineadh, cine, E. Ir. ciniud 
(g. cineda) ; from root qen in cineal, q.v. Hence cinnich, 
gentiles, Ir. cineadhach, a gentile. 


cinneag, a spindle (Sutherland) : 

cinnseal, need, desire (Ann.;, contact, origin (M'A.). In the first 
sense, the word is from cion, want ; in the second, from cinii. 
in the sense of "contact," as exemplified by M'A., the Sc. 
kinches, correspondence, etc. ("to kep kinches wi' one"), has 
to be remembered, a word apparently from kin. 

cinnte, certain, so Ir., 0. lr. cinnim, definio, ecintech inhnitus ; 
from ceann, head, q.v. 

Ciob, bite, wound (Bib. Gl.) ; see caob. cibidk (Hend.). 

Ciob, coarse mountain grass, tow, lr. ciob, coarse mountain grass, 
scirpus csespitosus. Club rush, flaky peat (Carm.). 

ciobhull, the jaw (M'D , who writes " na ciobhuill "), ciobhal 
(Sh.), more properly giall (Arm.), q.v. H.S.D. gives the 
pi. as cibhlean. 

cioch, a woman's breast, lr. clock, E. lr. etch; cf. W. cig, flesh, 
M. Br. qttic (do.), *k$kd (kekd 1). Bez. suggests (with query) 
connection with Bulg. cica, teat, Polish eye. 

ClOCras, hunger, longing, Ir. ciocras, hunger, greed, ravenousness : 

ciod, what, Ir. cad, 0. Ir. cate, cote, lit. "quid est/' co + ta, q.v. 
Ir. caide (North goide), 0. Ir. cate, what is it, 0. Ir. ite, it is. 

ciogail, tickle, Ir. giglim ; see diogail. In the Heb. ciogailt, 
tickling, also signifies terror, a crisis of timorous determina- 
tion (H.S.D.). 

ciom, a comb, wool-card, Ir. ciomam, I comb (O'B., Sh.) : from 
M. Eng. kemb, to comb. H.S.D. has not the word. 

ciomach, a prisoner, Ir. cimidh, 0. Ir. cimbid, *kinbiti- (Stokes), 
root kemb, wind ; Lat. cingo, surround ; Gr. ko/x/?os, band, 
Norwegian hempa (do.). See .ceangal, from the same I. E. 
root qeng. 

ciombal, bell, cymbal, so Ir. ; from Lat. cymbalum, Eng. cymbal. 

ciomboll, a bundle of hay or straw (Heb.) ; from Norse kimbill, a 
bundle, kimbla, to truss, Sc. kemple, forty bottles of hay or 
straw, kimple, a piece (Banffshire). 

cion, want ; from the root ken of gun, without, 
cion, love, esteem, Ir. cion, cean, M. Ir. cen, 0. Ir. fochen, welcome ; 
root qino-, qi, I. E. qei, notice, as in ciall. Further, Gr. rip}, 
honour, too, honour, rivoi, pay penalty. The sense of honour 
and punishment is combined in the same word. See ciont. 
cionag, a small portion of land, one-fourth of a cleitig or one- 
eighth of a "farthing" land (Heb.), Ir. ciondg, a small coin, a 
kernel ; cf. W. ceiniog, a penny. 
cionar, music (Arm. ; Sh. has cionthar ; H.S.D. has cion'thar 

from A. M'D., querulous music) : 
cionn, os cionn, etc. ; this is the old dat. of ceann, head (*(/«mw). 


cionnarra, identical, idem ; Ir. cionda (dial. Gaelic cionda), for 

ceudna, by metathesis of the n. The G. -arra is an adjectival 

form of the -ar in aon-ar, etc. 
cionnas, how, Ir< cionnus, 0. Ir. cludas = co -\-iudas ; see co and 

ciont, guilt, Ir. cionnta, 0. Ir. cintach, injustice, cm, guilt 

(*cin-at-), dat. pi. cintaib ; also G. fcion ; I. E. qin, Gr. 

Ttw/xai, punish, Troivrj, punishment, Lat. poena, punishment, 

Eng. pain. See cion. 
ciora, a pet lamb or sheep, cireag, a petted sheep, ciridh, the 

call to a sheep to come to one : all from a shorter form of 

the root ka'er or kair (i.e., kir) of caora, q.v. 
cioralta, cheerful, ciorbail, snug ; from Eng. cheerful. Cf. itorail. 
ciorram, hurt, damage, wounding, Ir. ciorrbhadh, E. Ir. eirriud, 

cirud, *cir-thu-, root leer, destroy, Lat. caries, decay, Gr. Ki)p, 

death, Skr. crndti, smash, ro cirrad, was mutilated, 
ciosaich, subdue : " make tributary f from cis, tribute, tax. 
ciosan, a bread basket, corn-skep (M'D.), Ir. cisean, cis, basket, 

M. Ir. ceiss, possibly allied to (if not borrowed from) Lat. cista 

(Stokes). See ceis. Sc. cassie. 
ciotach, left-handed, sinister, so Ir., W. clnvith, *sqittu- (Stokes), 

*sqit-tu-, and sqit is an extension of sqi, sqai in Gr. o-kollos, 

Lat. scaevas (*sqai-vo-), left. 
ciotag, a little plaid, shawl, 0. Ir. cetaig, ace. case (Bk. of Armagh) ; 
Cir, a comb, Ir. dor, Ir. cir, *kensrd ; cf. Gr. kt€ls, g. ktcvos, 

(from skens), Ch. SI. ceslu, Lit. karf/ti, scratch (Stokes, 

Strachan), root qes, shave, scratch ; cf. Gr. £to>, £vpov. Zimmer 

refers it to the root gers, to furrow, Skr. kartha, a scratch, 

etc. ; but qers would give a G. cerr. A Celtic cera would be 

the ideal form, suggesting Lat. cera, wax, " honeycomb." 
Cir, cud, Ir., E. Ir. cir, Manx keeil, W. cil, Br. das-kiriat, ruminer. 

Perhaps identical with the above (Windisch). cir, ciridh, 

sheep (Carm.). 
cis, tribute, tax, Ir. cios, 0. Ir. cis ; from Lat. census, whence Eng. 

cisd, cist, a chest, Ir. cisde, M. Ir. ciste, W. cist ; from Lat. cista, 

Ir. cis, piece of basket work of osiers. Cf. 0. Ir. cass, bask< t, 

Lat. quasillus. 
cisean, hamper (Islay) ; from ceis. 
ciseart, a light tweed (N. Lochaber). 
cistin, a kitchen ; from the Eng. 
cith, a shower, Ir. cith, a'oth, g. ceatha, E. Ir. cith, 0. Ir. cithech, 

flebilium ; *citu- : 


cith, rage, ardour ; *ketu-. cf. cutkach : an cith, attuned, where 

cith. seems from Eng. key, mood. 
Citheau, a complaining ; see caoin. 
cithris-chaithris, confusion (M'L.) : "hurly-burly ;" an onomato- 

poetic word, 
ciubhran, ciuran, ciurach, small rain, drizzle, Ir. ceobhrdn. See 

ceoban. M. Ir. ciabor, mist, 
ciuchair, beautiful, dimpling (Sh., Arm. ; not H.S.D.) : 
ciucharan, ciucran, a low-voiced plaint : from Norse kj'Okra, 

whine, kjokr, a voice stifled with tears. 
ciuin, mild, Ir. chii?i, *kivo-ni-, I.E., kivo-, keivo-, akin, dear ; Lat. 

civis, Eng. civil ; Norse kf/rr, mild, Ag. S. kedre, Ger. ge-heuer, 

safe ; Ch. SI. po-civii, benignus ; Skr civd, friendly, 
ciurr, hurt, Ir. ctorrbhaigim, I maim, wound : see ciorram. Cf., 

however, 0. Ir. dujiurrsa, adteram, du-furr, attriveris, 

ifhihund, to hurt, root org as in tuaryan. 
clab, an open mouth, Ir. dab ; from Eng. clap, a clap, noise, the 

human tongue. Hence claban, a mill-clapper, 
claban, top of the head, brain-pan (H.S.D.) ; cf. W. clopen, G. 

claigionn, q.v. Possibly Pictish? 
clabar, filth, mire, clay, Ir. c/dbar (whence Eng. clabber) ; cf. Idban. 
clabar-nasg, the clasp of wooden cow collar (Arg.) : 
clabog", a good bargain, great pennyworth : 
clacll, a stone, Ir., E. Ir. clock, W. clwg, a rock, detached rock, 

clog, a rock, clogav, a large stone, *klukd ; root /ad, kl-, hard ; 

Got. hallus, stone, Norse hella, flat stone, Skr. cild, a stone. 

Usually correlated with Lat. calculus, a pebble, Eng. calculate. 
clachan, kirk or kirk town, Ir. clochdn, monastic stone-cells singly 

or in group ; also G. and Ir. " stepping stones." 
clad, comb wool, clad, a wool comb ; from Sc. claut, c/.auts, wool 

comb, also a " clutching hand, a hoe or scrajjer f from claw. 
cladach, a shore, beach, so Ir., *claddo-, " a score, shore ;" from 

clad of cladh, q.v. 
cladan, a burr, a thing that sticks, Ir. claddn, burr, flake ; from 

cladh, a churchyard, Ir. cladh, a bank, ditch, E. Ir. clad, a ditch, 

W. cladd, clawdd, fossa, Cor. cledh (do.), Br. cleuz (do.), 

*klado-, *klddo- ; root kela, kla, break, split, hit ; Gr. 

KkaSapds, easily broken ; Lat. clddes ; Kuss. kladu, cut. See 

further claidheamh, sword. Hence cladhaich, dig. 
cladh aire, a poltroon, so Ir. ; " digger, clod-hopper," from cladh 1 
dag, a bell, Ir. clog, 0. Ir. clocc, W., Cor. clock, Br. kloc'k, *klokko-, 

*kloggo- ; root, klog, klag, sound; Lat. chin go, Eng. clang; 

Gr. K-A.afco, KAayy/}, clang ; Lit. klageti, cackle. Bez. suggests 


Bul. klucam, hit, giving the stem of dag as *klukko-. Hence 
Eng. clocks etc. 

claideag, a lock, ringlet ; see clad, clddan. 

claidheag, the lust handful of corn cut on the farm, the "maiden" 
(Badenoch) ; Sc. claaik-sheaf (Aberdeen, etc.), from cfaaick, 
the harvest home ; the state of having all the corn in. 

claidheamh, a sword, Jr. claidheamh, 0. Ir. claideb, W. cleddyf, 
Cor. cledhe, Br. kleze, *kladebo-s ; root klad, Skr. kladga : 
Gr. k\ol8os, a twig ; Ch. SI. kladivo, a hammer. Further root 
kela, kid, hit, split ; Lat. Miter, \>ev-cellere, etc. See cladh. 

claidhean, better claidhean, the bolt of a door, Ir. claibin ; from 
the same source as claidheamh. H.S.D. gives it in supp. as 

claidreach, a damaging, shattering : *claddo- ; root clad of claidh- 

claigionn, a skull, Ir. cloigionn, M. Ir. cloiceud, W. clopen, Br. 
klopenn, *cloc-cenn, from dag and ceann, " bell-head, dome- 
head." Stokes considers the Ir. borrowed from the Welsh. 
Cf. claban. 

clais, a furrow, ditch, so Ir., E. Ir. class, W. dais, *clad-s-ti- ; from 
*clad of cladh. Br. kleus, pit. 

claistinn, hearing, listening ; from *clostd, ear ; see dittos. 

claiteachd, gentle rain (Arran) : 

clambar, wrangling, Ir. clampar ; from Lat. clamor. 

clamhan, a buzzard : 

clamhradh, a scratching, so Ir. : *clam-rad ; see cloimh, itch. 

clamhsa, an alley, close, so Ir. ; from Eng. close. 

clamhuinn, sleet : 

clann, children, clan, so Ir., 0. Ir. eland, YV. plant, *</lanatd : I. E. 
root qel ; Gr. rkkos, company ; O. Slav, celjadi, family, Lit. 
kiltis = \j<dtt. zilts, race, stock ; Skr hula, race. Some have 
added Lat. populus. Usually regarded as borrowed from 
Lat. planta, a sprout, Eng. plant, whence G. clannach, 

claoidh, vex, oppress, Ir. daoidhim, 0. Ir. cl6im, \V. duddio, over- 
whelm, *cloid ; I. E. klei, incline, as in claon, q.v. Windisch 
and Stokes refer it to *clovio, root qlov, (/lav, qlu, shut in, 
Lat. claudo, close, claudus, lame, Gr. /cAet's, kXzlSos, key. 
claoil, inclining, squint, oblique, Ir. claon, 0. Jr. cl&in : *kloino- \ 
Lat. c/lno, accllitis, leaning, Eng. incline : (Jr. kXiv(o (l long), 
incline; Eng. lean ; Lit. szleti, incline ; Skr. crayati (do.). 
clap, clapartaich, clap, clapping ; from the En-. (■/<>/>. 

clar, a board, tablet. Ir., 0. Ir. ddr, W <-hivr. 0. W. claw. ; Gr. 
Kkrjpos (for tcXapos), a lot, kAuw, break; root gela, qla\ break 


etc., as in claidheamh, colli e, q.v. Hence, inter alia, clarach, 

a woman of clumsy figure, "board-built." 
clarsach, a liarp, [r. cldirseach ; from c/dr. Of. for meaning 

fiodhcheall, chess-play, " wood intelligence." 
clasp, claspa, a clasp, Ir. claaba ; from the Eng, 
clatar, mire (Dial.) ; from Sc dart. 
clathnaire, bashfulness (M'l>., who writes clathnaire. H.S. I). 

gives the form in the text) : ctath + naire ; see naire. C/at/t 

seems from the root qel, hide, as in ceil, q.v. (H.S.D.). 
cleachd, a practice, custom, lr. cleachdadh, E. Ir. clechtaim, I am 

wont, *klcto-, root qel, as in Lat. colo, Eng. cultivate, Gr. 

TrkXojxaL, go, be, etc. Of., however, cleas. 
Cleachd, a ringlet, a fillet of wool, E. Ir. clechtaim, 1 plait (Cam.), 

W. pleth ; from Lat. plecto, Eng. plait. 
clearc, a curl, look of hair : 
cleas, a play, trick, feat, so Ir., E. Ir. cless, *clessu-, *clexu- ; root 

klek, klok, as in cluich, q.v. 
death, concealment, hiding ; also cleith (*k/eti-s) • inf. to ceil, 

hide, q.v. 
cleibe, an instrument for laying hold of fish, or of sea-fowls, Ir. 

clipe ; from Eng. clip, a gaff or cleek, a fastener, Norse klf/pa, 

to pinch, 0. H. G. chluppa, tongs, 
cleir, the clergy, Ir. cleir ; from Lat. clerus. See the next word, 
cl^ireach, a clerk, a cleric, 0. G. clerec (Bk. of Deer), Ir. cleireach, 

E. Ir. clerech, Br. Moarek ; from Lat. clericus, a clerk, cleric, 

from Gr. K\ypu<6$ (do.), from kA^/oo?, a lot, office : " the lot 

(Kkrjpov) of this ministry" (Acts i. 17). 
cleit, a quill, feather, down, Ir. cleite : 
cleit, a rocky eminence ; from Norse klettr, rock, cliff. Common 

in Northern place-names. 
cleit, bar, ridge (Carm.). 
cleith, a stake, wattle, Ir. cleith, death, E. Ir. cleth, tignum. \V. 

clyd, sheltering, M. Br. clet, warm (place) ; root gleit, qlit, 

0. Sax. hhlidaji, cover, Got. hleitSra, hut, Ch. SI. kleti, house. 

Hence cleith, roof ; the E. Ir. cleihe, roof, roof-pole, appears 

to be for kleitio-, the same root in its full vocalic form 

cleith, concealing, 0. Ir. cleith ; see death. 

cleitig, clitig, a measure of land — an 8th of the " penny" land : 
cle6c, a cloak, Ir. cldca ; from the Eng. 
cleuraidh. one who neglects work (Arran) : 
cli, vigour : 
cli, left (hand), wrong, Ir. cli, E. Ir. cli, clc, W. ddd, 0. W. del, 

Br. kleiz, *k/ijo; root klei, incline, Got. hleiduma, left, etc 

See further under claon. 


cliabh, a basket, hamper, the chest (of a man), Ir. cliabh, 0. Ir. 
cliab, corbis, *cleibo-. Root klei as in cliath. 

cliadan, a burr ; cf. cladan. 

cliamhuinn, son-in-law, Ir. cliamhuiu, G. and Ir. cleamhnas, 
affinity ; root klei, lean, Lat. aliens, Eng. client, m-cline, lean. 

cliar, a poet, hero or heroes, Ir., E. Ir. cliar, society, train, clergy ; 
from Lat. clerus, as in cleir, q.v. Hence cliaranach, a bard, 
swordsman. The Cliar Sheanachain (Senchan's Lot) was 
the mythic bardic company, especially on its rounds (Gaelic 
Folk Tales). Hence cliarachd, singing, feats. 

cliatan, a level plot of ground : *cliath-t-an, a participial formation 
from cliath, harrow — f harrowed, level." 

cliath, harrow, hurdle, Ir. cliath, E. Ir. cliath, 0. Ir. Vadum died 
(Adamnan), Dublin, W. clwyd, hurdle, Cor. cfuit, Br. Honed, 
Gaul. *cleta, whence Fr. claie, hurdle, *kleitd ; root klei, 
lean; Lett, slita, wood fence, Lit. szlite, a rack (of a vvaggon). 

cliath, tread hens, as cock : 

cliathach, side, the side of the ribs, Ir. cliathdn, side, l)reast, 
*kleito-, " slope," root klei, incline ; Norse hlitS, a slope, 
mountain side, Gr. kXltvs (l long), a slope, hill-side. 

clibeag, a trick, wile (H.S.D.) ; from cleibe, clip, as cllchd from 

clibist, a misadventure ; see clioh. 

clic, a hook, gaff : see the next word. 

clichd, an iron hook ; from Sc. cleik, Eng. cleek, click. 

clichd, a cunning trick ; from the above. Sc. cleiky, ready to take 
the advantage, tricky, cleek, inclination to cheat : " There's a 
cleek in 'im " (Banffshire). 

cliob, to stumble, cliobach, stumbling, awkward. Cf. Sc. clypock, 
a fall. See next. 

cliob, anything dangling, excrescence, cliobain, a dew-lap, Ir. 
clioh, clibin : also Ir. cliobach, hairy, shaggy, diobdg, a 
(shaggy) colt, etc. Cf. Sc. clype, an ugly, ill-shaped fellow : 
origin unknown (Murray) ; clip, a colt, Ger. Mepper, palfrey. 
Root qlg, stumpy, Gr. ko\o/36s. 

cliopach, halt in speech (H.S.D.) : cf. Eng. clip words. 

ciiostar, a clyster ; from the Eng. 

clip, a hook, clip, Ir. clipe, a gaff; from the Eng. clip. See cleihe. 

clipe, deceit (H.S.D.) ; see clibeag. 

cli8, active, Ir., M. Ir. cliste, ready, quick. Cf. W. cly.% impulse : 
*cl-sto-; root, kel, as in Lat. celer, swift, etc. 1 ? "Na fir chlis," 
the Merry Dancers. From elects. Cf. Ir. and E. Ir. deiMis, 

clisbeach, unsteady of foot, cripple ; from dis. Also clisneach. 


clisg, start, Ir. cliosg (Meath Dial., clist) ; from clis. 

clisinnean, boat ribs, clisneach, rib : 

clisneach, the human body, carcase, outward appearance (Arm. ; 

not H.S.D.) : 
clisneach, a bar-gate (H.S.D.), a rib (Wh.) : 
cliu, renown, praise, Ir., 0. Ir. clu, W. elyw, sense of hearing, clod, 

praise ; Gr. /cAeos, fame ; Skr. pravds, I. E. kleu, hear. See 

further under cluinn. 
cliuchd, mend nets : 
cliud, a slap with the fingers ; from the Sc. clout, Eng. clout, a 

cuff, "clout." 
cliud, a small or disabled hand ; from Ce, cloot, hoof, half-hoof 1 
clo, cldth, broad-cloth ; from Eng. cloth, clothing, etc. 
eld, a print, printing press, M. G. clo (Carswell), Ir. eld, clodh 
• (clodhuighim, Coneys ; E. Ir. clod, mark 1) ; cf. the next word. 

Also clodh. 
f eld, a nail, Ir., E. Ir. clo, W. clo, key, Br. Mao, tool, *klavo- ; 

Lat. cldvus, nail, clavis, key ; Gr. xkeis, key, etc. See claoidh. 
cld-chadail, slumber ; see cloth. 
clobha, a pair of tongs ; from Norse klufi, a fork (of a river), a 

forked mast, snuffers, klof, fork of the legs, " cloven, cleft." 

The Ir. clobh(a) in Con. and Fol., and the clomh of Lh., seems 

a Scottish importation, for Coneys says the vernacular is 

tlobh. In fact, the Ir. word is tlu, tlugh : " lifter " ; root tl- 

as in Lat. tollo ? 
clobhsa, a close, lane, farm-yard, Ir. clamhsa, W. claws ; from Eng. 

close. Also, clamhsa, q.v. 
clochranaich, wheezing in the throat (M 'F. ; Sh. has clochar, and 

clochan, respire) ; from Sc. cloche?% wheezing, cloch, cough 

feebly. It is an onomatopoetic word, like Eng. cluck, clock. 
clod, a clod, turf ; from the Eng. 
clogad, clogaid, a helmet, Ir. clogad, M. Ir. clogat, at chluic, E. Ir. 

clocatt; from ad, hat, q.v., and fclog, head, which see in 

clogais, a wooden clog ; from Eng. clogs. 
cloidhean, the pitch of the box-tree or any shrub tree (Arm. ; not 

H.S.D.). Cf. glaoghan. 
cloimh, scab, itch, Ir. clamh, scurvy, E. Ir. clam, leprosus, W. 

clafr,, leprosy, claf, diseased, Cor. claf (do.), M. Br. claff (do.), 

Br. klanv, *klamo-, sick j Skr. klam, weary ; Gr. K\aixapo<s, 

weak (Hes.); Lat. clemens. 
cloimh, wool, down of feathers, Ir. clumh, down, feathers, E. Ir. 

clum, pluma, W. pluf, plumage ; from Lat. pluma (Eng. 




cldimhdich, rub or scratch as itchy ; same as clamhradh in mean- 
ing and root, 
cldimhein, icicle, snot ; from clbimh. 
clois, the herb " stinking marsh, horse tail," Ir. cldis, clo-uisge 

(O'R.), " water nail " (Cameron), 
cluitheag, a shrimp, prawn (M'D.), Ir. cloitheog. Possibly for 

claidh-, *cladi-, root clad of cladh : "a digger." M'L. has 

instead cloidheag, a small shore-fish. 
clomh, counteract, subdue (Carm ). See caochail. 
clomhais, cloves ; from the Eng. 

clos, rest, sleep, stillness ; *clud-to-, root klu, klav ; see claoidh. 
closach, a carcase ; from clos, q.v. 
cldsaid, a closet, Ir. closeud ; from the Eng. 
cldth, mitigate, still ; from the root klav, of claoidh, q.v. 
cluain, a green plain, pasture, Ir. and E. Ir. cluain : *clopni- ; Lit. 

szlapti, become wet, szlapina, a wet spot ; Gr. Kkk-Ttas (Hes.), 

a wet muddy place (Strachan). 
cluaineas, cluain, intriguing, deceit, Ir. cluainearachd, cluain, 

*clopni- ; Gr. kAc7ttco, steal; Eng. lift, cattle lifting (Strachan). 

Cluain = sense (Glenmoriston). 
cluaran, a thistle ; cf. W. cluro, whisk, 
cluas, ear, Ir., 0. Ir. cluas, W. dust, *kloustd, root kleus, klus, 

Men, hear ; 0. Sax. Must, hearing, Eng. listen, etc. See cluinn. 
clud, a patch, clout, Ir. clud, W. clwt, ; from the Eng. clout, Ag. S. 

clut, (Rhys, Murray), 
cluich, play, Ir. cluiche, a game, E. Ir., clnche, a game, 0. Ir. 

cluichech, ludibundus : *klokjo- ; Got. hlahjan, Eng. laugh, 

Ger. lachen ( Windisch, Stokes), placer e ? 
cluigein, a little bell, anything dangling ; from clag. 
cluinn, hear, Ir., E. Ir. cluinim, W. clyived hearing, Cor. clewaf 

audio, Br. klevet, audire, *klevo, I hear ; Lat. ctueo, am 

reputed, inclutus, famous ; Gr. kXvw, hear ; Eng. loud, listen ; 

Skr. $ru, hear, crdvas, sound. Hence cliu, cluas, etc. 
cluip, cheat : hardly *kloppi- ; Gr. kActttw. 
clupaid, the swollen throat in cattle : 
cluthaich, cover, clothe, Ir. cluthmhar, sheltered, warm. Cf. E. Ir. 

clithaigim, I shelter, clith, clothing, W. clyd, sheltering ; root 

qel of ceil, q.v. Ir. cludaim, I clothe, cover, from Eng. clothe, 

has possibly influenced the vowel both in G. and Ir. 
cluthaich, chase, Ir. cluthaighim : *kluto-, *klu ; see claoidh ? 
cnab, pull, haul ; see cnaj>. 
cnabaire, an instrument for dressing flax, Ir. cndib, hemp ; see 

cnag, a crack, Ir. cnag ; from the Eng. crash 


cnag, a pin, knob, Ir. cnag ; from the Eng. knag, a peg, Dan. 

knag, a peg, Sw. knagg, a knag, 
cnaid, a scoff, Ir. cnaid : 
cnaimh, bone, Ir. cnaimh, 0. Ir. cndim, *kndmi-s ; Gr. kv^jxtj, leg ; 

Eng. ham. 
cnaimhseag, a pimple, bear-berry : 
cnamh, chew, digest, Ir. cnaoi, cnaoidhim, E. Ir. cndm, gnawing, 

W. cnoi ; Gr. kvwSwv, a tooth, Kvdta, scrape ; Lit. kandu, bite ; 

Skr. Tchad, chew. Root qne, qnd, qen. Hence cnamhuin, 

cnamhaiche, matured person (M'D.) : 
cnap, a knob, Ir. cnap, E. Ir. cnapp ; from Norse knappr, a knob, 

M. Eng. knap. Hence also G. and Ir. cnap, a blow, Sc. knap, 

Eng. knappe, blow, 
cnapach, a youngster ; from cnap. But cf. Norse knapi, boy, 

varlet, Eng. knave. 
fcnarra, a ship, Ir. cnarra ; from Norse knorr, g. knarrar, Ag. S. 

cnatan, a cold: *krod-to--, Ger. rotz, catarrh; Gr. Kopv£a (do.). 

Also cneatan. 
cnead, a sigh, groan, so Ir., E. Ir., cnet ; from the root can of can, 

say, sing. 
cneadh, a wound, so Ir., E. Ir. cned, *knidd ; Gr. Kvltju, sting, 

kvlSi], nettle ; Ag. S. hnitan, tundere. Cf. Teut. hnit, hit ; 

Gr. kvl£(d, stick, cut ; cneidh-ghalar, painful complaint, 
cneap, a button, bead ; see cnap. 
cneas, skin, waist, Ir. cneas, E. Ir. cnes ; from cen of cionn, skin ; 

see boicionn ; Corn, knes, body, W. cnawd, human flesh, 
cneasda, humane, modest, Ir. cneasda ; from cen as in cineal, kin. 
cneatag, fir cone, shinty ball : 
cneisne, slender (M'D.) ; from cneas. 
cniadaich, caress, stroke : 
cno, a nut, Ir. end, 0. Ir. cnu, W. cneuen, pi. cnau, Cor. cnyfan, 

Br. knaouenn, *knovd ; Norse, hnot, Ag. S. hnutu, Eng. nut, 

Ger. nuss. 
cnoc, a hillock, Ir, cnoc, 0. Ir. cnocc, 0. Br. cnoch, tumulus, Br. 

kreac'h, krec'henn, hill, *knokko- ; from knog-ko-, Norse y hnakki, 

nape of the neck, Ag. S. hnecca, neck, Eng. neck. Some 

have given the stem as *cunocco-, and referred it to the root 

of Gaul, cuno-, high, W. cwn, height, root ku, be strong, 

great, as in curaidh, q.v. Cf. Ag. S. hnoll, O.H.G. hnol, 

vertex, head. See ceann. 
cn6caid, a ycung woman's hair bound up in a fillet. Founded on 

the Sc. cockernoiuiy. 


cnod, a knot, Ir. cnota ; from the Eng. 

cnod, a patch, piece on a shoe ; cf. Sc. knoit, knot, large piece. 

cnddaich, acquire, lay up, Ir. cnodach, acquiring (O'E.) ; see cnod. 

cnodan, the gurnet, Ir. cnuddn (Fol.) ; cf. Sc. crooner, so-called 
from the croon or noise it makes when landed. The G. seems 
borrowed from Sc. crooner, mixed with Sc. crout, croak. 

cnoid, a sumptuous present (Heb.) ; cr6id : 

cnoidh, tooth-ache, severe pain ; see cnuimh. 

cnomhagan, a large whelk, buckie ; cf. end, nut. 

cnot, unhusk barley ; from cnotag, the block or joint of wood 
hollowed out for unhusking barley. The word is the Eng. 
knot ? 

cnuachd, head, brow, temple, Ir. cruaic (O'R.) ; cf. W. enuweh, 
bushy head of hair, enweh, knuckle, cnuch, joint, *cnoucco-, 
" a prominence " ; root kneu, knu ; Norse hnukr, hnjukr, knoll, 
peak, hnutSr, a knob. Hence cnuachdach, shrewd : " having 
a head." 

cnuas, gnash, chew, crunch ; for cruas, cruais, founded on Eng. 
crush, crunch ? 

cnuasaich, ponder, collect, Ir. cnuasuighim, cnuas, a collection, 
scraping together, G. and Ir. cnuasachd, reflection, collection, 
*knousto- ; root knu, knevo, scrape, Gr. kvvo>, scratch, Norse 
hnoggr, niggard, Eng. niggard, Ag. S. hnedw, sparing. The 
idea is " scraping together" : a niggard is " one who scrapes." 
Stokes (Diet.) gives the root as knup, and compares Lit. 
knupsyti, oppress. St. now, possibly, *knoud-to, Norse, 
knub"r, ball. Cf. cruinnich, for force. 

cnuimh, a worm,; wrong spelling for cruimh, q.v. 

cnumhagan, a handful (Heb.) ; for crobhagan, from tcrobh, the 
hand 1 See crbg. 

CO, CO, who, 0. Ir. co-te, now G. ciod, q.v. ; W. pa, Cor. py, pe, Br. 
pe, quia, root qo-, qa-, qe ; Lat. quod ; Gr. iro-di, etc.; Eng. who. 

CO, cho, as, so ; see cho. 

cob, plenty (Sh.) ; from Lat. copia. Ir. coib, party, followers. 

cobhair, assistance, so Ir., 0. Ir. cobir, *cobris, co + her, root bher, 
carry ; see heir ; and cf. for meaning Gr. o-vfi^epeL, it is of use. 

cobhan, a coffer, box, Ir. cofra ; from Eng. coffin, coffer. 

CODhar, foam, Ir. cubhar, E. Ir. cobur : co + bur ; for bar, see tobar, 

cobhartach, spoil, booty : 

cobhlach, fleet. See cabhlach. 

COC, cock, to cock ; from the Eng. 

cocaire, a cook, Ir. cbcaire, M. Ir. cocaire, Cor. peber, pistor ; from 
the Lat. coquo, I cook. 


COChull, also COich (Carm.), husk, hood, Ir. cochal, 0. Ir. cochull, 

W. cwcwll, hood, cowl ; from Lat. cucul/us, Eng. coral. 
COCOntachd, smartness (A. M'D.); see coc, gog. 
codaich, share, divide ; from codach, gen. of cuid. 
c6dhail, a meeting ; see comhdhail. 

COgadh, war, so Ir., 0. Ir. cocad : *con-cath, "co-battle" ; see cath. 
COgais, conscience, Ir. cogus, 0. Ir. concubus : con + cubus ; and 

0. Ir. cubus, conscience, is for con-fis, co and fios, knowledge, q.v. 
cogan, a loose husk, covering (H.S.D.), a small vessel; see gogan 

for latter force. 
COgull, tares, cockle, Ir. cogal; borrowed from M. Eng. cockel, 

cokkul, now cockle. 
coibhneas, proper spelling of caoimhneas, which see. 
coibhseachd, propriety, so Ir. coibhseach, becoming ; cf. M. Ir. 

cuibdes, fittingness, from cubaid ; see cubhaidh. 
coicheid, suspicion, doubt : 
cdig, five, Ir. cuig, 0. Ir. cdic, W. pump, E. W. pimp, Cor. pymp, 

Br. pemp, Gaul, pempe, *qenqe ; Lat. quinque ; Gr. Trevre ; Lit. 

penki ; Got. fimf ; Skr. pdiica. 
coigil, spare, save, so Ir., E. Ir. coiclim, cocill (n.) ; * con-eel, root 

qel, as in Lat. colo, etc. Also cagail. The E. Ir. cocell, 

concern, thought, is for con-ciall ; ciall, sense. 
COigreach, a stranger, Ir. coigcrigheach, coigcrioch, *con-crich-ech, 

" provincial," E. Ir. cocrich, province, boundary. See crioch. 

The meaning is, "one that comes from a neighbouring 

coilceadha, bed materials, fcoilce, a bed, Ir. coilce, a bed, E. Ir. 

colcaid, flock bed, 0. W. cilcet, now cylched ; from Lat. 

culcita, a pillow, Eng. guilt. 
coilcheail, a little cock, water spouting ; from coileach, q.v. 
coileach, a cock, so Ir., 0. Ir. cailech, W. ceiliog, Cor. celioc, Br. 

kiliok, *kaljakos, the " caller " ; root qal, call ; Lat. calare, 

summon, Eng. Calends ; Gr. KaAew, call ; Lit. kalba, speech, 

coileag, a cole of hay ; from the Sc. cole, a cole or coil of hay. 

See gbileag. Cdileag (Perth.), 
coileid, a stir, noise (Heb.) ; cf. Eng. coil, of like force. The G. 

seems borrowed therefrom, 
coileir, a collar, Ir. coilear ; from the Eng. 
coilionn, a candle ; see coinneal. 
coi'lige (Dial.), race, course (Hend.) : coimhliong. 
coiliobhar, a kind of gun ; see cuilbheir. 
coille, coill, wood, Ir. coill, 0. Ir. caill, W. celli, Cor. kelli, *kaldet-, 

Gr. /cAaSos, a twig ; Eng. holt, Ger. holz. Further root qla, 

qela, split, hit, as in cladh, claidheamh, q.v. 


coilleag, a cockle (M'D.), Ir. coilhog (O'R.), Cor. cyligi : 

Coilleag, a ruial song, a young potato, a smart blow : 

coilleag, coileig (accent on end syllable ; Perth.), a smart stroke : 

coilpeachadh, equalizing cattle stock (Heb.); see colpach. 

coilpein, a rope : 

coimeas, comparison, co-equal, Ir. coimheas, E. Ir. coimmeas : 

com + meets. See meas. 
coimh-, co- ; see comh-. 
COimheach, strange, foreign, cruel, Ir. coimhtkeach, coimhthigheach, 

cdimhightheach, strange, M. Ir. comaigthe, foreign, 0. Ir. 

comaigtech, alienigena ; for comaitche (Stokes). See tathaich. 
fCoimhdhe, God, Ir. Coimhdhe, God, the Trinity, 0. Ir. comdiu, 

gen. comded (Bk. of Deer), Lord, *com-medios, " Providence," 

root med, think, as in G. meas, esteem, Lat. modus, meditor, 

meditate. See meas. The fanciful " Coibhi, the Celtic arch- 

druid," is due to a confusion of the obsolete Coimhdhe with 

the Northumbrian Coin of Bede. 
coimhead, looking, watching, Ir. cdimke'ad, 0. Ir. come't, *com- 

entu-. For entu, see didean. 
coimhearsnach, a neighbour, Ir. comharsa, gen. cdmharsan, E. Ir. 

comarse ; from com and ursainn, a door-post (Zimmer). See 

coimheart, a comparison ; *com-bert, root ber, of heir. Cf. Lat. 

coimheirbse, wrangling : com +farpui$, q.v. 
coimhirp, rivalry, striving (Arg.) ; same root as oidhirp. 
coimhliong, a race, course, also coi'lige (Dial.) ; Ir. cdimhling ; 

from com and lingim, I leap. For root, see leum. 
coimsich, perceive, Ir. coimsighim : com-meas ; see meas. 
COimirc, mercy, quarter, so Ir. ; see comairce. 
coimpire, an equal, match ; from Eng. compeer or Lat. compar. 
4 COimrig, trouble ; from Sc, Eng. cumber, cumbering. 
coimseach, indifferent (Sh.) ; from coimeas, co-equal. 
coindean, a kit (Arm. : not H.S.D.) : 
cdineag, a nest of wild bees (M'L.) ; from cdinneach, moss. See 

coinean, a rabbit, coney, Ir. coinin, W. cwning ; from M. Eng. 

cunin, from 0. Fr. connin, connil, from Lat. cuniculus, whence 

Eng. coney, through Fr. 
COingeis, indifferent, same as, no matter ; con-geas, from geas, 

desire, etc. Cf. ailleas, from ail-ges. 
coillgeal, a whirlpool (H.S.D.) : 

coingheall, a loan, Ir. coinghioll, obligation; con + giall, q.v, 
coingir, a pair (Sh.) ; 

of The Gaelic Language. 95 

coinlein, a nostril ; see cuinnean. 
COinn, fit of coughing ; a nostril (Hend.) : 

coinne, a supper, a party to which every one brings his own pro- 
visions (Heb.). Cf. E. Ir. coindem, coinmed, coigny, conveth, 

quartering, *kond, eat, as in cuamh, q.v. 
COinne, woman (Hend.) ; from N. kojia, Jcvenna (gen. pi.), woman, 

Eng. queen. 
coinne, coinneamh, a meeting, Ir. coinne, E. Ir. conne, *con-nesid ; 

root nes, come, dwell, Gr. veo/^at, go, va'ua, dwell ; Skr. nas, 

join some one. Stokes seems to think that kon-de- is the 

ultimate form here, de being the I. E. dhe, set, Gr. tlOtj^l, etc. 

Coinneamh, when used as adverb = coinnibh, dat, plur. 1 
coinneach, moss, Ir. caonach, M. Ir. ciinnach, 0. Ir. coennich, 

muscosi : 
COinneal, candle, so Ir., E. Ir. candel, W. canwyll, 0. W. cannuill, 

Cor. cantuil ; from Lat. candela, whence Eng. candle. 
coinneas, a ferret ; *con-neas, " dog-weasel " 1 See neas. 
coinnseas, conscience (Hend.) : 
coinnlein, a stalk, Ir. coinlin, M. Ir. coinnlin, 0. Ir. connall, 

stipula, *konnallo- ; Lat., canna, a reed, Gr. Kavva. Stokes 

also joins W. cawn, reed, *kdno-. 
cdir, just, right, Ir., 0. Ir. coir, W. cywir: *ko-vero-, "co-true," 

from vero-j now fior, q.v. Hence cdir, justice, right, share. 

Also in the phrase 'n an coir, in their presence ; see comhair. 
coirb, cross, vicious, Ir. corbadh, wickedness, E. Ir. corpte, wicked ; 

from Lat. corruptus. Also see coiripidh. 
coirceag, a bee-hive (Sh., O'R.) : 
coire, fault, so Ir., 0. Ir. caire, 0. W. cai°ed, W. cerydd, Br. carez, 

*karjd ; Lat. carinare, blame, abuse ; Let. karindt, banter, 

Ch. SI. karati, punish, 
coire, a cauldron, so Ir., E. Ir. core, coire, W. pair, Cor., Br. per, 

*qerjo ; Norse hverr, kettle, Ag. S. hwer ; Skr. caru ; Gr. 

Kepvos, a sacrificial vessel, 
coireal, coral, from the Eng. 
coireall, a quarry, Ir. coireul, coiler (F. M.) ; from Fr. carrier?, 

with dissimilation of r's (Stokes). 
coireaman, coriander, so Ir. ; founded on the Lat. coriandrum, 

Gr. Kopiavvov. 
{ coirioll, a carol ; from the Eng. 

coiripidh, corruptible ; from Lat. corruptus. 
vcoirneil, a colonel, Ir. curnel, corniel (F. M.) ; from the Eng. 
coirpileir, a corporal ; from the Eng. 
coiseunuich, bless (Sh.) ; con + seun or sian, q.v.* 
coisich, walk, Ir. coiseachd (n) ; from cas, coise, q.v. 


coisinn, win ; see cosnadh. 

coisir, a festive party, chorus, Ir. coisir, feast, festive party, coisir 

(O'R., O'B., and Keat.), feasting, " coshering " : 
coisrigeadh, consecration, 0. G. ccnsecrad (Bk. of Deer), Ir. cois- 

reagadh, 0. Ir. coisecrad ; from Lat. consecratio. 
coit, a small boat, Ir. coit, E. Ir. coite. Cf. Lat. cotta, species 

navis, Norse kati, a small ship, Eng. cat. Stokes suggests 

that the G. and Ir. are from the Low Lat. cotia, navis lnclica. 

Hence Eng. cot. Now from *quontio ; Gaul, ponto, whence 

Eng. punt. 
coitcheann, common, public, so Ir., 0. Ir. coitchenn: * con-tech-en ? 
coiteir, a cottar, Ir. coiteoir ; from the Eng. cottar. 
coitich, press one to take something : * con-tec-, root tek, ask, Eng. 

thig ; see atach. 
col, an impediment, Ir. colaim ; root, qela, qld, break, split % See 

call ; and cf. Gr. kcoXvio, hinder, which is probably from the 

same root, 
col, sin, Ir., E. Ir. col, W. cwl, 0. Br. col, *kulo- ; Lat. culpa, colpa, 

fault. Stokes hesitates between referring it to the root of 

Lat. cidpa or to that of Lat. scelus, Got. skal, Eng. shall, Ger. 

schuld, crime. 
■i colag, a small steak or collop (Arg.) ; from Eng. collop. 
colaiste, a college, Ir. colaisde ; from the Eng. 
colamoir, the hake (Sh., O'B.), Ir. colamoir ; cf. Sc. coalmie, 

colemie, the coal-fish, 
colan, a fellow-soldier, companion ; cf. comhla, together. The 

Ir. comhlach is for com-lach, the lack of dglach. 
colann, colainn, a body, so Ir., 0. Ir. colinn, gen. colno, W. celain, 

carcase, 0. W. celein, cadaver, *colanni- (Brugmann) ; root 

qela, break, the idea being "dead body"? Cf. for meaning 

Gr. veKvs, corpse, from nek, kill, 
colbh, pillar, Ir , colbh, E. Ir. colba, W. celff, Br. keif; Lat. columna, 

Eng. column ; root qel, high. G. colbh, plant stalk, Ir. colmh, 

is allied to Lat. culmus. The Celtic words, if not borrowed 

from, have been influenced by the Lat. 
cole, an eider duck (Heb.) ; from Sc, Eng. colk, E. Fris. kolke, the 

black diver. 
CC-lg, wrath, Ir., colg ; a metaphorical use of calg (i.e. colg), q.v. 
eolg, sword (ballads). See calg. 
collachail, boorish (H.S.D. ; O'R. quoted as authority), Ir. collach- 

a.mhuil ; from Ir. collach, boar. See cullach. 
collaid, a clamour, Ir. colldid ; see coileid. 
collaidh, carnal, sensual, so Ir., E. Ir. collaide ; for colnaide, from 

colann, body, flesh. 


collaidin, codalan, white poppy (H.S.D. ; O'R. only quoted), Ir. 

collaidin, codalan ; from colladh, codal, sleep, 
collainn, a smart stroke ; also coilleag. 
colman, a dove ; see caiman. 
colpach, a heifer, steer, Ir. colpach, M. Ir. calpach; apparently 

founded on Norse kdlfr, a calf. Hence Sc. colpindach. 
coltach, like ; for co-amhuil-t-ach. See amhuil, samhuil. 
coltar, a coulter, Ir. coltar, E. Ir. coltar ; from M. Eng. cultre, 

Lat. culter. 
columan, a dove, Ir. and 0. Ir. colum, W. colomen, cwlwm, Corn. 

colom, Br. coulm ; from Lat. columbus, columba. 
com, the cavity of the chest, Ir. com, coim, chest cavity, waist, 

body. The G. is allied to W. cwm, a valley, " a hollow," 

*kumbo- ; Gr. kvcj>os, a hump, Lat. cumbere ; Ger. kaube, hood ; 

root kdbho-, bend. The 0. Ir. coim, covering, is from the 

root kemb, wind, as in cam, q.v. 
coma, indifferent, so Ir., E. Ir. cuma, 0. Ir. cumme, idem, is cumma, 

it is all the same ; from root me, measure : " equal measure." 
comaidh, a messing, eating together, E. Ir. commaid, *kom-buti-s, 

"co-being," from *buti-s, being. See bi, be. 
COmain, obligation, Ir. comaoin, 0. Ir. commdin : *com-moini- ; Lat. 

communis. See maoin. 
f comairce, protection ; see comraich. 
comanachadh, celebration of the Lord's Supper ; from comann or 

comunn, society, Lat. communio, Eng. communion. 
comannd, a command ; from the Eng. 
tcomar, a confluence, Ir. comar, cumar, E. Ir. commar, W. cymmer, 

Br. kemper, confluent, *kom-bero- ; Lat. con-fero. Boot bher, 

as in beir. 
comas, comus, power, Ir. cumas, E. Ir. commus, *com-mestu-, 

*mestu-, from med, as in meas (Zimmer, Brugmann). 
combach, a companion ; a shortened form of companach. 
combaid, company (Dial.) : 

COmbaiste, compaiste, a compass, Ir. compds ; from the Eng. 
comh-, prefix denoting " with, com-, con-," Ir. comh-, 0. Ir. com-, 

*kom- ; Lat. cum, com-, con-, Eng. com-, con-, etc. It appears 

as coimh-, com- (before m and b), con- (before d, g), etc. 
COmhach, prize, prey : *com-agos- ; root ag, drive % 
comhachag, owl, W. cuan, Br. kaouen, 0. Br. couann ; L. Lat. 

cavannus (from the Celtic — Ernault), Fr. chouette, 0. Fr. 

choue. Cf. Ger. schuhu, uhu. An onomatopoetic word 

CO had, a comparison (Sh.) ; co?nh+fada, q.v. 
CO hail), contention about rights (M'A.) : 



comhaich, dispute, assert, contend : 

comhailteachd, a convoy, Ir. comhailtim, I join ; from comhal, a 

joining, so Ir., E. Ir. accomallte, socius, 0. Ir. accomol, con- 

junctio, W. cyfall, *ad-com-ol. For ol, see under tional, alt. 
comhair, presence, e regione, etc., Ir. comhair, E. Ir. comair, AV. 

cyfer, 0. W. civer : com + air, the prep, comh and air, q.v. 

(Asc). Cor. kever. Cf. comhghar of Ir. 
Cumhairc, an outcry, appeal, forewarning, Ir. comhairce, E. Ir. 

comaircim, I ask : com + arc. For arc, see iomchorc. 
pomhairle, advice, Ir. cdmhairle, 0. Ir. airle, counsel, air + le. 

This le is usually referred to the root las, desire, Skr. lash, 

desire, Lat. lascivus, wanton. Ascoli suggests the root la of 

0. Ir. Idaim, mittere, Gr. eXavvio. 
comhal, a joining — an Ir. word ; see comhailteachd. 
COmhalta, a foster-brother, Ir. cdmhalta, E. Ir. comalta, W. cyfaillt, 

friend, *kom-altjos, root al, rear, Lat. alo, etc. See altrum. 
comh ar radii, a mark, Ir. cbmhartha, 0. Ir. comarde ; from com and 

0. Ir. airde, signum, W. arwydd, M. Br. argoez, *are-vidio- ; 

root vid, as in Lat. video, here pros-video, etc. 
comhart, the bark of a dog ; from comh and art, 0. Ir. artram, 

latratus, W. cyfarih, arthio, to bark, 0. Br. arton. Cf. Ir. 

amhastrach, barking, 
cdmhdach, clothing, covering, Ir. cumhdach, veil, covering, defence, 

E. Ir. comtiich, cumtach, covering, " shrine" : *con-ud-tog ; 

root teg, tog, as in tigh, q.v. Cf. cuintgim, peto : *com-di- 

cdmhdaich, allege, prove : *com-atach ; see atach 1 
cdmhdhail, a meeting, Ir. cdmhd 'hail, E. Ir. comddl : com + dail ; 

see dail. 
Cdmhla, together, Ir. comhldmh : com-\-ldmh, "co-hand, at hand." 

See lamh. 
comhla, door, door-leaf, Ir. cdmhla, E. Ir. comla, gen. comlad : 

*com-ld-, root {p)ld-, fold, groove (cf. Lat. sim-plu-s, O.H.G. 

zwifal, two-fold) ; root pal, pel, as in alt, joint. 
COmhlann, a combat, Ir. comhlann, E. Ir. comlann: *com + lann ; 

see lann. 
COmhluadar, conversation, colloquy, Ir. cdmhluadar, company, 

conversation ; from luaidh, speak (*com-luad-tro-). See 

cdmhnadh, help, Ir. cungnamh, 0. Ir. congnam, inf. to congniu, I 

help : com + (g)iu, " co-doing." See nl, do, gniomh, deed, 
comhnard, level, Ir. cdmhdrd'. com + drd, "co-high, equally high.'' 
comhnuidh, a dwelling, Ir. cdmhnuidhe, a tarrying, dwelling, E. Ir. 

comnaide, a waiting, delay, (also irnaide) : *com-naide ; root 


nes, nas, dwell ; Gr. vai(a, dwell, reo/uu, go, i/ae-n/s-, inhabitant ; 

Skr. nas, join any one. 
cdmhradh, conversation, Ir. cdmhrddk ; com + radii ; Bee radh. 
cdmhrag, a conflict, Ir. cdmhrac, E. Ir. comrac, battle, O. Ir. 

comracc, meeting, W. cy franc/, rencounter, *kom-ranko- ; root 

renk, assemble ; Lit. rinkti, assemble, surinkimas, assembly, 
comhstadh, a borrowing, loan : *com-iasad- ; see iasad ? Cf. E. Ir. 

costud, consuetudo. 
compairt, partnership, Ir. compdrtas ; from com- &n& pctirt, q.v. 
companach, companion, Ir. companach, M. Ir. companach ; from 

E. Eng. compainoun, through Fr., from L. Lat. compdnio, 

" co-bread-man" from pdnis, bread. Dialectic combach. 
comradh, aid, assistance : 
COmraich, protection, sanctuary, Ir. comairce, comruiyhe, E. Ir. 

comairche, M. Ir. comairce ; from the root arc, defend, as in 

teasairg, q.v. 
comunn, society, company, Ir. cumann ; from Lat. communio, Eng. 

con-, with ; see comh-. 
COna, cat's tail or moss crops (Sh.) ; see canach. Cf. gonan, grass 

COnablach, a carcase, so Ir. ; for con-ablach ; see con- and ablach. 

" Dog's carcase " (Atkinson), 
conachag, a conch (M'A.) ; from the Eng. 
CO-nachair, a sick person who neither gets worse nor better (M'A.), 

uproar (M'F.) : 
cona-ghaothach, tempest, raging gale (Hend.) : 
conair, a path, way (Sh., O'B.), so Ir., 0. Ir. conar : 
conaire, the herb "loose-strife," Ir. conair (O'R.) ; see conas. 
conal, love, fruitage (Carm.) : 
conalach, brandishing (Sh. ; not H.S.D.) ; cf. the name Conall, 

*Cuno-valo-s, roots kuno (see curaidh) and val, as in flath, q.v. 
COnaltradh, conversation, Ir. conaltra (O'R. ; Sh.) : *con-alt-radh ? 

For alt, see alt, joint, 
conas, a wrangle, so Ir. (O'R., Sh.) \ from con-, the stem of cu, 

dog : " currishness " 1 
conas, conasg, furze, whins, Ir. conasg (O'R., Sh.): cf. conas above. 

Manx conney, yellow furze, 
condrachd, contrachd, mischance, curse, E. Ir. contracht ; from 

Lat. contractus, a shrinking, contraction. 
confhadh, rage, Ir. confadh, M. Ir. con/ad: con+fadh; for fadh, 

see onfhadh. 
cdnlan, an assembly, Ir. conldn. H S.D. gives as authorities for 

the Gaelic word " Lh. et C. S," 


conn, sense, so Jr., E. Jr. cond : *cos-no-, root kos, kes, as in G. cM, 
see; Gr. Ktweco, understand, koct/xos, array ("what is seen"), 
world. See further under chi for &es. Stokes equates cond 
with Got. handngs, wise ; but this is merely the Eng. handy. 
It has been suggested as an ablaut form to ceann, head. Got. 
hugs, sense, has also been compared ; *cug-s-no- is possible. 

COnnadh, fuel, so Ir., 0. Ir. condud, W. cynnud, Cor. cunys, 
*kondutu- ; root kond, hid ; Lat. candeo, incendo ; Gr. 
KavSapos, coal. 

connan, lust : 

CC-nnlach, straw, stubble, so Ir., 0. Ir. connall, stipula : konnallo- ; 

Lat. cannula, canna, a reed, canalis, Gr. kolvvol, reed. See 

connsaich, dispute ; see under ionnsaich. 
connspair, a disputant : *con-deasbair ; see deasbair. 
CC-nnspeach, a wasp, Ir. coinnspeach (Fol.) ; see speach, wasp. 
COnnspoid, a dispute, Ir. conspdid; from a Lat. *consputatio, for 

*condisputatio. See deasbud. 
connspunn, conspull, cdnsmunn, a hero, Ir. conspullach, heroic 

constabal, the township's bailiff (Heb.) ; from Eng. constable. 
COntraigh, neaptide, 0. Ir. contracht ; from Lat. contractus, 

shrinking (Zeuss, Meyer). See condracht and traogh. 
COntran, wild angelica, Ir. contran (O'R.) : 
conuiche, a hornet (H.S.D.), cdnuich (Arm.), conuibhe, connuibh 

(M'L., M'A.) ; used by Stewart in the Bible glosses. Same 

root as conas. 
cop, foam, M. Ir., E. Ir. copp ; from Ag. S., M. Eng. copp, vertex, 

top, Ger. kopf, head, 
copag, docken, Ir. copog, cap6g ; M. Ir. copdg. Founded on the 

Eng. cop, head, head-dress, crest, tuft; W. copog, tufted. 

The same as cop, q.v. 
copan, a boss, shield boss, cup ; from the Norse koppr, cup, bell- 
shaped crown of a helmet, Eng. cup. 
. copar, copper, Ir. copar ; from the Eng. 
COr, state, condition, Ir. cor, 0. Ir. cor, positio, "jactus," *koru-, 

vb. *korio, I place. See cuir. 
coram, a faction, a set (M'A.) ; from the Eng. quorum. 
core, a cork, so Ir. ; from the Eng. 
core, a knife, gully, dirk, Ir. core : *1corko-, *qor-qo-, root qor, qer, 

cut ; Lit. kirwis, axe ; Gr. Kepfia, a chip, Ktipta, cut. Allied 

to the root sqer of sgar, q.v. 
core, oats, Ir. coirce, M. Ir. corca, W. ceirch, Br. kercli, *korkjo-. 

Bezzenberger suggests connection with Lettic kurki, small 

corn. Possibly for kor-ko-, where kor, ker is the root which 


appears in Lat. Geres, Eng. cereal, Gr. ko'/oo?, satiety, Lit. 
szerti, feed. The meaning makes connection with Gr. 
KopKopos, pimpernel, doubtful. 

eorcur, crimson, Ir. corcur, scarlet, 0. Ir. corcur, purple, W. 
porphor ; from Lat. purpura (Eng. purple). 
* Cdrd, a rope, Ir. corda ; from Eng. cord, Lat. corda. 
v Cdrd, agree, Ir. cord ; from obsolete Eng. cord, agree, bring to an 
agreement, from Lat. cord-, the stem of cor, heart, whence 
Eng. cordial, etc. The Sc. has the part, as cordyt, agreed. 

COrdaidhe, spasms (Sh.) : "twistings," from cord. 

cdrlach, bran, refuse of grain (M'D. ; O'R. has cor lack), cdrrlach, 
coarsely ground meal, over-plus. A compound of corr. 
"what is over"? 

C6rn, a drinking horn, Ir., E. Ir. corn, W. corn, Br. horn, Homo- ; 
Lat. cornu ; Eng. horn ; Gr. Ktpas, horn. 

cdrnuil, retching, violent coughing : *kors-no- ? For kors, see 

COron, a crown, Ir., E. Ir. cordin, cordn, W. coron ; from Lat. 
corona (Eng. crown). 

COrp, a body, Ir., 0. Ir. corp, W. corff, Br. korf ; from Lat. corpus 
(Eng. corpse, Sc. corp). 

COrpag, tiptoe (Arm.) ; seemingly founded on corr of corrag. 

COrr, a crane, Ir., E. Ir. corr, W. crychydd, Cor. cherkit, 0. Br. 
corcid, ardea, *korgsd, korgjo-s; Gr. /<e/)X w > De hoarse, Kepxvy, 
a hawk, 0. SI. kraguj, sparrow-haw r k. Cf. W. cregyr, heron, 
" screamer," from cregu, be hoarse ; Ag. S. hrdgra, Ger. 
reiher, heron, Gr. Kpt^a, KpUe, screech. 

cdrr, excess, overplus, Ir. corr ; G. corr, odd, Ir. cor, corr, odd ; 
also Ir. corr, snout, corner, point, E. Ir. corr, rostrum, corner. 
The E. Ir. corr, rostrum, has been referred by Zimmer and 
Thurneysen to corr, crane — the name of "beaked" bird doing 
duty also for " beak." The modern meanings of " excess, 
odd " (cf. odd of Eng., which really means " point, end ") 
makes the comparison doubtful. Refer it rather to kors-, stick 
out, point, head ; Gr. Kopo-rj, head ; stem keras- ; Lat. crista, 
Eng. crest ; further is Gr. Ktpas, horn, Lat. cerebrum, Norse 
hjarsi, crown of the head ; and also corn, horn, q.v. Hence 
corr an, headland. 

CC-rra-biod, an attitude of readiness to start ; from corr, point, 
and Mod = biog, start, corra-beaga (M'A.). 

CC-rrach, abrupt, steep, Ir., M. Ir. corrach, unsteady, wavering ; 
" on a point," from corr, point, odd 1 

corra-chagailt, glow-worm-like figures from raked embers, Ir. 
corrchagailt ; from cdrr, a point, and cagailt. 


corradhuil, first effort of an Infant to articulate. An onomato- 
poeic word. 

corrag", a forefinger, finger ; from cr)rr, point, etc. 

corra-ghriodhach, a heron, (.'rune, lr. corr-ghrian, heron ; from 
cbrr, and (E. Ir.) grith, a cry, scream, *grtu-, root gar, of 
goir, q.v. 

Corran, a sickle, Ir. corran, carrdn, M. Ir. corran, *korso-, root 
kors, Jeers, an extension of I E. qero, Gr. K€ipo>, etc., as in core, 
q.v. Cf. I. E. qerpo, cut, from the same root, which gives 
Lat. carpo, cull, Gr. Kapiros, fruit (Eng. harvest), Lit. kerpu, 
cut, Skr. krpaua, sword. Gr. may be from a korpso-, korso-. 
The Gaelic has also been referred to the root kur, round, as 
in cruinn, Ir. cor, circuit (O'CL). 

corran, headland ; see cbrr. 

corran, a spear, barbed arrow (Ossianic Poems) ; from corr, a 
point, q.v. 

corranach, loud weeping, "coronach," Ir. cordnach, a funeral cry, 
dirge : co + rdn-ach, " co-weeping " ; see ran. 

corrghuil, a murmur, chirping (Heb.) ; see corradhuil. 

cdrrlach, coarsely ground meal, overplus ; see cbrlach. 

COrruich, anger, rage, Ir. corruighe, vb. corruighim, stir, shake ; 
from corrach. The striking resemblance to M. Eng. couroux, 
0. Fr. couroux (from Lat. corruptus), has been remarked by 
Dr Cameron (Rel. Celt. II., 625). 

c6rsa, a coast ; from the Eng. course. Cf. cbrsair, a cruiser. 

cor-shiomain, thraw-crook ; from cor or car, q.v., and sioman, q.v. 

COS, a foot, leg ; see cas. 

c6s, a cave, Ir. cuas, topographically Coos, Coose, M. Ir. cuas, a 
cave, hollow : *cavosto-, from cavo-, hollow ; Lat. cavus. It is 
possible to refer it to *coud-to, koudh, hide, Gr. Kevdto, Eng. 
hide, hut. The Norse kjds, a deep or hollow place, is not 
allied, but it appears in Lewis in the place-name Keose. 

cosanta, industrious ; see cosnadh. 

COSd, cost, Ir. cosdus (n), M. Ir. costus, W. cost ; from 0. Fr. cost, 
Eng. cost. 

COSgairt, slaughtering ; see casgairt. 

cosgaradh, valuation of the sheep and cattle which a crofter is 
entitled to ; Norse kost-gortS, state of affairs (Lewis). 

COSgus, cost ; a by-form of cost. 

coslach, like, coslas, likeness, Ir., cosmhuil, like, 0. Ir. cosmail, 
cosmailius (n.) : con +, q.v. 

cosmhail, like ; see the above. 

COSmal, rubbish, refuse of meat, etc. (M'A.) : 


COSnadh, earning, winning, Ir. cosnamh, defence, 0. Ir. cosnam, 
contentio, * co-sen-, root sen, Skr. san, win, saniyas, more 
profitable, Gr. tvapa, booty. M. Ir. aisne, gain, *ad-senia, 
Skr. sanati, Gr. aw/XL. 
^ COStag, costmary ; from the Eng. 

cot, a cottage ; from Eng. cot. 

cota, a coat ; Ir. c6ta ; from the Eng. 

cota-ban, a groat : 
i cotan, cotton, Ir. cotun ; from the Eng. 

COthachadh, earning support, Ir. cothughadh, M. Ir. cothngud, 
support ; from teg, tog, as in tigh ? 

cothaich, contend, strive ; from cath, battle 1 

COthan, pnlp, froth ; see omhan. 

cothar, a coffer, Ir. cbfra ; from the Eng. 

COthlamadh, things of a different nature mixed together : 

cothrom, fairplay, justice, Ir. cdmhthrom, equilibrium, E. Ir. 
comthrom, par : com + trom, q.v. 

crabhach, devout, Ir. crdbhach, 0. Ir. crdibdech, crabud, fides, W. 
crefydd, *krab, religion ; Skr. vi-^rambh, trust. 
i crabhat, a cravat, Ir. carabhat ; from the Eng. 
- cracas, conversation ; from So., Eng. crack. 

cradh, torment, Ir. crddh, E. Ir. crdd, crdidim (vb.). Ascoli has 
compared 0. Ir. tacrdth, exacerbatione, which he refers to a 
stem acrad-, derived from Lat. acritas. This will not suit the 
d of crddh. Possibly it has arisen from the root ker, cut, 
hurt, (ker, Tcrd). 

cra-dhearg, blood-red, E. Ir. cro-derg ; see cro. 

crag, crac, a fissure ; from the Eng. crack. 

crag, knock ; from the Eng. crack. 

craicionn, skin, Ir. croiceann, 0. Ir. crocenn, tergus, Cor. crohen, 
Br. kroc'hen, *krokkenno-, W. croen, *krokno- (^). From 
^krok-kenn : krok is allied to Ger. rilcken, back, Eng. ridge, 
Norse hryggr ; and kenn is allied to Eng. skin. For it, see 

craidhneach, a skeleton, a gaunt figure, craidhneag, a dried peat ; 
for root, see creathach, crion, (*krat-ni-). 

craigean, a frog, from crag, crdg, q.v. : " the well-pawed one." 

craimhinn, cancer, Ir. cnamhuinn ; from cndmh, q v. 

crain, a sow, Ir. crdin, M. Ir. crdnai (gen. case; : *crdcnix, 
"grunter," root qreq, as in Lat. crocio, croak, Lit. krbkti, 

craiteag, a niggard woman ; likely from crddh. 

cralad, torment; for crddh-lot, crddh and lot, q.v. 

cramaist, a crease by folding (Skye) : 


cramb, a cramp-iron, Ir. crampa ; from the Eng. 

crambadh, crampadh, a quarrel : 

cralaidh, crawl, crawling ; from the Eng. 

crann, tree, a plough, Ir. crann, a tree, lot, 0. Ir. crann, W. and 

Br. prenn : *qrenno- ; cf. Gr. Kpdvov, cornel, Lat. cornus, Lit. 

keras, tree stump, 0. Pruss. kirno, shrub (Bezzenberger). 

Windisch correlated Lat. quernus, oaken, but this form, 

satisfactory as it is in view of the Welsh, rather stands for 

quercnus, from quercus, oak. 
crannadh, withering, shrivelling, Ir. crannda, decrepit ; from 

crann : "running to wood." 
crannag, a pulpit, a wooden frame to hold the fir candles, Ir. 

crannog, a hamper or basket, M. Ir. crannoc, a wooden vessel, 

a wooden structure, especially the " crannogs " in Irish lakes. 

From crann ; the word means many kinds of wooden 

structures in Gadelic lands, 
crannchur, lot, casting lots, Ir. crannchar, 0. Ir. cranchur ; from 

crann and cuir. 
crannlach, the teal, red-breasted merganser ; from crann and lack, 

duck, q.v. 
craobh, tree, so Ir., E. Ir. crdeb, crdeb, *croib ? " the splittable," 

root krei, kri, separate ; as tree of Eng. and its numerous 

congeners in other languages is from the root dtr, split ; and 

some other tree words are from roots meaning violence of 

rending or splitting (k\ol8os, twig, e.g.). For root kri, see 

craoiseach, a spear, E. Ir. croisech ; from craobh ? 
craoit, a croft ; see croit. 
craos, a wide, open mouth, gluttony, so Ir., E. Ir. croes, crdes, 

0. Ir. crois, gula, gluttony. Zimmer cfs. W. croesan, buffoon. 

Possibly a Celtic kmpestu-, allied to Lat. crdpula, or to Gr. 

Kpanrakrj, headache from intoxication, 
crasgach, cross-ways, crasg, an across place ; for crosg, from cros 

of crois, a cross, q.v. 
crasgach, corpulent (Sh. ; H.S.D. for C. S.) ; from obsolete eras, 

body (O'Cl.), Ir. eras, for *crapso-, *krps, root krp of Lat. 

corpus ? 
cratach, back of person, side (Skye) : crot ? 
crath, shake, Ir. crathadh, 0. Ir. crothim, *krto- ; perhaps allied to 

Lit. kresti, kratyti, shake. But it may be allied to crith, q.v. 

It has been compared to Gr. KpaSdw, brandish, which may be 

for o-KapSono, root sker in wKatpio, spring, Ger. scher z, joke. 

This would suit G. crith, W. cryd and ysgryd. 


ere, clay, !r., 0. Ir. ere, g. rriad, W. pridd, Cor., Br. pry. Its 
relation to Lat. crSta, which Wharton explains as from cretus, 
"sifted," from cerno, is doubtful. If cerno be for *crino, Gr. 
KpLvw, we should have the root kri, krei, separate, as in 
criathar, and it is not labialised in any language (not qrei). 
The Celtic phonetics are not easily explained, however. 
Stokes gives the stem as qreid-, but the modern (J. lias the 
peculiar e sound which we find in gne, ce. This points to a 
stem qre-jd, root qre, which is in agreement with Lat. arita 
without doing the violence of supposing crino to give cerno, 
and this again cretus. Cf. 0. Ir. cle, left. 

ere, creubh, body ; see creubh. 

creabag, a ball for playing, fir cone : 

creach, plunder, so Ir., E. Ir. crech, plundering, hosting ; c\'. Br. 
hregi, seize, bite, catch (as fire). From the root ker, cut, 
ultimately. See core, knife, and creuckd. 

creachag, a cockle, Ir. creach, scollop shell (O'll.) ; cf. \V. cragen, 
a shell, Cor. crogen, Br. krog. 

creachan, creachann, bare summit of a hill wanting foliage, a 
mountain : " bared," from creach ? 

creachan, pudding made with a calf's entrails (M'L.) : 

creadhonadh, a twitching, piercing pain (Heb.) ; possibly for 
cneadh-ghonadh, " wound-piercing." 

creag, a rock, so Ir. ; a curtailed form of carraig. Also (Dialecti- 
cally) craig. Hence Eng. crag. 

creamh, garlic, Ir. creamh, earlier crem, W. craf ; Gr. Kp6\xvov, 
onion ; Ag. S. hramse, Eng. raimons ; Lit. kermiiszr, wild 

crean, crion, quake, tear up (Carm.) • 

creanair, sedition (Arm. ; not H.S.D.), so Ir. (O'R.) : 

creanas, whetting or hacking of sticks (M'F.; H.S.D. considers it 
Dialectic), neat-handed (M'L.) : 

creapall, entangling, hindering, so Ir.; it is an Ir. word evidently, 
from Lh. ; founded on Eng. cripple. 

creapall, a garter, creapailld (Skye) ; (Arm. creapidl) : 

creathach, (faded) underwood, firewood, Ir. creathach, hurdle, 
brushwood, faggots (O'R.) : *krto-; cf. crion. 

creathall, cradle, from Northern M. Eng. credit, Sc. ereddle, Eng. 
cradle, Ag. S. cradol. Further derivation at present uncertain 

creathall, a lamprey : 

creatrach, a wilderness, so Ir. (Lh., etc.) ; M'A. gives the word, 
but it is clearly Ir. Cf. creathach. 


creic, sell, M. Ir. creicc, sale, E. Ir. creic, buying, 0. Ir. crenim, I 

buy, W. prynn, buy ; Skr. krinami (do.). There seems a 

confusion in G. and E. Ir. with the word rei<-, sell. q.y. 
creid, believe, Ir. creidim, 0. Ir. cretim, W. credu, Cor. crest/, Br. 

cridiff, *kreddio ; Lat. credo ; Skr. crad-dadhdmi. From 

cred-do, " I give heart to." 
creigeir, a grapple (M'D.) • from some derivative of Norse kntkja, 

to hook, krceki/l, a crooked stick, Eng. crook ? 
creim, creidhm, gnaw, chew, nibble, Ir. creimim, creidhmim, M. Ir. 

creim. Ir. is also creinim, W. cnithio, cnoi (which also means 

" gnaw ") : from knet, knen, kno, ken, bite, scratch, as in 

cnamh, q.v. The n of kn early becomes r because of the m 

or n after the first vowel, 
crein, suffer for ( W. H.). Allied to the 0. Ir. crenim, buy : 

" You will buy for it ! " See under creic. 
cr^is, grease; from Sc. creische, from 0. Fr. craisse, cresse, from 

Lat. crassa, crassus, thick. Eng. grease is of like origin, 
creithleag, a gadfly, so Ir. (Fob), M. Ir. crebar, \Y. creyr, root 

creb) scratch? Cf. Lett, kribindt, gnaw oil'. Ir. creabhar, 

cre6th, wound, hurt (Dialectic), Ir. creo, a wound (O'li.); creonadh, 

being pained : *krevo- as in era, blood. 
creubh, creubhag", ere, the body ; cf. M. Ir. cri, *kreivio-, flesh, 

body ; Got. hraiva-, Norse hrae, body, 0. H. G. lireo, corpse. 

It is possible to refer cri, ere to ^kre/ri-, Lat. corpus, 0. H. G. 

href, Ag. S. hrif, body, Eng. midriff. Stokes : cri, krpes. 
creubh, dun, crave ; from the Eng. crave. 
creubhaidh, tender in health ; seemingly from creubh. 
creuchd, wound, Ir. creachd, 0. Ir. crecht, W. craith, scar, creithen, 

M. Br. creizenn (do.), *crempto- ; root kerp, ker, Lit. kerpii, 

cut, Skr. krpana, sword (Strachan). Stokes gives the Celtic 

as krekto-s, and Bez. cfs. Norse hrekja, worry. This neglects 

the e of Gadelic. 
creud, what, Ir. creud, cread, E. Ir. cret ; for ce ret. See co and 

creud, creed, Ir. creidh, M. Ir. credo, W. credo ; from Lat. credo, I 

believe ; the first word of the Apostles' Creed in Lat. 
creutair, creature, Ir. creatur, W. cread wr ; from Lat. creatura. 
criadh, clay, so Ir. Really the oblique form of ere, q.y. 
criathar, a sieve, Ir., 0. Ir. criathar, 0. W. cruitr, Cor. croider, 

M. Br. croezr, *kreitro- ; Ag. S. hridder, hriddel, Eng. riddle, 

Ger. reiter ; further Lat. cribrum (*kri-6ro-n) ; root kri, krei, 

separate, whence Gr. Kpivm, Eng. critic, etc. 
criachadh, proposing to oneself ; from crioch, end. Cf. Eng. 

define, from finis and end, used for "purpose." 


cridhe, heart, Ir. croidhe, 0. Ir. cride, W. craidd, Br. kreis, middle, 
*krdjo-n; Gr. KpaSia, KupSia ; Lat. cor % cordis; Eng. heart, 

Ger. Aer.i ; Lit. szirdis. 

crilein, a small creel (M'E.), a box, small coffer (H.S.D.), crilein 
(Arm., ML.), a box, Ir. criliu, E. Ir. criol, coffer, *krSpolo. 
criol (Arran, Perth). Stokes gives the stem as krepo-, 
and Bez. adds Skr. fjdrpa, winnowing basket (Cf. for 
phonetics lion, and Skr. puma, full). So., Eng. creel, which 
appears about 1400, is usually derived hence; but as the 
G. form itself is doubtful, and, from all appearance, taken 
from Lh., it is best to look elsewhere for an etymology for 
creel, as, through Fr., from Lat. craticula. The G. criol 
exists only in Sh., who found it in Lh. See croidhltag. 

crioch, end, Ir. crioch, 0. Ir., crich, *krika, from the root kre'i, 
separate, as in criathar, q.v. Stokes and Bezzenberger join 
W. crip, a comb, and compare Lit. kreikti, strew, and, for 
sense, appeal to the Ger., Eng. strand, " the strewed," 
0. Slav, strana, side. It has also been referred to the root 
of Lat. circus, circle, Gr. KpUos. 

criom, nibble, criomag, a bit ; see creim. 

crion, little, withered, Ir. crion, E. Ir. crin, VV. crin, fragile, dry, 
Br. krin, *kreno-s ; the root kre appears to belong to root kcr, 
kera, destroy, Skr. crndmi, break, rend, Lat. caries, decay, 
Gr. aK'ijpaTos, pure, untouched, Got. hairus, sword. Stokes 
allies it to Skr. era// a, cooked, <;ra, cook, possibly a form of 
the root kera, mix, Gr. Kepajxac, mix. 

crioncanachd, a strife, quarrelsomeness, Ir. crioncdnachd : an Ir. 
word from Lh., apparently. Perhaps crion-cdn, " small 

crionna, attentive to small things, prudent, so Ir. (crlonna, Con.); 
also dialectic crionda, which shows its connection with crion. 
Cf. W. crintach, sordid. 

criopag 1 , a wrinkle, Ir. criopog ; founded on Eng. crimp, crumple. 
M'A. has criopag, a clew of yarn. 

crios, a belt, girdle, so Ir., 0. Ir. criss, fo-chridigedar, accingat, W. 
crys, shirt, E. W. cry 8, belt, M. Br. crisaff, succingere, Br. 
kreis, middle. Bez. suggests comparison with Lit. skritidys, 
circle, knee-cap, skreisie, mantle. It has been referred also 
to the root krid of cridhe, heart. 

Criosdaidh, a Christian, Ir. Criosduighe, M. Ir. cristaige ; from 
the G. Criosd, Ir. Criosda, Christ ; from Lat. Christus, Gr. 
Xpurros, the Anointed One. 

criostal, a crystal, so Ir ; from the Eng. 

criot, an earthen vessel (Dialect, H.S.D.), Ir. eriotamhail, earthen, 
made of clay (O'B.), criot, an earthen vessel (O'R.) : 


criotaich, caress ; see cniadaich. 

criplich, a cripple ; from the Eng. cripple. 

crith, shake, quiver, Ir., E. Ir. crith, W. cryd, 0. W. crit, *kritu- ; 
Ag, S. hri&a, fever, Ger. ritten, fever. See crath, to which 
crith has been suggested as cognate (root krt, krot, kret). 

critheann, critheach, the aspen tree, lr. crann-critheach ; from 

cro, a sheep cot, pen, Jr. cro, M. Ir. era caerach, ovile, crb ua muice, 
pig-stye, W. craw, hovel, pig-stye, Br. kraon, crou, stable, 
*krdpo-s, a stye, roof ; Ag. S. hrof, Eng. roof, Norse hrof, a 
shed (Stokes). The Norse krd, small pen, Sc. croo, seem 

cro, the eye of a needle, Ir., E. Ir. cro, W. crau, M. Br. crcio, Br. 

fcrd, blood, E. Ir. cro, cru, W. crau, Cor. crow, *krovo-s ; Lat. 
cruor, gore ; Lit. kraujas, blood ; Skr. kravis, raw flesh ; Gr. 
K/oeas, flesh ; Eng. raw. 

f cro, death, Ir., E. Ir. cro. From the same origin as cro, blood. 
This is the Sc. cro, the weregild of the various individuals in 
the Scoto-Celtic Kingdom, from the king downwards. 

croc, beat, pound (Dialectic, H.S.D.) : 

croc, a branch of a deer's horn ; cf. Norse krokr, Eng. crook. 

crocan, a crook ; from the Norse krokr, Eng. crook. 

croch, hang, Ir. crochaim, croch, a cross, gallows, E. Ir. croch, cross, 
W. crog ; from the Lat. crux, cruris. 

croch, saffron, Ir. croch ; from Lat. crocus, from Gr. KpoKos, crocus, 
and its product saffron. 

crodh, cattle, Ir. crodh, a dowry, cattle, M. Ir. crod, wealth 
(cattle) : *krodo-, I. E. qordh, qerdh \ Eng. herd, Ger. herde ; 
Lit. kerdzus, herd (man), Ch. SI. creda, a herd ; Skr. cardhas, 
a troop. 

crddha, valiant, Ir. crddha, E. Ir. crdda, valiant, cruel, *croudavo-s, 
"hardy" ; root croud of cruaidh, q.v. 

crodhan, hoof, parted hoof, Ir. crobhdn, a little hoof or paw. See 

crog, an earthen vessel, crogan, a pitcher, Ir. crogdu, pitcher, 
E. Ir. crocann, olla, W. crochan, *krokko- ; Gr. Kpaxraos, 
pitcher (^Kpw/cjos) ; to which are allied, by borrowing some- 
how, Eng. crock, Ag. S. crocca, Norse krukka, Ger. krug. G. 
and W. phonetics (G. g = W. ch.) are unsatisfactory. Schroder 
derives these words from 0. Ir. crocenn, skin — a " skin " 
vessel being the original. 

crog, an aged ewe ; from the Sc. crock ; cf. Norw. krake, a sickly 
beast, Fries, krakke, broken-down horse, etc. 


Grog, large hand, hand in paw form, *crobhag, lr. crobh, hand 
from wrist to fingers, paw, hoof, 0. lr. crob, hand. Sec crubk. 

crogaid, a beast with small horns (M'A.) ; from crog t 

crogan, a gnarled tree (Arg.) ; cf. crdcan. 

crogan, thornbush (Arg), from crog, W. crafanc, claw. 

croic, foam on spirits, rage, difficulty, cast sea-weed : 

croich, gallows, lr. crock, gallows, cross, E. Ir. crock, cross, \Y. 
crogbren, gallows ; from Lat. crux, crwU. 

croid, a sumptuous present (Heb.) ; see cnbid. 

croidh, pen cattle, house corn; from crb. Dialectic tor latter 
meaning is crodhadh. 

croidhleag, a basket, small creel ; see crilein. 

croilean, a little fold, a group ; from cro. 

crois, a cross, so lr., E. Ir. cross, W. croes ; from Lat. crvx. 

croistara, cranntara, also -tara, -tarra, the fiery cross : crois + 
tara; see crois above. As to tara, cf. the Norse tara, war 

croit, a hump, hillock, lr. croit, W. crwth, a hiuich, harp, croih, a 
protuberant part (as calf of leg), *crotti- ; from hrot, hurt, 
root her, round, as in cruinn, emit, q.v. 

croit, a croft ; from the Eng. croft. In the sense of " vulva," cf. 
W. rroth, Br. courz, which Stokes refers to emit, harp ; but 
the G. may be simply a metaphorical use of croit, croft. 

crolot, wound dangerously ; cro + lot, q.v. 

crom, bent, lr., E. Ir. crom, 0. lr. cromm, W. crwm, Br. krom, 
0. Br. crum, ^krumbo- ; from the same root as cruinn ? The 
Ag. S. crumb, crooked, Eng. crumple, Ger. krumm, have been 
compared, and borrowing alleged, some holding that the 
Teutons borrowed from the Celts, ;»nd vice versa. Dr Stokes 
holds that the Celts are the borrowers. The Teutonic and 
Celtic words do not seem to be connected at all in reality. 
It is an accidental coincidence, which is bound to happen 
sometimes, and the wonder is it does not happen oftener. 

cromadh, a measure the length of the middle finger, Ir. cruma, 
cromadli ; from crom. 

croman, kite, hawk, from crom. 

cron, fault, harm, Ir. cronaim, I bewitch ; cf. M. Ir. cron, rebuking. 
The idea is that of being " fore-spoken " by witchcraft. Sec 

crc-Daich, rebuke, Ir. cronaighim, M. Ir. cronaigim, cron, rebuking, 
E. Ir. air-chron (do.), */cruno- ; cf. Teut. hru, noise, Noise 
rbmr, shouting, Ag. S. hream, a din. 

dirge, croon, purring, lr., E. Ir. crondn. O'Curry 
(Mann, and Cust. 111., 246) writes the Ir. as crondn, and 
defines it as the low murmuring or chorus to each verse of 


the aidbsi or choral singing. Sc. croon, croyn (15th century), 

corresponds to J>u. kreunen, groan, M. Du. kronen., lament, 

M. Low G. kronen, growl, O. H. G. chronau, M. L. G. kroenen, 

chatter (Murray, who thinks the Sc. came from Low Ger. 

in M. Eng. period). It seems clear that the Gadelic arid 

Teutonic are related to each other by borrowing; seemingly 

the Gadelic is borrowed, 
cropan, deformed person (Suth.) ; from Norse kroppwm, deformed. 

See under crub. 
crosach, crossing, thwarting, Ir. cromnta ; also G. crosan (and 

crostan), a peevish man ; all from eras, the basis of crois, 

cross, q.v, 
crosanachd, from crosan, poet, chorister, 
crosda, perverse, irascible, so Ir. ; from the G. base crox of rrois, 

crotal, lichen, especially for dyeing, cudbear : *crottal ; *krot-to-, 

from krot ; cf. Gr. KpoTom), an excrescence on a tree. Hence 

Sc. crottle. M. Ir. crotal means " husk " (which may be G. 

crotal above), " kernel, cymbal." In the last two senses the 

word is from the Lat. crotalum, a rattle ; the Irish used a 

small pear-shaped bell or rattle, whence the Ir. Eng. crotal 

cruach, a pile, heap, Ir., E. Ir. cruach, W. erug, Cor. cruc, 0. Br. 

cruc, *kroukd ; Lit. krduti, to pile, kricvi, heap ; Norse Jvrtiga, 

heap. Others have compared the Norse hraukr, a small 

stack, Ag. S. hredc, Eng. rick. 
cruachan, cruachainn, hip, upper part of the hip, E. Ir. cruachaU; 

from cruach, heap, hump. Stokes translates the Ir. as 

"chine," and considers it, like the corresponding Ger. kreuz, 

derived from Lat. criicem, cross. The Gaelic meaning is 

distinctly against this, 
cruaidh, hard, Ir. cruaidh, 0. Ir. cruaid, *kroudi-s ; root kreva, to 

be bloody, raw, whence cro, blood, q.v. ; Lat. crUdvs, Eng. 

crude. Hence cruailinn, hard, rocky, 
crub, squat, crouch, Ir. crubadJi, to bend, crook ; also G. crubach, 

cripple, Ir. do. ; from Norse brjupa, to creep, kneel (Eng. 

creep, etc.), kroppiriu, crippled, root hrev/p, krup, as in Eng. 

cripple, Sc. cruppeu thegether, contracted, bowed. Cf. W. 

rrwb, bent. 
crub, bed recess (Carm.) : 

cruban, the crab-fish, Ir. criiban, W. crwban. From crhb above, 
crubh, a horse's hoof, Ir. crobh, paw, hoof, E. Ir. cru, *kruvo-, 

hoof ; Zend <;rva, p-uva, nail, horn ; further Gr. Kepas, horn, 

and corn, q.v. (Stokes). 
crudha, horse shoe, Ir, erddh: seemingly from the above word. 


crtiidein, the king-fisher, Ir. cruidin : 

cruidhean, paw (Arm.) = craibhean. 

cruimh, a worm, Ir. cnuimh, 0. Ir. cruim, W., Cor. pryf, Br. prenv, 

*qrmi- ; Lit. far mis, Lett, sdrms ; Skr. krmis, krimis. 
cruinn, round, so Jr., 0. Ir. cruind, W. crvm, Br. krenn, *kru?idi-s; 

root kuro-, circle, turn, as in car, q.v. Cf. Lat. curvtu ; Gr. 

KvpTos, bent, Kopiovr), ring, Lat. corona, Eng. crown. Be/.zcn 

berger cfs. the form crundi- from fotr to Lat. rotundus from 

cruisgein, a lamp, jug, Ir. cruisgin ; from M. Eng. cruskyn, from 

0. Fr. creusequin, from Tent. &rtfc, whence Eng. crwse. 
cruisle, cruidse, mausoleum, hollow vault of a church ; from 

M. Eng. cruddes, vault, crypt, crowd, by-form of Eng. crypt, 
cruit, a harp, so Ir., 0. Ir. crot, \V. crwth, fidicula, I. ate Lat. (600 

a.d.) chrotta, *krotta : krot-ta-, from krot, kurt, root kur, as in 

G. cruinn, round, q.v., Gr. Kvpr6s (do.): "the curved 

instrument." Stokes refers it to the root krot, strike, as in 

Gr. KpoTtu), rattle, clap. Hence Eng. crowd. 
cruithneachd, CTuineachd, wheat, Ir. cruitlmeachd, 0. Ir. cruith- 

necht : *krt-on-, root /cert, her, cut, "that which is cut'' ; Lit. 

kertu, cut; Gr. Keipio, Lat. curtns, etc. (Rhys). It has been 

compared to the Lat. Ceres, Eng. cereal, and Lat. cresco, creo, 

as in cruth. 
crulaist, a rocky hill (H.S.D., from MSS.) ; from cruaidh ? Cf. 

crumag, the plant skirret ; Sc. crummock. From Gaelic crom 

cruman, the hip bone, Ir. crumdn, hip bone, crooked surgical 

instrument ; from crom. 
crun, crown, Ir. crun ; from M. Eng. crime, from 0. Fr. coronne, 

from Lat. corona. 
crunnluadh, a quick measure in pipe music : cruinn -viuath. 
crup, crouch, contract, Ir. crupaim ; founded on the M. Eng. 

cruppel, cripple, a root crup, appearing in Sc. cruppen, 

contracted. See crubach. 
crusbal, crucible (Hend.). 
cruscladh, wrinkling : 

cruth, form, figure, Ir., 0. Ir. cruth, W. pryd, *</rtH-s, root qer, 
make; Lat. cerus, creator, creo, Eng. create ; lat. kur i it, build ; 
Skr. kar, make, krtas, made, 
cruthach, placenta of mare : 

cu, a dog, Ir., 0. Ir. en, g. con, W. ci, pi. cwn, Cor., Br. /./, pi. Br 
koun, *kuo, g. *kuno& ; Gr. K\mv ; hat. can is ; Eng. hound 
Skr. cm, g. cduas. 


cuach, a cup, bowl, Ir. cuachog, 0. Ir. cuach : Lat. caucus, Gr. 

KavKa ; Skr. horn. It is generally held that cuach is borrowed 

from the Lat., though phonetically they may be cognate. 

The W. eawg is certainly borrowed, 
cuach, curl, so Ir. ; from the above. 
cuag, an awkward curve, kink, an excrescence on the heel ; also 

guag (Dialectic) : *kouggd, *kouk-gd ; root qeuq> bend ; Skr. 

hue, bend. Lit. kuku, hook? 
cu'ag, cubhag, cuckoo, Ir. cuach, 0. Ir. cuach, W. cog, of onomato- 

poetic origin — from the cuckoo's cry of kuku, whence Eng. 

cuckoo, Lat cuculus, Gr. k6kkv£, Skr. kdkilas, koka. 
cuailean, the hair, a lock, curl, Ir. cuailen (Stokes). This Stokes 

refers to a stem *koglenno~, and cfs. Gr. koxAos, a spiral- 
shelled shell-fish, KOxA-ias, spiral-shelled snail, Lat. cochlea. 

As the Gr. may be for x°X^ 0S > the derivation is uncertain. 

Ir. cuailin, a bundle, faggot, suggests that a similar derivation 

from cwd was used metaphorically for a " bundle or cord of 

cuaille, a club, bludgeon, Ir., E. Ir. cuaille, *kaullio- ; Gr. Kav\6<s, 

stalk ; Lat. caulis, stalk ; Lit. kdulas, a bone (Stokes). It 

may, however, be for *coud-s-lio-, from qoad, Lat. cudo, strike, 
cuairsg, roll, wreathe, so Ir. ; from cuairt, with the termination 

cuairt, circuit, so Ir., 0. Ir. cuairt. Stokes gives the stem as 

kukrti-, from kur, circle, as in cruinn. 
cual, a faggot, burden of sticks, Ir. cual, M. Ir. cual, heap, *kuglo-, 

root kug, qeug ; Eng. heap ; Lat. cumulus ( = cuhdus ?) ; Lit. 

kicgis, heap, 
cuallach, herding or tending cattle : 
cuallach, society, family, Ir cuallaidheacM, society, cuallaidhe, a 

companion : 
cuan, the ocean, Ir., M. Ir. cuan, harbour, *copno- ; Norse kbfn, 

Ger. hafeu, Eng. haven. 
cuanal, cuantal, a company, a band of singers, flocks (Carm.), 

E. Ir. cuan, host, *koupn-, Lit. kupa, heap, Eng. heap (?). 
cuanna, cuannar, handsome, line, Ir. cuanna ; also cuanta, robust, 

neat : *kaun-uavos, from kaun, skaun ; Ger. schbn. 
tcuar, crooked, Ir. cuar, E. Ir. cuar, *kukro-, root kuc, bend ; Ski 1 . 

kucati, bend, Lit. kuku, hook (Strachan). But cf. cuairt. 
cuaradh, paining, tormenting ; cf. W. cur, pain, care, curio, beat. 

The Dictionaries refer the word to ciurr, as a Dialectic form. 
cuaran, a brogue, sock, Ir. cuarbg, M. Ir. cuardn, W. curan, a 

covering for the foot and leg, *kourano-, " mocassin " : *keu- 

ro- ; root ken, ku, as in Lat. cu-tis, skin, Eng. hide, Ag. S. 

hgd (*kuti-). 


cuartach, a fever (Arg.) ; from cuairt. 

cuartag, ringworm (Heud.) : 

cuas, a cave ; see cos. 

cuat, sweetheart (Carm.) : 

Cub, a tumbril, box-cait; from Sc. coop, coup, box-cart, etc., 

probably the same as Eng. coop, basket. Dialectic coba. 
Cllb, crouch, Ir. rubaim ; founded on Lat. cubo, lie. 
Cubaid, pulpit ; ultimately from Lat. pulpitum, a speaking plat- 
form, whence Eng. pulpit, Sc. poopit. Dialectic bubaid. 
cubair, a cooper ; from the Eng. 
cubhag, cuckoo ; see cu'ag. 
cubhaidh, fit, so Ir., 0. Ir. cobaid, fit, cubaithiu, concinnior : *cou- 

vedo-, " suiting " ; root ved, bind, as in feadhainn. 
cubhraidh, fragrant, Ir. cumhra, cumhra, M. Ir. cumra, cumrae, 

E. Ir. cumrai (i n-aballgort chumrai) ; *com-rae : 
cubhraig, cubhrainn, a coverlet ; founded on the Eng. cover, 

coverlet. Dialectic cuibhlig. 
cuchailte, a residence (Arm.; not H.S.D.), Ir. cuclaidke ', *con- 

eladh- ; from cladh, q.v. 
cudaig, the fish cuddy, young of the coalfish, Ir. cuddg, codog, 

haddock, * cod-do- ; Eng. haddock ? Sc. cuddy, cudden, may 

be of G. origin (Murray). Also cudainn. 
Cudainn, a large bushel or tub ; cf. Norse kiitr, cask, Sc. coodi", 

quiddie, small tub. M. Ir. cuidin, coithin, catinus, is 

probably from a Celt, kotino-, Gr. kotvXi], cup, Lat. catinus, 

a deep vessel. 
cudrom, cudthrom, weight : *con-trom-, " co-heavy " ; 0. Ir. 

cutrumme, similis. See trom. Dialectic cuideam. 
cugainn, delicacy, " kitchen," E. Ir. micen ; from Lat. coguina. 
CUgail, food (Carm.) : 
cugar, mab, or wild cat (Carm.) : 
Cugullach, precarious, unstable (Carm.) : 
cuibheas, sufficiency : 
cuibheasach, tolerable, middling, Ir. cuibheasach, decent, pretty 

good, fairly good (in health), cuibheas, decency, cuibhe, decent. 

See cubhaidh for stem. The Ir. cuibhe shows that it is 

possible to derive the word from *con-vesu-, root vesu of 

cuibhle, cuibhill, a wheel ; from Eng. wheel. 
cuibhne, deer's horn (Arm., M'L.), deer's tibia (H.S.D.) : 
CUibhreach, a bond, chain, so Ir., 0. Ir. cuimrech, vb. conriug, ligo, 

W. rhwym, vinculum, Br. rum, kevre, *kom-rigo-n ; rigo-, a 

bond ; Lat. corrigia, shoe-lace ; M. H. G. ric, band, string. 



Stokes (rightly) now gives root as rek, bind, Skr. rarana, 
cord, rope, racmi (do.). 

cuibhrig, cover, coverlet ; see cubhraig. 

Cllibhrionn, portion, so Ir., E. Ir. cuibrend, W. cyfran : *com-rann ; 
see rami. 

cuicheineach, coquetting, secretly hobnobbing (Arg ) : co-ceann. 

cuid, share, part, Ir. cuid, g. coda, 0. Ir. cuit, W. peth, res, pars, 
Cor. peth, Br. pez, *qezdi-, *qozdi- ; qes, qos, seemingly from the 
pron. root qo, qe (see co). Cf. Lat. quotidie, quota, Br. ped, 
how much. Bezzenberger compares Lit. kedeti, burst, SI. 
c§sti, part ; root qed. Hence Eng. piece. Some have 
suggested comparison with Lat costa, rib, Eng. coast. 

cuideachd, company, Ir. cuideachda, 0. Ir. cotecht, coitio, conventus : 
*con-techt ; see teacht. 

cuideag, a spider (H.S.D.), Ir. cuideog (O'R.) : 

cuideal, pride (Arm.), cuidealas (M'A.); from cuid ? 

cuideam, weight ; see cudrom. 

cuidh, cuith, inclosure (Barra) ; from Norse kvi, Orkney quoy, a 
pen, Orkney and Shetland quey, quay, enclosed land. 

cuidhe, wreath of snow ; see cuith. 

Cuidhtich, quit, requite, Ir. ciiitighim ; from Eng. quit ? 

cuidich, assist, Ir. cuidighim, M. Ir. cuitigim, share ; from cuid. 

cuidridh, common (Sh. ; not H.S.D.), Ir. cuidri(dh), entertain- 
ment, commons : *con-trebi-, as in caidreabh ? 

cuifeiu, the wadding of a gun ; from Sc. colfin. 

Cuigeal, a distaff, so Ir., M. Ir. cuigel, W. cogail, Corn, cigel, Br. 
kegel ; from M. Lat. conucula, for colucula, from coins. From 
Lat. conucula comes Ger. kunkel, Fr. quenouille. 

cuil, corner, recess, Ir. edit, 0. Ir. cuil, W. cil, *kuli- See cid . 

cuilbheart, a wile, trick ; from cuil -f beart. 

cuilbheir, a gun ; from the Eng. culverin. 

Cllilc, reed, cane, Ir. cuile, *kolki- ; root kol, as in Lat. culmus, 
stalk, Gr. KuAa/xos, reed, Eng. haulm. 

cuile, an apartment where stores are kept, 0. Ir. cuile finda, 
vinaria, *kolid ; Gr. Kakia, hut, Skr. kuldya, hut, nest 
(Stores) ; from *kol-io-, root qel of ceil. 

cuileag, a fly, Ir. and E. Ir. cuil, W. cylion, flies, Cor. kelionen, Br. 
quelyenen, *kuli-$, kulidno-s ; Lat. cv.le.r. 

cuileagan, feast (in a corner) (Carm.). 

cuilean, a whelp, Ir. cuiledn (OB.), cnilearm (O'R.), E. Ir. culen, 
W. colwyn, Cor. colovn, catulus, Br. kolenn, young of quadru- 
peds; Gr. Kv\\a=o-Kvka{, whelp (Bez.). It may be from cu, 
*kun, doo-. Ernault, *culenos : root of kvos • M. Br. colen, so 
D'Arbois. Rhys says W. borrowed. 


Cuilidh, cellar, secret place, treasury ; see cuile. 

cuilionn, holly, so Ir., E. Ir. cuilenn, W. celyn, Cor. celin, Br. 

kelenn (pi.), *kolemw- ; Eng. holly, Ag. S. holegn. 
cuilm, a feast ; Dialectic for cuirm, q.v. 
cuimein, the plant cumin, [r.cuimin; from Lat. cummum, Eng. 

cumin . 
cuimhne, remembrance, so Ir., 0. Ir. cuman, cuimnech, memor, W. 

cof, Cor. coy, M. Br. coup, ^co-men; root men, as in Lat. 

memini, I remember, Eng. mention, mind, etc. 
cuimir, brief, handsome, so Ir., E. Ir. cumbair, *com-berr<h ; for 

/><??•/-, see bearr. 
cuimrig", trouble ; see coimrig. 
cuimse, a mark, aim, moderation, Ir. cuimse ; from com + meas ; 

see meas. Cf. eirmis. 
cuin, when, E. Ir. cuin, W., Br. pan ; Lat. o^ra ; Eng. when ; see 

co. The Ir. can (O'Cl.) is allied to Lat. quando, and more 

nearly than cuin to W., Br. pan. 
cuing, a yoke, Ir., E. Ir. cuing : *con-jungi- i root Jung, jug, as in 

Lat. jungo, Eng. joke. For phonetics, see next. Stokes 

since gives the stem as ko-jungi-. 
cuinge, narrowness, 0. Ir. cumce ; see cumhang. 
cuinn, coin ; from the Eng. 
cuinneag, a pail, milk *pail, Ir. cuinnedg, M. Ir. cuindeog, W. 

cunnog, cynnog ; cf. Lat. congim, a quart, 
cuinnean, a nostril : 
cuinnlein, a stalk of corn, a nostril; for the first meaning, see 

connlach; for the second, cuinnean above. 
i cuinnse, a quince ; from the Eng. 
cuinnsear, a dagger, sword ; from the Eng. whinger. 
cuip, a whip ; from Eng. whip. 
cuir, put, Ir., E. Ir. cuirim, ir. cairiur, W. hebyor, put aside, 

*korio, I put. The root is likely her, kor, of cruth, q.v. 

For meaning cf. Lat. facio and Gr. tlOy][xl. Bezzenberger 

compares it to Skr. kal&yati, drive, bear, do, Lit. karta, 

position, lie. 
cuircinn, a particular kind of head-dress for women, Ir. cuircin, 

head, crest, comb (Oil.); from currachd? Sc. courche, curges 

(pi.), a covering for a woman's head, Eng. kerchief. E. Ir. 

cuirce, bow, knot ; which makes the Sc. and Eng. comparison 

cuireadh, an invitation, so Ir. ; from cuir, q.v. 
cuireall, a kind of pack-saddle (H.S.D. from MSS.) : 
cuireid, cuirein, turn, wile ; from car, q.v. 
cuirinnein, the white water-lily (H.S.D., which quotes only O'R,), 

Ir. cuirinin (O'R.) : 


cuirm, a feast, so Ir., E. Ir. coirm, cuirm, M. W. cwrwf, W. cwrw, 

beer, Cor. core/, Gaul. Kovpfit, cervisia *kurmen ; Lat. cremor, 

broth (Eng. cream) ; Gr. Kepdwvpi, mix ; Skr. p r<2, gr, cook ; 

I. E. kera, kra, mix. 
cuirnean, a small heap of stones, dew --drop, ringlet, Ir. cuirnedn, 

head of a pin, brooch, ringlet. In the first sense, it is from 

earn, and possibly also in the other two senses, the idea 

being "cluster, heap." 
cuirpidh, wicked, corrupt ; see coirbte, coirb. 
cuirt, court, Ir. ctiirt ; from the Eng. 
cuirtein, a curtain, cuirteir, plaiding (Dialectic) ; formed on Eng. 

cuis, cause, matter, Ir., E. Ir. cuis, 0. Ir. cois ; from Lat. causa. 
cuisdeag, the little finger (Sh., H.S.D.), Ir. cuisdeog (O'R.) : 
cuiseag, a stalk, kind of grass, Ir. coisin, a stem, stalk, little foot ; 

from cas, foot. But see next, di fetchoisig, "by piping." 
cuisle, pulse, vein, pipe, Ir. enisle, E. Ir. cuisli, g. pi. cuisleud, a 

pipe for music, 0. Ir. cusle, g. cusleti, cuislennach, a piper. It 

has no connection with Lat. pulsus, and its etymology is 

obscure (Stokes). Cf. Eng. hose. 
cuiste, a couch, Ir. cuiste, cuiste (O'B.) ; from Eng. couch. 
cuith, a wreath of snow, a pit, Ir.., B. Ir. cuithe, a pit, W. pydew ; 

from Lat. puteus, Eng. pit. 
cuithe, pen for sheep (Carm.) ; see cuidh. 
cuitich, quit, requite ; see cuidktich. 
cul, back, Ir., 0. Ir. cut, W. cil, Cor. chil, Br. kit, *kulo- ; Lat. 

cHlus. Hence cidaist, recess. 
culadh, a good condition of the body, culach, fat, sleek : " well- 
covered," from cul of culaidh ? 
culaidh, apparel, so Ir. ; root qel, qol, cover ; Ger. halle, a 

covering, Lat. occulo. See ceil. 
culaidh, boat (Suth.) : 
culag, turf for the back of the tire, sitting behind another on 

horseback, a collop ; all from ct/l. 
culan, tresses, hair ; from cut. 
ctllaobh, behind, the back ; E. Ir. ctUaih (dat. pi.), cCdu (ace. pi.) ; 

from citl. The dat. (and ace.) pi. of cul used locatively — for 

rest (and motion). Compare beulaobh. 
cularan, a cucumber, Ir. cidardn, YV. cylor, earth nuts, Br. coloreu, 

earth nut. Ernault makes the Celtic word to be *carul-an-, 

and compares Gr. xdpvov, nut. 
cullach, a boar, Ir., E. Ir. cul lack, O. Ir. callach, cullach, caullack, 

Br. kallocli, "entire," f/ellecq, epithet for stallions and hoars, 

*haUudko-8, from *kalljo-, testicle, YV. caill, testiculus, Al. Br. 


quell ; root kal, hard, as in clack, q.v., Norse hella, flat stone, 
etc. (Bezzenberger). Cf. Lat. culleus, bag, scrotum, whence 
0. Fr. couillon, Eng. cullion, testicles, Sc. culls. Hence 
cullbhoc, wether-goat, Ir. culbhoc. 

cullachas, impotence, cullach, eunuch ; from coll, call ; see call. 

culraoinidh, goal-keeper (Suth.) ; from ciil and raon ? 

culuran, birth-wort, cucumber ; see cularan. 

cum, keep, hold, Ir. congbhaighlm, inf. congmhail, 0. Ir. congabin ; 
from con and gabh, take. The G. cum is for congv or congbh, 
and the gv becomes m as in \m, ciomach, turn, etc. 

cuma, cumadh, shape, form, Ir. cuma, E. Ir. cumma, vb. cummaim : 

cumail, keeping, Ir. cumail, congmhail ; inf. to cum, i.e., cum- 

cuman, a milking pail ; Gr. KvpfSy, KVfifSos, cup ; Ger. humpen, 

cumanta, common, Ir. cumann ; from the Eng. common. 

cumha, mourning, so Ir., E. Ir. cuma : I. E. root qem, qom ; Eng. 
hum, Ger. hummen. 

cumha, a stipulation, Ir. cumha, E. Ir. coma, bribe, gift, condition : 
*com-ajo-, "co-saying," O. Ir. di, a saying, Lat. ajo? See 
adhan. Cf. cunnradh. 

cumhachd, power, so lr., (). Ir. cumachte, W. cyfoeth, power, riches, 
*kom-akto-, root ay, drive, carry, Lat. ago, Gr. ayw, Eng. act, 
etc. (Stokes). The 0. lr. cumang, potestas, is doubtless a 
nasalised form of the root ag ( = ang) ; it has been referred 
to the root any, Lat. angere, etc., as in cumhang below, but 
the meaning is unsatisfactory. The word cumhachd has also 
been analysed as co-mag-tu-, where mag lias been variously 
referred to I. E. meg, great (G. ptyas, Eng. much), or I. E. 
megh (Eng. may, Lat. maohina, machine). 

cumhang, narrow, Ir. cdmhang, Ir. cumang, W. cyjyug, *kom- 
ango-s ; root ang ; Gr. «yyw, choke, cty^i, near ; Lat. ango, 
angustus ; Ger. eng. 

cumhlaidean, stipulations (Hend.) : 

cumhnant, covenant; from M. Eng., Sc. conana\ couenant, Eng. 
covenant, from 0. Fr. convenant, Lat. convenire. M. Br. has 
comanant, W. cyfammod. Dial, plurals are cumhlaicheau 
and cumhlaidean. 

cumraich, cumber ; from the Eng. 

cunbhalach, constant, steady, Ir. cungbhailteach, firm, miserly; 
from cungbhail, keeping, Ir. inf. of cum, q.v. 

cungaidh, instrument, accoutrements: *c<m*gen- i root gen of 
gniomh, deed. See next. 


cungaisich, help, co-operate, Ir. cunghas, co-operation, vb 

cungnaighim, I help, cungantach, helpful, E. Ir. cungnam, 

assistance: *con + gniom; see cbmhnadk. 
cunnart, danger, M. G. cunntabhart (M'V.), Ir. cuntabhairt, con- 

tabhairt, danger, doubt, 0. Ir. cumtubart, cundubart, con- 

tubart, doubt, * con-to-bart, root her, of beir, q.v. (Cam.). 
cunnradh, cunradh, bargain, covenant, Ir. connradh, cunnradh, 

0. Ir. cundrad, cunnrath, Manx coourey : *con-radh ; see radh, 

say. Corm. derives from rath, surety, 
cunnt, count, Ir. cunntas, cuntas, reckoning, cuntaim, I count; 

from the Eng. 
cunnuil, an objection (Sh.), Ir. cunuil (Lh.) : 
cup, box-cart, coup ; see rub. 
cupa, a cup, Ir. ciipdn, W. cib ; from Lat. cdpa, tub, Eng. cup, 

coop, etc. 
* cupull, a couple, Ir. cupla, cupall, W. cwpl ; from M. Eng. couple. 
cur, a placing, setting ; inf. to cuir, q.v. 
curach, a boat, coracle, Ir., E. Ir. curach, Irish Lat. curucis, <l;tt. 

pi. (Adamnan), W. corwc, cwrwg, civrwgl, *kuruko- (Stokes) ; 

Armen. kur, a boat, 0. SI. horici, a kind of vessel. The Lat. 

carina has been compared, but the vowels are unsuitable 

Hence Eng. coracle. 
curadh, affliction, obstacle, curabh (Lh.), obstacle. \\\ the sense 

of affliction, cf. cuaradh. 
curaideach, frisky, cunning ; see cuireid. 
curaidh, a champion, Ir. curadh, E. Ir. cur, g. curad, caw, W. 

cawr, Cor. caur, gigas, Gaul. Ko,vapos (Polyb.), Cavarillus, etc., 

*l-avaro-s, a hero, mighty, root keva, ku, be strong ; Skr. 

cavira, mighty, cura, hero ; Gr. Kvptos, lord, Kvpos, might, 
curaing, curainn, a coverlet (Dialectic, H.S.D.); founded on Eng. 

covering. M'A. has curainn, plaiding (felt); of the same 

curam, care, Ir. curam ; from Lat. euro. 
curcag, sandpiper, M. Ir. cuirrcech, plover ; from currech, a marsh 

(K. Meyer). See next, 
curcais, bulrush, so Ir. (O'B., etc.), E. Ir. curcas, 0. Ir. curchas, 

0. W. cors, cannulos, W. corsen, reed, Br. corsenn, reed, 

*korokasto-, korkasto ; Lat. eclrex (Stokes, Ernault). The 

E. Ir. currech, a marsh, is allied, *grsiko-, Gaul. *parriko-, 

A. S. pearroc, Fr. pare (St.), Lat. cur sua. Perhaps Eng. 

hurst (St.). 
curr, corner, pit, Ir. curr, Keat. eurr, pit, corr, well, cistern : cf. 

W. cwr, corner, 
curracag, a bubble on tin* surface of liquids ; see currachd. 


currachd, hood, cap, night-cap, Ir. currach (O'R.), M. Ir. curracach, 
cuculatus (Stokes, Ir. Gl. 598, who suggested connection 
with W. pyrchivyn, crest of a helmet). So. cwrch, courchie, 
Eng. kerchief, seem to be the origin of the G. word. 

currachdag, peat-heap (M'A.); of. gwrracag. 

curradh, a crowding together (Macpherson's Ossian) : 

curraidh, exhausted (H S.D.), currtha (Sh., O'B ), Ir. currtha ; of. 

curran, curral, a carrot, root, radish, Ir. currdn, any kind of tap- 
rooted plant (O'R., Sh.) : *cors, head, as in corr 1 Cf. Eng. 
carrot, ultimately from Gr. Kapiorov, carrot, from Kapa, head, 
top ; *cors and kar of Kapa are ultimately from the same 

curran, curral, horse-panniers for heavy loads ; cf. Sc. currock, 
corrack (do.), Eng. crooks. 

currucadh, cooing of pigeons, Ir. curriicadh (O'R.), Sc, Eng. curr, 
curring. The word is onomatopoetic. 

currucag, the lapwing : see curcag 

currusan, a milk-pail : 

cursa, course, manner, Ir. ciirsa, from the Eng. course. 

curta, bad (Sh. ; not H.S.D.), curtsa (O'R ) ; from Eng. curst, 

cus, sufficiency, overplus : 

CUSag, a wild mustard (Sh., Arm. ; not H.S.D.) : 

cusp, a kibe : 

cuspair, an object, mark, Ir. cuspoir, M. Ir. cuspoir (Keat., Oss. :{ 
296). Dialectic cuspair, a customer (see cuspunn). 

cuspunn, custom, tribute, also cusmunn ; founded on Eng. custom. 

cut, hank of yarn, Ir. cuta, one-twelfth of a hank of yarn ; from 
Eng. cut. 

cut, to gut (fish) ; from Eng. gut. 

cutach, bobtailed, so Ir., E. Ir. do-chotta, they cut short, W. civta. 
The relationship, if any, existing between cut, cutach, and 
Eng. cut, is one of borrowing; the history of Eng. cut is 
obscure, and the Celtic words mean "short, shorten," not "to 
cut" with a knife. Besides, the E. Ir. appears a century and 
a half earlier than the Eng. (1139 v. 1275). Stokes has 
suggested a borrowing from Fr. couteau ( = cultellus, knife) for 
the E. Ir. form. Rhys says W. is Eng. cutty, borrowed. 

cuthach, caothach, rage, Ir. cuthach, *koti-aca- ; root kot, Gr. 
kotos, wrath. See cath. Stokes says Pict. Skr. kvdthati, 
seethe, Got. hvapjan, foam. 


da, two, Ir. da, 0. Ir. da (m.), di (J..), da n- (n.), W. dau (m.), 
dwy(l.), Cor. clou, diu, Br. c/ao?*, diou, (f.), *</■««, *dvda (ni.), f/wi 
(f.), dvahin (dat.) ; Skr. dvau, dvd, dve (f.. n.) : Gr. Si'w j Lat. 
duo : Got. toai, Eng. two. 

dabhach, a vat, a measure of land (either one or four plough- 
gates, according to locality and land), 0. G. dabach (Bk. of 
Deer), Ir. dabhach, a vat, *dabdkd ; Gr. Od-n-TOi, bury, ra<£os, 
grave ; root dhabh, dhobh, deepen, dig out. Cf. Lit. d filth, 
hollow out. Bezzenberger suggests alliance with Eng. top, 
Ger. top/. Eng. tub, if allied to the Ger. zuber, is from the 
root of two, "a two-eared" vessel. Also dabhoch, and in 
place-names Doch-. 

dacha, more likely ; see dacha. 

dachaidh, home (adverb), a home, Ir. do thigh, M. Ir. din tig, 
home, E. Ir. dia thaig ; from do and tigh. Tn Ir. the phrase 
is a prepositional adverb ; in Gaelic it ceases to be a phrase 
and becomes a welded noun. 

dad, anything, aught, tittle, M. G. dad, mote (in sunbeam), Ir. 
dadadh, dadamh, aught, a jot, etc., *da-z-dho-, root da, divide, 
Lit. dalis, part, Gr. Sacrfxos, division? See f dail. Eence 
dadmun, a mote, and dadum = dad. 
l dag, a pistol ; from M. Eng. dag, a pistol, from Fr. dague, a 
dagger, whence Br. dag. The change of meaning from 
"dagger" to "pistol" is one which occurs in the history of 
"pistol" itself, for it originally meant "dagger." Eng, 
dagger is allied. 

daibhir, poor, Ir. daidhbhir, M. Ir. daidber : *do-adberi-, from do- 
and adber, *ad-bhero, Lat. adfero. See saoibhir. 

daicheil, handsome, Ir. doigheamhuil, well appointed, decent ; see 
dhcha, dbcha, ddigh. 

daidein, daddy, Ir. daidin, daid, M. Ir. datdn, foster-father, datnait, 
foster-mother, W. tad, Cor. tat ; Lat. tata ; Gr. Terra ; Lit, 
tetf/tis, Ch. SI. teta ; Skr. tatds. Eng. dad is borrowed from 
the Welsh (Skeat). 

daigeil, firm or well-built (of a man) — Arg. Cf. daingean. 

dail, a wooden collar for cattle ; cf. W. dal, a hold, catch, Br. dal, 
a holding ; root dhe, dho, set 1 Cf. Gr. dr']Kr), repository, 
Tidy/xL, place, Lat. facto, etc. But see dail, delay. 

dail, a dale, meadow, from Norse dalr, Eng. dale. 

dail, delay, credit, Ir. ddil, M. Ir. dal, gen. dal a, respite, *ddli- ; 
from dvdl, dvel, whence Eng. dwell, Norse dvol, delay. 


dail, a meeting, so Ir., 0. Ir. ddl, 0. W, dail, forum, W. dadl, 
sermo, 0. Br. dadlou, curiae, Br. duel, *datld, root dha, dhe, 
set, as in dail (Ernault). Stokes suggests connection with 
0. SI. de-, dicere. 

fdail, fdal, portion, tribe, [r. and 0. Ir. dail, ddl, Bede daal = 
part, Dalreudiui, later Ddl-riata, Dalriada, the early Scotic 
kingdom of Argyle. etc : *ddlo-, root dd, divide, Gr. Sareo/xcu, 
divide, Sacr/xos, division, Lit. dalis, a part, Skr. ddti, cut off, 
dalas, part. The verb dailich, distribute, is given in H.S.D. 
as a dialectic form ; the Ir. is ddilim. Zimmer thinks dail, 
meeting, and dail, part, are originally the same. 

dailgneachd, prophetic vision. See tairgneachd. 

daimh, relationship, Ir. ddmh, tribe, family, E. Ir. dam : *ddmd, 
tribe, company ; Gr. 8^/xos, Dor. 8a[ios, people, tribe, Eng. 
democracy. It is usual to compare 0. W. daau, cliens, W. 
date (daw/), son-in-law, M. Br deuff, Br. den (do.); but these 
words may be allied to Gr. Sdfiap, spouse, and be from the 
root dam, dam, house. 

daingeail, strong, firm, so Ir., O Ir. daingen, \V. dengyn, barbarous, 
*dangeno-, firm, hard, verb *dengd, E. Ir. dingim, press. 
Bezzenberger compares Norse tengja, fasten, tie together, 
Ag. S. tengan, press, 0. H. G. gi-zengi, conjunctus. Thurneysen 
compares W. tengyn, obstinate, and Fr. tangoner, press. It 
is possible to connect daingean with Norse dyngja, heap, 
women's apartment, Ag. S. ding, career, Lit. dengiu, cover; 
perhaps 0. H. G. tunc, earth-house, Eng. dung. 

dair, inire vaccam, Ir. ddir, M. Ir. dair, *ddro, root dkf-, dhoro, 
Gr. BpoxTKU), spring, Oopos, semen viri, Skr. dMra, stream, 

dairireach, rattling noise, E. Ir. der-drethar, cries, W. ddr, noise, 
daredd, tumultuous noise, root der, dher, as in Gr. dprjvos, 
dirge, Skr. dkran, sound, Eng. drone. See dhrd and 

dais, a heap of hay or peats, 0. Ir. dais, a heap, VV. dd,<, O. W. 
das, M. Br. dastum, to mass, *dasti- (for G. and W.) ; Ag. S. 
tass (whence Fr. tas). Bezzenberger and Stokes correlate it 
with Norse des, hay heap, Sc. doss. 

dais, dois, a blockhead (H.S.D.), daiseachan, insipid rhymer 
(Arm). ; seemingly borrowed from the Sc. dawsie, stupid, 
dase, stupefy. For root, see daeachd. Norse dasi, lazy fellow. 

dais, a musical instrument : 
4 daithead, a diet ; from the Eng. Sec d\ot. 

dala, one of two ; see under dura. 



dall, blind, Ir., E. Ir. dall, W., Br. dall, Cor. dal, *dvalno-, I. E. 

dhvl-no- ; Got. dvals, foolish, Eng. dull ; Lat. /alio, cheat, 

(=dhalnd) ; Gr. Ookepos, turbid. Hence inter alia, dallag, 

a field shrew, a mole, Ir. dallog. 
dallanach, a winnowing fan ; from dall. 

dalma, bold, forward, obstinate : " vigorous 1 " root did in duille. 
dalta, foster-sou, god-son, O. G. dalta (Bk. of Deer), Ir. dalta, 

U. Ir. dalte, *daltaio-s, root dhe, dhU, suck ; Gr. Oykvs, 

female; Lat. f$lo, -suck, femina ; etc. (Stokes, Strachau). See 

deoghail. It has been usual to refer dalta to the root al of 

altram, the d being considered as the remains of de, the 

prepositional prefix (*de-altjo-s). 
. dam, a dam ; from the Eng. 
damais, draughts, bord damais, draught board ; from the Sc. 

dams, dambrod, Ger. dambrett, from Fr. dame, dame, draughts, 

Lat. domina. 
damh, ox, stag, so Ir., 0. Ir. dam, Cor. da, daina, M. Br. daual, 

sheep, Br. danvad, sheep, demm, roe, *damo-s ; Lat. ddma, 

damma, deer; Gr. SafxaXys, a stier, SdfxaXis, a calf; Skr. 

damya, untamed stier. Allied is Eng. tame, Lat. domare, 

Eng. domestic, etc. 
damhair, rutting time ; for damh-dhair, from damh and dair 

damhair (H.S.D.), damhair (Sh., Arms.), earnest, keen : 
damhan-allaidh, spider, Ir. dam/idn-alla, O. Ir. daman n-allaid 

(g. pi.), " wild little deer " ; see damh and allaidh. 
damnadh, cursing, condemnation, so Ir., M. Ir. damnad ; from 

Lat. damnatio. 
dan, fate, destiny, Ir. dan; cf. M. Ir. dan, gift, W. dawn, gift, 

talent, Lat. donam, root do, Gr. 8i6w/xi, give, Skr. dd-, give, 
dan, a poem, lr. dan, song, 0. Ir. dan, g. ddno, ars, *ddsnu-, root 

das, know ; Gr. 8-jvea, plans, arts, Say/xov, skilful ; Ch. SI. 

danhanh, wisdom ; Skr. damsdna, miracle (Stokes), 
dan, bold, Ir. ddna, O. lr. ddne, ddna, *ddsnavo-s, from the root 

of dan above (Stokes). 
danns, dance (thou), dannsa, damhsa, a dance, Ir. damhsa, W. 

dawns ; from the Eng. 
dao, obstinate, 0. Ir. doe, g. doi, tardus, *dausio-s ; Ag. S. dysig, 

foolish, Eng. dizzy, 0. H. G. tustc, stultus, Ger. thor, foolish 

(Stokes, Windisch). 
daobhaidh, wicked, per verso (Heb.) ; see dao. 
daoch, strong dislike, horror, daochan, anger (Sh.) : 
daoi, wicked, a wicked man, Ir. daol, a wicked or foolish person ; 

opposite of saoi (with do-, *du-), which see for root. 


daoimean, a diamond ; from the Eng. 

daol, daolag, a beetle, Ir. daol, E. Ir. dael, doel, dail : *doilo-, root 
frs* ' dei, di, as in dian, q.v. Stokes connects with M. Ir. dael t 

frightsomeness, root dvei, fright, Gr. Scos, a fright, Ski-. 

dvis, hate, 
daolair, a lazy man, a niggard, Ir. daol, lazy (O'li.) : 
daonnan, daondan, continually, always, *d } aon-tan (']), "from one 

time." Cf. greis. 
daor, enslaved, so Ir., 0. Ir dbir ; opposite of saor (with negative 

do-, *du-), which see for root, 
daor, dear, Ir. daor, daoradk, making dear (Four Masters) ; from 

M. Eng. deere, deore, dear (Stokes). 
daorach, intoxication ; cf. Sc. deray, mirthful noise at a banquet, 

M. Eng. derai, disorder, from Fr. desroi, dw-array. 
dar, when (conj.), Northern form for 'n uair ; probably d % imir = 

dara, second, so Ir. ; M. G. darle (Oss. Ballad, Fernaig MS ), 

*ind-araile, "the other," from ind=an, the, and 0. Ir. araile, 

alius = ar + aile, air + eile, q.v., alalijos, Br. avail. Also an 

dala, the one of two, 0. Ir. indala, from ind and aile, that 

is, an and eile. Further, dama ( = dala), E. Ir. indarua, 

*ind-araile n-ai, the one of them (two), 0. Ir. indala n-ai, 

where di, eorum, is the pi. of a, his. 
darach, oak, Ir. dair, darach, E. Ir. dair, gen. darach, W., Cor. 

dar, *darik-; Lat. lari.v, Eng. larch; Gr. (Maced.) §apv\\o% 

oak, 8pvs (do.), 86 pv, spear ; Eng. tree, etc. Hence darach, 

body of a boat, 
darean, the hollow of the hand (Dialectic, H.S.D.) ; cf. dehrna. 
darcan, a teal : 

dama, one of two ; see under dara. 
■J darnaig, darn, darning ; from the Eng. darning, which is itself 

from W. darn, piece, patch (root dera, split, Eng. tear). 
dasachd, rage, madness, M. G. ddsacht (M'V.), Ir. ddmchd, 0. Ir. 

ddsacht, insania ; Ag. S. dwdes, foolish, Sc. dawsie, \)u. dwaas, 

senseless (Strachan). 
dath, colour, Ir., E. Ir. dath, *datu- ; from the root dka, dhi, 

place, as in dail, etc. 1 
dath, singe, Ir. doghaim, E. Ir. doihim, inf. doud, daif (n.), Br. 

deuiff, to burn, *david, I burn ; Gr. Saiio, burn ; Skr. dn, 

dundli, burn, davas, a brand, 
dathas, fallow deer; damhasg, dabhasg ; from damh+seasg(l). 
dc, of, Ir. de, 0. Ir. de, di, 0. W. di, W. y, Cor. the, Br. di, *de, 

*di, *de ; Lat. de ; from dve, a case-form from dvo, two. 

Gaelic and Irish confuse this prep, with do, to ; a confusion 


which even extends to 0. Ir. in pre-accentnal de compounds. 

Hence do of the past tenses : do chaidk, went, i.e., rfeach ; do 

rinn, did, from do-gniu, I do, etc. 
d6, what ; also gu de ; a curtailed form of ciod e, " what is it "; 

from ciod and e, q.v. Ir. caide, Galway gode. 
de\ an de\ yesterday, Ir. ane, (ande), 0. Ir. indhe, W. y ddoe, Br. 

deac'hy M. Br. deck, *sendi-gesi, art. an and *(/m ; Lat. heri 

(=*hesi) ; Gr. x^s > Eng. yesterday. The Celtic forms are 

all influenced by the word for "to-day," G. an din, 0. Ir. 

indiu, W. heddyiv, dyw ; from cfo'w, *divOy day, q.v. Zimmer 

in fact refers the word to the root of din (Zeit. 30 17). *jesi, 

ghjesiy heri, etc. (St.). 
&6 : teine de\ M. Ir. tene diait, lightning ; *deia, shine with -anti 

or -anta (n.) (St.). 
deabh, drain, dry up, deabhadh (pronounced de-u), shrinking (as 

the staves of a wooden vessel), Dialectic deo'; I. E. dhevo-y 

run, Eng. dew, Gr. 9eio, run, Skr. dhav, run, flow, 
deacaid, boddice, jacket ; from Eng. jacket. 
deacair, difficult, surly, Ir. deacair, 0. Ir. deccair ; for di-acar : 

prep, de and acar, as in socair, q.v. 
deach, went ; the post-particle or enclitic form of do chaidh, q.v., 

Ir, deachaidhy 0. Ir. dechud. 
deachd, dictate, so Ir., deachdadh (n.) ; from Lat, dicta, dicteUio, 

whence Eng. dictation. 
deadhan, a dean ; from the Eng. 
deagh, good, Ir. deagh, 0. Ir. deg-, dag-, W. c?a, Cor. da, bonum 

(gl.), Gaul. Dago-, *dago-, *dego-, " good, acceptable ; " Gr. 

Sex^o-dai, receive. Further allied to Gr. Se£ios, right, SeKOfxai, 

receive ; Lat. dexter, right, decu.% doceo ; Gaelic deas, 0. Ir. 

deck, best (superlative to deagh or maith). 
deag'had, living, diet, morals (Uist) ; see diot. 
deaghaidh : sec detdh. 
deal, friendly (li.S.D., M'E.) ; see dlleas. 
deal, deala, a leech, Ir. deal, a blood-sucker (O'R.) ; from I. E. 

root dhe, suck, as in deoghail, q.v. Cf. Lit. dele, leech ; also 

Ir. (and G. in Diet, therefrom) deala, teat, E. Ir. del. 
dealaich, separate, Ir. dealuighim, E. Ir. deligim, deil, separation ; 

I. E. delo-, to split, Skr. dalitas, split, Gr. SeAros, tablet, Lit. 

datisy part. Cf. jdail, part, 
dealan, dealanach, lightning, Ir. dealdn, a spark, flaming coal, 

*dilo- : root di, dei (dei), deya (Fick), shine ; Gr. SeeAos 

(=8e/-€Aos), conspicuous, 8-qXos, clear ; Skr. di, shine ; further 

is *dei-vo-s, whence G. dia, etc. M. Ir. tene-gelain, "lightning," 

now "will o' the wisp"; tene-gelan, fireflanght. 


dealan-de, butterfly, \v. d<tldn-de, dealdn-de. The G. also means 
the phenomenon observed by whirling a stick lighted at 
the end. Apparently the meaning is " God's fire." For 
de, see dia. 

dealan-doruis, door-bolt (Sh., O'R.) ; see deil. 

dealas, zeal, dealasach, zealous ; from the Eng. zeal, zealous. 

dealbh, form, so Ir., 0. Ir. delb, W. dehv, Br. -delu, *delvo-, root 
del ; Lat. dolare, hew, dolo, a pike ; Gr. SaiSaAAoj, embellish, 
work cunningly ; 0. H. G. zol, log ; Ch. SI. dely, vat. 

dealg, a pin, skewer, so Ir., 0. Ir. delg, M. W. dala, sting, fang, 
W. dal, a catch, Cor. dele, monile, *delgos \ Ag. S. telgan, 
virgultum, twig, Du. telg, M. H. G. zelge, Norse tjdlgr, a 
prong ; Lit. dalgis, scythe (?). Bezzenberger compares Norse 
ddlkr, a cloak pin ; cf. Ag. S. dale, buckle. 

dealradh, brightness, so Ir., E. Ir. dellrad, jubar ; from deal-, as 
in dealan, q.v. 

dealt, dew, Ir. dealt, M. Br., Br. delt, moist, damp : 

dealunn, loud barking (H.S.D.) ; see deileann. 

deamhan, a demon, so Ir., 0. Ir. demon ; from Lat. daemon, from 
Gr. 8ai[A(i>v, Eng. demon. 

deamhais, deimheis, shears, Ir. deimheas (pronounced dios), E. Ir. 
demess, *di-mess, " two-edged "; from di of da, two, and E. Ir. 
mess, edge (Cormac's Gl.), "cutter," from root met, mow, cut, 
as in meath, meith, cut, prune, Lat. rneto. Cf. Gaul, mataris. 

dean, do, Ir. dean (imper.), 0. Ir. den, denim : enclitic or post- 
particle form of 0. Ir. dogniu, G. ?ii, I do ; from de, of, and 
gni of gwiomh, q.v. Inf. deanamh (=de-gnimu-). 

deann, haste, speed ; cf. E. Ir. denmne, haste, which Cormac 
explains as di-ainmne, "non-patience," from ainmne, patience ; 
root men, wait (Lat. maneo, etc.). 

deannag, a small pinch, a grain, deannach, mill dust, Ir. deandg, 
a pinch, grain : 

deannal, conflict, stir, so Ir. (O'R.); from deann. In the sense of 
"flash" (H.S.D.), deannal seems a metathetical form of 

deanntag, a nettle, Ir. neantog, M. Ir. nenntog, E. Ir. nenaid, 
*nenadi-, for *ne-nadi-, a reduplicated form ; Ag. S. netele, 
Eng. nettle ; Lit. nendre, pipe, tube. The t of G. and Ir. is 
due to the same phonetic law that gives teine the pi. teintean. 

dearail, poor, wretched, Ir. deardil, E. Ir. derdil, feeble, 0. Ir. 
derdil, penuria, from der-, privative prefix (see deargnaidh), 
and oil, abundance, which Windisch has referred to *p(1/i-, a 
form of the root pi, pel, full, as in Idn. 

dearbadan, dearbadan-d6, butterfly (M'D., H.S.D.) : 


dearbh, certain, so Ir., 0. Ir. derb, *dervo- ; I. E. drevo-, whence 
Ag. S. treowe, Eng. true, Ger. treu. 

dearc, dearcag, a berry, so Ir., 0. Ir. derc, *derkes-, Skr. drdkshd, 
grape, vine (Stokes) ; root derk, see, the idea being " con- 
spicuous." Of. Gr. 8paK0)v, dragon, 8opi<ds, gazelle, from the 
root derk, see. See dearc, behold. The 0. Ir. derucc, g. 
dercon, glans, is, like Ger. eichel, glans (from eithe, oak), from 
the root of dararh, oak (Zimmer). 

dearc, dearc-luachrach, a lizard, Ir. earcluachra, the " earc of the 
rashes," M. Ir. ere, speckled, red, Ir. earc, salmon, W. erch, 
fuscus, darkish, *erko-s, for *perko- ; Gr. 7repKv6s, dark-blue, 
7T€pK7], a perch ; Skr. prcnis, speckled ; Ger. forelle, a trout, 

0. H. G. forhana. For meaning, cf. breac, a trout, " the 
speckled one." The d of G. dearc belongs to the article. 

fdearc, an eye, a cave, hole, Ir. dearc (do.), 0. Ir. derc (do.); from 
the root derk, behold. See verb dearc: " eye-pit " gives the 
meaning " cave." Shaw has deirc for "pit" in Engl.-Gael. 

dearc, behold, see, Ir. dearcaim, 0. Ir. dercaim, video, derc, eye, 
*derko, I see, perfect *dedorka (cf. chunnairc = con-dare) ; 

1. E. derk, see ; Gr. ScpKOfxat, SeSopKa, have seen ; 0. H. G. 
zoraht, bright ; Skr. dare, see. 

dearg, red, so Ir., 0. Ir. derg, *dhergo-s ; Eng. dark, Ag. S. deorc. 
deargad, deargant, a flea, Ir. deargdn, dreancuid, deargnuid, E. Ir. 

dergnat : *derg-nat, " reddener," from dearg, red ? 
deargnaidh, unlearned (Arm.; M'A. says "Irish"), Ir. dtargnaidh, 

*der-gnadi- ; from der-, privative prefix (di + air, see de and 

air), and root ynd, gen, know, as in aithne. 
dearlan, brimful ; *der-ldn ; from intensive prefix der (=de + 7-n) 

and Ian, full. 
dearmad, neglect, forgetfulness, so Ir., 0. Ir. dermet, *der-met ; 

from der-, priv. particle (see deargnaidh) and met, *mento-, 

mind ; root men, think ; Lat. mens, mentio, commentum ; Eng. 

mind ; etc. 
dearmail, anxiety (M'D.), anxious (H.S.D.) : 
dearn, do, Ir. dedrnaim, 0. Ir. derninn, facerem, *di-ro-gni-, a side 

form of dean with infixed ro. See dean. 
deama, the palm of the hand, Ir. dearna, E. Ir. derna ; cf. Gr. 

Sw/oov, palm, handbreadth, Sdpcs, the distance between the 

thumb and little finger, a span (Hes.), Saptlp, the distance 

between the big and little fingers (Hes.). It is further 

referred to the I. E. root der, split, open (Fick, Frellwitz). 

Hence dearnagan, a small oaten or wheaten cake, a hand, 
dearras, keenness, obstinacy ; see diarras. 


dearrsach, a swig of liquor (Wh.) : 

dearrsadh, radiance, effulgence, Ir. dearsgaim, dearsgnaim, 1 
polish, burnish, M. Ir. derscnaigim, explain, make clear, 
*de-ro-sec-, root sec, see, Eng. see ? Hence dearrsgnuidh, 
burnished, brilliant The word fdearsgnaidh, excellent, is 
allied to 0. Ir. dersigem, pr;ecellimus, dirosci, excels, doroscai, 
prsestet, *di-7*oscag- (Tliur.), *roscag—ro-od-sec-, root sec, pass, 
as in seach ? E, Ir. dersciagthech, splendid. 

deas, right, south, Ir. deas, 0. Ir. dess, W. deheu, Cor. dyghow, 
M. Br. dehou, *dekso-s, *deksivo-s (Stokes) ; Lat. dexter ; Gr. 
8ef cos ; Got. iaihsva ; Lit. deszine (n.), Ch. SI. desinu, right ; 
Skr. daksina-s. 

deasbair, a disputant, deasbaireachd, disputation, Ir. deaspoirim 
(O'R., Sh.) ; cf. cuspair. 

deasbud, a dispute ; from the Eng. dispute, Lat. dispmto. 

deasg'ainn, rennet, barm, deasgadh, lees, yeast, Ir. deasgadh, lees, 

0. Ir. descad, faex, fermentam, leaven, *desc-dtu (Z. 803) : 
*disc-atu- ; cf. Lat faex, for &aix. Gaelic root dik, whence 
dik-sko, then desc-. 

deasgraich, a heterogeneous mass (^dreamsgal, H.S.D.) : 
deasmaireas, curiosity, deasmas (Sh.), Ir. deismireach, deismis, 

curious (O'B., O'R.) : 
deasoireach, spicy (Sh., H.S.D.) : 
deat, an unshorn year-old sheep or wedder, deathaid, *det-anti~, 

" sucking one "; from det, de, suck. See deoghail. 
deatam, anxiety ; cf. 0. Ir. dethitiu, dethiden, care. For root, see 

didean. M'A. has also deatamach, necessary, which seems 

deathach, deatach, smoke, Ir., M. Ir. deatach, 0. Ir. de, g. diad, 

E. Ir. dethach, detfadach, smoky, W. dywy, vapour. From 

1. E. root dheu, dheic, dhu, dhve, smoke, air ; Lat. fumus, 
smoke ; Gr. Ovfxido), to smoke ; Ch. SI. dymu (n.) ; Skr. 
dhilmds. Ir. d& is for diva, from dheu or dhev ; the gen. diad 
is phonetically like the nom. Had, food (*bivoto-n). The 
form deatach is probably for *dett-acos, dett being from dhve 
(cf. Gr. 6e6s, for #ecr-os, from dhve-s-). The t (=tt) of deatach 
is difficult to account for. For phonetics cf. beathach. 

deibhleid, a feeble or awkward person, M. Ir. deblen, E. Ir. dedbleu, 

weakling, from dedlml, weak ; the opposite of adhbhal, q.v. 

(di-adbid). Stokes allows the alternate possibility of its 

being from Lat. debilis ; see diblidh. 
deic (cha deic), convenient ; cf. 0. Ir. tecte, becoming, anas t< ch ■, 

quod decet : 


deich, ten, so Ir., 0. Ir. chick n-, 0. W. dec, W. deg, Cor. dek, Br. 
dec, *dekn ; Lat. decern : Gr. Se#ca ; Got. taihun, Eng. ton ; 
Skr. ddpan. Deicheamh, tenth, 0. Ir. dechmad, W. decvet, 
Cor. degves, Br. decvet, *dekrp,meto-8 (Brug.), an extension (by 
the superlative suffix -to-) of *dekmmo-8 f Lat. decimux. 

deide, deideadh, toothache, Ir. deideadh. See e/e^/. 

deideag", a pebble, toy ; cf. eiteag. 

deidh, desire ; a noun formed from the adverbial phrase an de'idk, 

deidh, an deidh, after, Ir. a n-diaigh, 0. Ir. i n-dead, post, E. Ir. 
i n-diaid, from 0. Ir. dead, finis, W". diwedd, finis, Cor. deweth, 
Br. r/itciz, *de-ved-ou (Stokes) ; from the root ved, lead, as in 
toiseach, q.v. (Stokes prefers wed of feadhainu). Also deidh, 
deigh, the latter a bad form etymologically. The 0. Ir. had 
also the form degaid (=di-agaid), the opposite of i n-ag/'d, 
now an aghaidh, against, ad versus. 

deidhinn, mu dheidhinn, concerning, of ; cf. E. Ir. ddgin, daigind, 
im ddgin, because of, because, ddig, dAig, for the sake of, 
because (prep, and conj.), 0. Ir. deg, quia. See dbigh. 

deifir, haste, speed, Ir. deifir, deithfir, M. Ir. deilhbhireach (O'Cl.), 
speedy, busy ; to which Stokes and Ernault compare W. 
difrif, serious, NL Br. adevry, seriously. 

deigh, ice, Ir. oighear, snow, leac-oighir, ice, 0. Ir. aig, g. ega, 
aigred, W. la, Cor. iey, glacies, Br. yen, cold, *jagi-, ice ; 
Norse jaki, piece of ice, jbkull, iceberg, Ag. S. gicel, piece of 
ice, Eng. icicle (=is-gicel) ; Lit. izas, ice lump. The d of 6. 
is prothetic, arising from the art. : <). Ir. ind-aig. 

deighlean, a quire of paper (Sh., O'B.), Ir. deighledm : 

deil, an axle, Ir. deil, an axle, rod, turner's lathe, 0. Ir. deil, rod, 
Cor. dele, antempna, 0. Br. deleiou, antemnarum, Br. delez, 
*deli-, *deljo- ; I. E. root del, split. Sec dealaich. Stokes 
refers it to the root dhel, whence Ger. dolrfe, umbel, 0. H. G. 
tola, racemus, Gr. BdXos, a short twig ; as in duihug, q.v. 

deil, dil, keen, diligent (Arg.) ; formed from <l<<ihis, zealous. 

deil, leech ; Dialectic for deal. 

deilbh, a forming, warping (for weaving), so Ir. : see dealbh. 

de'ile, a plank, deal ; from the Eng. deal. 

deileann, loud, sharp barkings, E. Ir. deilm, stem del men, noise, 
alarm : 

deileas, a grudging, eagerness ; see d<'<tl<i*. 

deilgneach, thorny, prickly, Ir. deilgneack, thorns ; from dealg. 
Cadal-deilgneach, the prickly sensation in a numbed limb. 

deilig, deal with, a dealing ; from Eng. dealing. 

deillseag, a slap with the open hand, deiseag : 


deiltreadh, gilding, lacquering ; *deilt-rad, from fdeilt, separa- 
tion, root del of dealaich ? 

deimheis, a shears ; see deamhais. 

deimhinn, certain, lr. deimhin, 0. Ir. demin, demnithir, certius, 
*demeui-, I. E. root dhe, set, fix, dhemeu-, setting, Gr. 
defxevat, set, Oe/xa, a pledge, theme, #e/us, law, " something 
laid down " ; Eng. doom, deem ; etc. 

deine, eagerness ; see dian. 

deir, a deir, says (said), inquit, Ir. deirim, 0. Ir. adbeir, dicit ; deir 
is the root-accented form i^ad-bero) of abair (the preposi- 
tional accented form, *dd-bero). See abair. The a of a 
deirim belongs to the ad-, while the d of it takes the place of 
b in the root (ber). 

deirc, alms, so Ir., M. Ir. dearc, desheirc, 0. Ir. dearc, deircc, 
desercc, (caritas), for de-shercc ; see searc, love. 

deireadh, end, so Ir., 0. Ir. dered, 0. G. derad (Bk. of Deer) : 
*der-vedo-n, root ved as in deidk, q.v. 1 Ascoli suggests that 
der is the basis, the opposite of er, front, from the proposition 
air (*pare). Hence deireas, injury. 

deis, an deis, after, so Ir., 0. Ir. di e'is, retro, 0. G. daneis, after 
them (*di-a7i-e'is), 0. Ir. eis, footstep, track, ^iii-sti, root sto, 
sta, stand, Lat. instare ? Strachan gives the stem as *encsi-, 
from eng, footstep, as in eang, q.v. ; Stokes takes it from 
*pend-ti-, root ped, as in eadh, Eng. foot. 

deis-de, a sanctuary, halting place, halt (Wh.) ; dess de\ "God's 
right hand " (K. Meyer in " King Eochaid "). 

deisciobul, a disciple, Ir. deisciobal, 0. Ir. desciptd, W. dysgybl, 
Br. diskibil ; from Lat. discipulus. 

deise, a suit of clothes ; from deas. Ir., M. Ir. deise, a robe ; E. 
Ir. deis, entourage of chief. Cf. for meaning Eng. suit. 

deiseag, a slap ; see deillseag. 

deiseil, southward, sun-ward, E. Ir. dessel; from deas and set 
(*svel), W. chwyl, versio. See deas and seal. 

deismireach, curious ; see deasmaireas. 

deistinn, d^isinn, disgust, Ir. deistion, edge (set the teeth on 
edge), disgust. Cf. M. Ir. deistiu, refuse of everything, 
posterity, from deis ? 

deithneas, deithneamhach, etc. ; from deine, from dian. 

deo, breath, Ir. deo in gu deo, ever, *dveso- ; I. E. dhves, breathe ; 
W. dywy? Lit. dvesti, breath, dvdse, spirit, breath, Iluss. 
dvochati ; Gr. Oeos, god ( = 0eo--6$) ; M. H. G. getwds, ghost. 

deoch, a drink, Ir. deoch, g. dighe, 0. Ir. deug, g. dige, *degu-. 
To degu- Bezzenberger cfs. Lit, dazyti, dip, wet, tinge. W. 



diod, M. Br. diet, are referred by Stokes to the root dive, 

suck, as in deoghail, or to *de-patu (Lat. potus). 
deddhas, debthas, eagerness, desire (deothas, M'F., O'li.) ; from 

dhevo-, Gr. dew, run, 0u/aos, soul, etc. See deathach. 
deoghail, suck, Ir. diuilim, deolaim, M. Ir. diul (n., dat.), *delu-, 

root del as in deal, leech ; I. E. dhe, suck ; Lat. felare, suck, 

Jemina, woman, "suck-giver"; Gr. 6f}\vs, female, 0-qX/j, teat, 

07/Aa£a>, suck ; Skr. dhdyati (do.). The Breton forms show 

n; Br. dena, suck. See oVvonag. 
deoidh, fa dhedidh, at last, finally, Ir. fd d/ieoidh, 0. Ir. fo diud, 

postremo ; dat. case of 0. Ir. dead, end. See deidh for 

dedin, assent, Ir., E. Ir. deoin, *degni- ; I. E. root dek, degh ; Gr. 

Sok€o>, seem, Sofa, opinion, 8tSax>i, teaching, Lat. doceo, 

doctrina, etc. See deagh, good. 
de6radh, an alien, Ir. debraidh, a stranger, exile, M. Ir. deorad. 

Stokes thinks the word is borrowed from Brittonic — Br. 

devroet, depayse, " dis-countrified " (di-brog-, see brugh), Cor. 

diures, exul. debradh : opposite of urradh, guarantor, = di- 

urradh (Jub.). air-rad (Meyer). Hence the name Dewar. 
detheine, a heated boring iron : *de-theine, the accent being on 

the second portion teine, fire. For de, see dealan-de. 
detheoda, henbane (M'D.) : 
detiach, deteigheach, the gullet, weasand (M'D., Sh., etc.) : 

peculiar as accented on iach, properly det-iacfi ; Dial, it-ioch, 

epiglottis (Arg.). 
deubh, shrink ; see deabh. 
deubhann, a fetter for a horse : 
deuchainn, diachainn, a trial, attempt, Ir. d) fheachain, to see. 

See feuch, feuchainn. 
deud, a tooth, Ir. dead, 0. Ir. det, W. dant, Cor. dans, Br. dant, 

dntd (Stokes); Lat. dens {dentis); Gr. oSovs (g. oSovtos); Eug. 

tooth, Got. tunfrus ; Lit. dantks ; Skr. dant-. 
deug, diag, -teen, e.g., cdig-deug, fif-teen, Ir. deag, 0. Ir. dec, 

deac, W. deng, ten (?). The exact relationship of deag to 

deich is difficult to decide. The other I. E. languages, as 

a rule, make 13 to 19 by combining the unit numeral 

with 10, as Ger. drti-zehn, Ag. S. tSriUne, Lat. tridecim. 

*dvei-penge (St.). 
deur, diar, a tear, drop, Ir. d4ar, deor, 0. Ir. dcr, W., Cor, dagr^ 

0. Br. doer, M. Br. dazrou, tears, *dakru; Gr. Sa/c/w; Lat. 

lacrima, for dacrima \ Eng. tear, Got. ta<7r. 
Di-, -day ; the prefix in the names of the days of the week, Ir., 

0. Ir. dia, die (0. Ir.), W. dydd, Cor. det (for dedh), Br. dtz, 


*dijas (*dejes- ?) ; Lat. dies ; Skr. dydds, day, sky ; Gr. Zev<$, 
Atos, Jove. Allied to dia, god. Di-ddmhnuich, Sunday, Ir. 
Domhnach, E. Ir. domnach, from Lat. (dies) dominica, Lord's 
day — dominus, lord ; Di-luain, Monday, Ir. Dia-luain, M. Ir. 
luan, W. Dydd Llun, from Lat. dies Lunce, "day of the 
moon " ; Di-mairt, Tuesday, Ir. Dia-mairt, E. Ir. mdirt, W. 
Dydd mawrth, from Lat. dies Martis, "day of Mars"; Di- 
ciaduinn, Di-ciadaoin, Wednesday, Ir. Dia-ceadaoine, 0. Ir. 
cetdin, cetoin, de cetain (de = dia = L&t. die), dia cetdine, from 
ceud, first, and aoine, fast, q.v., E. Ir. dine : " day of the first 
fast," Friday being the second and chief day ; Diardaoin, 
Thursday, Ir. Dia-dhardaoin, E. Ir. dardden=etar da din, 
"between two fasts" — the day between the two fasts of 
Wednesday and Friday ; Di-haoine, Friday, Ir. Dia-aoine, 
Dia-haoine, E. Ir. dine, dia dine, 0. Ir. dia oine didine (day 
of the last fast) : " day of the fast," from aoin, fast, q.v. ; 
Di-sathuirn, Saturday, Ir. Dia-sathuirn, M. Ir. satharn, dia 
sathairn, from Lat. dies Satumi, day of Saturn. The days 
of the week were originally named (in Egypt) after the seven 
planets of the ancients — Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jove, 
Venus, Saturn. 

di-, negative prefix, Ir. di-, dio-, 0. Ir. di-, W. di, *de ; Lat. de, 
of. See de. Also dim-, &iom-(dimeas, dimbrigh, diombuaidh, 

dia, a god, so Ir., 0. Ir. dia, W. duw, 0. W. duiu, Cor. duy, Br. 
doe, Gaul, devo-, Aetovoi/a=Divona, *deivo-s ; Lat. divus (for 
deivos), deified one, deus ; Gr. Sios, divine ; Norse tivar, gods, 
Eng. Tues-d&y, "day of Tiw," the war-god; Lit. d'evas, Pruss. 
deiwas ; Skr. devd. Hence diadhaidh, pious, Ir. diadha, 
0. Ir. diade, divinus. 

diabhol, devil, Ir. diabhal, 0. Ir. diabul, W. diawl, Br. diaoul ; 
from Lat. diabolus, whence also Eng. devil. 

diachadaich, especially (Heb.) : 

diallaid, a saddle, so Ir., M. Ir. diallait, cloak, 0. Ir. dillat, 
clothes, W. dillad, M. Br. dillat. 

dialtag, a bat, Ir. ialtog. See ialtag. 

diamhain, idle ; see dlomhain rather. 

diamhair, secret, Ir. diamhair, M. Ir., E. Ir. diamair, 0. Ir. 
diamair, dimair. Root mar, remain ; di-mar, disappear 1 

dian, keen, hasty, so Ir., 0. Ir. dian, *deino-s ; root dei, di, hasten ; 
Gr. SUfioLL, hasten; Skr. di, diyati, hurry, allied to the root 
di, div, shine. 

dianag, a two-year-old sheep ; cf. 0. Ir. dinu, lamb, from the root 
dhe, suck. See deoghail. But Sc. dinmont ? 


Diardaoin, Thursday ; see Di-. 

diardan, anger, Ir. diardain, E. Ir. diartain ; from di-, intensive 

prefix (E. Ir. di,-, as in dimor, excessively great), from <h\ and 

ardan, pride. Of. andiaraid, wrathful. 
diarras, diorras, stubbornness, vehemence, Ir. diorruisg, fierce- 
ness, rashness : di-ri'idh ? 
dias, an ear of corn,* so Ir., 0. Ir. dias, W. tivys (pi.) : *steij>s(}, 

root steip, stiff, Lat. stipes, stake, stipula, Eng. stiff? Cf. 

geug and W. cang, ysgainc, for phonetics, 
dibheach, an ant (H.S.D. quotes only O'R., while Arms, makes it 

obsolete ; M'A. has it), Ir. dibheach : *de + beach ? 
dibhfhearg, vengeance, indignation, Ir. dibhfhearg, dibhfearg 

(Keat.), E. Ir. diberg ; from dim and fearg ; see di- of 

dibhirceach, diligent (Sh. ; H.S.D., which refers to C. S., but 

neither in M'A. nor M'E.), Ir. dibhirceach, diligent, violent 

(O'B., etc.) : 
dibir, forsake ; see dlobair. 
dibith, dimbith, luckless, lifeless (Carm) : 
diblidh, abject, vile, Ir. dibligh, 0. Ir. diblide, senium ; seemingly 

from Lat. debilis, weak, feeble (Eng. debilitate, etc.). Zim. 

(Zeit. 24 ) has suggested *di-adbul, "un-great," from adbul, 

i.e. adhbhal, q.v. 
dibrigh, dimbrigh, contempt, Ir. dimbrigh ; from dim-, di-, and 

brlgh, q.v. 
dlchioll, diligence, Ir. dithchioll : *di-cell- ; for cell, see timchioll. 

Or from ciall, sense ; " attention to " ? 
Di-ciadaoin, Wednesday ; see Di-. 
did, a peep ; an onomatopoetic word, 
dldean, protection, a fort, Ir. didean, 0. Ir. ditiu, g. diten, *di- 

jemtion- (Stokes) ; root jem, cover, protect, Lett, ju'mju, ju'mt, 

cover a roof. The 0. Ir. verb is do-emim, tueor. Ascoli 

makes the root em, as in Lat. emo, buy. Cf. eiridinn. 
Di-ddmhnuich, Sunday ; see Di-. 
difir, difference, Ir. difir, dithfir, M. Ir. dethbir ; from Lat. differo, 

Eng. differ. 
dig, a wall of loose stones, a dike ; from the Sc. dike, Eng. dike. 
dil, eager, keen. See deil. 
dil, dile, dilinn, a flood, Ir. dile, pi. dileanna, E. Ir. dili, g. dilenn, 

diluvium ; from Lat. diluvium (Stokes), whence Eng. deluge. 
dile, dill (M'D.) ; from the Eng. 
dileab, a legacy, Ir. dilb (O'R.) : 
dileag, a small drop ; from dile, flood. 


dileas, dear, faithful, Ir. dileas, 0. Ir. diles, proprius, own, *dSle&to-, 

del, I. E. dhel, dhe, suck, Lat. filing femina, etc. See deogkal. 

Zeuss has suggested di + les, from teas, advantage. 
dileigh, digest, dileaghadh, digesting, Ir. dileaghadh, from 

di-leagh, root of leagh, melt. 
dileum (accent on leum), a shackle ; di + leum, q.v. 
dllinn, leac dhilinn, a stone in situ, a rock appearing above 

ground : "natural," from d\l- as in dileas. 
dilleachdan, an orphan, Ir. dilleachda, 0. Ir. dilechtu, orfani : 

"derelict," from di- and leig, let go (di-lec-, let go). 
dimbrigh, contempt ; see dibrigh. 
dimeas, contempt, Ir. dimheas, 0. Ir. dimess ; from di-, dim-, and 

dinn, press, force down, squeeze, Ir. dingim, ding, a wedge, E. Ir. 

dingim, perf. dedaig, *dengo ; Ag. S. tengan, press, Norse 

tengja, fasten (Bezzenberger). See daingean. Brugmann 

refers it to *dhingho, Lat. Jingo, mould, feign, I. E. dheigh, 

Eng. dough. 
dinnein, a small heap, Ir. dinn, a hill, fortified hill, E. Ir. dinn 

dind (do.), *dindu- ; Norse tindr, spike, peak, Ger. zinne, 

pinnacle, Eng. tine. But cf. Gr. Sis, Oivos (t long), a heap, 

Skr. dhanvan. 
dinneir, a dinner, Ir. dinnear ; from the Eng. 
y dinnsear, ginger, Ir. gingsear, M. Ir. sinnsar ; from M. Eng. 

ginger, Lat. zingiber. 
diobair, forsake, Ir. dibirim; for dk + wbair, q.v. di-ud-ber (St), 
diobhail, loss, Ir. dioghabhail, 0. Ir. digbail,* deminutio ; d\- and 

gabhail, q.v. 
diobhargadh, persecution, diobhargach, fierce, keen, Ir. dibhear- 

gach, vindictive ; see dibhfhearg. 
diobhuir, vomit: *de + beir, Lat. defero ; from de and heir, 
diocail, lower, diminish (H.S.D., which quotes MSS. only) ; 

di + ad-cal ; from cail ? 
diochain, forgetfulness ; Dialectic for dichuimhne, that is di- and 

diod, diodag, a drop ; from the Eng. jet ? jot ? 
diog, a syllable, Ir. digim, diugam, cluck as a hen : G. diug, the 

call to hens. Onomatopoetic. 
diogail, tickle, Ir. gig Urn, 0. Ir. fogitled (for fogicled ?). The G. 

seems borrowed from the Eng. tickle, kittle ; and possibly all 

are onomatopoetic, and reshaped in later times. Cf. Eng. 

giggle, Lat. cachinnus. 
diogair, eager, Ir. diogar (O'R.), E. Ir. digar (1) : 
diogan, revenge, Ir. diogan (O'B., etc.) ; the word is Irish (not in 

M'A. ; M'E. marks it doubtful) : 


dioghail, diol, avenge, pay, Ir. dioghalaim, diolaim, 0. Ir. digatl 

(n.), W., Cor. dial, *de-gald. See gal, valour, etc. 
dioghluim, glean, dioghluim, a gleaning, Ir. diophluim (n.) : 

*de-yluim ; for gluim, see foghlum. 
diol, pay, Ir. dtolam, M. Ir. dilaim ; sec dwglmil. 
diolan, illegitimate, M. G. diolain (M'V.), Ir. diolanlas, fornication 

(O'B.) : *di-ldnamuas, "non conjugium"? See lanain. 
diomadh, discontent, pain, Ir. diomadh, dlomdha ; see diitmach. 
diomarag, clover seed : 
diomasach, proud, Ir. diomus, pride, M. Ir. diumus, pride, "too 

great measure " : di-od-mess, root mess of comus (Zimmer). 
diombach, diombuidheach, displeased, Ir. diornbuidheach, unthank- 
ful ; from diom-, dim-, un-, and buidheach, thankful, q.v. 

Confused with diiimach, q.v. 
diombuaidh, unsuccessfulness, diombuan, transitory : negative 

compounds of buaidh and buan, q.v. 
diomhain, idle, Ir, diomhaoin, 0. Ir. dimdin ; frcm di- and maoin, 

" office-less" ; see maoin. 
diomhair, secret ; see diamhair. 
dion, protection, Ir. dion, E. Ir. din, g. dina, *denu- ; root dhe, 

diong, match, equal, pay, E. Ir. dingbain, ward off, dingbdla, 

worthy : * din-gab, " off-give." See gabh. 
diongmhalta, perfect, Ir. diongmhalta, perfect, sure. See diong 

dionnal, a shot, fight ; see deannal. 
diorachd, ability (H.S.D.) : Cf. Ir. dir, proper, *der. 
diorras, vehemence, vehement anger ; see diarras. 
diosd, a jump, kick with the heels (Dialectic) ; from Sc. jisk, 

dlosg, barren, diosgadh, barrenness, not giving milk, Ir. diosc, 

diosg : di-sesc- ; see seasg. For its composition, see de'irc. 
diosg, a dish ; from Lat. discus, Norse diskr, Ag. S. disc, Eng. dish. 
diosgan, a creaking or gnashing noise, Ir. diosgdn. See giosgan. 
diot, a meal, diot mhor, dinner, M. Ir. diet, diit, E. Ir. dithait ; 

from Lat. diaeta, Eng. diet ; dithit, feast during day (Meyer), 

dithait (t) (Tain), 
dipin, a deepening (in a net), a certain measure of a net ; from 

Sc. deepin, a net, Eng. deep. 
dir, ascend ; curtailed from oVtrich. 
direach, strait, Ir. direach, 0. Ir. direch, *de-reg, root reg, stretch ; 

Lat. rego, directus, Eng. direct, etc. The root is found also 

in eirigh, rach, etc. Hence dirich, straighten, ascend, 
dis, susceptible to cold, Ir. dis, poor, miserable, E. Ir. diss, dis, 

weak, *de-sti- ? Root sta. 


dlsleach, stormy, uncouth, straggling, Ir. disligheach, deviating, 
di-slighe, slighe, path, q.v. In the sense of "stormy," the 
derivation is doubtful. 

disne, a die, dice, Ir. disle ; from M. Eng. dps, dice. 

dit, condemn, Ir. diotach, condemnatory, diotdil, an indictment ; 
from the M. Eng. diten, indict, Sc. dite — a parallel form to 
indict, endite, from Lat. indicto, dido, dictate, dico, say. 
Further Sc. dittay. 

dith, press together, dithimh, a heap (Sh.) : 

dith, want, defeat, Ir. dith, 0. Ir. dith, destruction, *deto-, from dc 
(as in de, of, di-, un-) ; Lat. letum (=detum), death (Stokes). 

dithean, daisy, darnel, blossom, M. Ir. dithen, darnel, Manx jean 

.< do -) = 
dithis, a pair, two, Ir. dis, 0. Ir. dias, g. desse, dat. and ace. diis 

(also dias, diis), duitas, *dveistd, from the fern. *dvei, 0. Ir. 

di, two. See da. 0. Ir. dias, *dveiassa : cf. Lat. bes, bessis, 

from *bejess (St.). 
dithreabh, a desert, Ir. dithreabh, 0. Ir. dithrub ; from di- and 

treb ; see treabh, aitreabh. 
diu, diugh (to)-day, an diu, to-day, Ir. andiu, aniu, 0. Ir. indiu, 

W. heddyw, M. Br. hiziu, Br. hirio, *divo- (Stokes) ; Skr. 

diva ; Lat. diu. See Di-, day. The an (0. Ir. in) is the 

diu, worth while : *do-fiu; seejiu. 
diubhaidh, diugha, refuse, the worst, diu (M'F., M'E.), Ir. 

diogha ; opposite of rogha. See roghainn. 
diubhail, mischief, loss ; see diobhail. 
ditibhras, difference, diubhar (Arm.) : *divr, *difr, from differ of 

Lat. differo. See difir. 
diuc, the pip, a sickness of fowls : 

diuc, a duke, Ir. diubhee, diuic (Keat.) ; from the Eng. duke. 
diucair, a ducker, a bladder for keeping nets at the proper depth 

under water ; from the Eng. ducker. 
diuchaidh, addled : 
diudan, giddiness, diudan (Arm.) : 
diug, an interjection to call hens, cluck, Ir. diugam, cluck : 

onomatopoetic. See diog. 
diugan, mischance (H.S.D., which marks it as Dialectic) : 
diugh, to-day ; see diu. 
diuid, tender-hearted, a spiritless person, Ir. diuid, 0. Ir. diuit, 

simplex : 
diulanas, bravery, Ir. dioldntas, earlier diolmhaineach, soldier, 

mercenarius ; from dlol, pay. 


diult, refuse, Ir. diiUtaim, E. Ir. diultaim, 0. Ir. diltuch, refusing, 

doriltiset, negaverunt, *di-ilt (Thu.). Zimmcr suggests "the 

root of Lat. lateo, lurk, Stokes gives *de-laudi ("Celt. Dec."), 

and Ascoli hesitates between *di-la- (la, throw, Gr. eAawio) 

and *di-shlond. Possibly an active form of till, return. 

diltud, v. n. of do-sluindi. 
diumach, displeased, Ir. diomdhach, M. Ir. dimdach, dimmdach : 

*dim-med-, root med, mind, as in meas. 
dleas, dleasnas, duty, Ir. dlisdeanas, legality, E. Ir. dlestanas (do.), 

*dlixo-, *dlg-so-, right ; see dligheadh. 
dligheadh, law, right, Ir. dligheadh, 0. Ir. dliged, W. dyled, died, 

debt, * dligeto-n, Cor. dylly, debere, Br. die, debt, *dlgo, 1 

owe ; Got. dulgs, debt ; Ch. SI. dlugu (do.). 
dlo, a handful of corn, did (M'L., M'E.), Ir. dlaoigh, a lock of hair 

or anything, E. Ir. dlai, a wisp ; cf. W. dylivf, wisp, and Lat. 

Jloccus ? 
dluigheil, handy, active (Dial.), Ir. dluigh, active (O'B.), M. Ir. 

dluigh, service, E. Ir. dluig, service, *dlogi- ; same root as 

dluth, close, Ir. dluth, E. Ir. dluith, 0. Ir. dlutai, (pi.), dluthe, 

adhaerendi, *dluti-. Cf. Gr. 0Aaw, crush, dm? 
dluth, the warp of a web, Ir., 0. Ir. dluth, stamen, W. dylif 

(*dld-mi- ?) ; from the above root (did). 
do, to, Ir. do, 0. Ir. do, du, Cor. dhe, 0. Br. do, Br. da ; Eng. to, 

Ag. S. t6, Ger. zu ; Lat. -do (endo, indu) ; Gr. -8e. Stokes 

derives the prep, do from the verbal particle do, to. See the 

next word, 
do, a verbal particle denoting " to, ad," Ir. do, 0. Ir. do-, du-, also 

to-, when it carries the accent (e.g. dobiur, I give, *do-be'r6, 

but tabair, give, *to-bere) ; W. du-, dy-, y. Cf. Got. du, to 

prep, and prefix, for *}>u ? 
do, thy, Ir. do, 0. Ir. do, du, W. dy, E. W. teu, Cor. dhe, Br. da, 

*tovo ; Lat. tuus ; Skr. tdva, etc. See tu. 
do-, du-, prefix of negative quality, Ir. do-, dd-, O. Ir. do-, du-, 

*dus- ; Skr. dus- ; Gr. <W- ; Got. taz-, Ger, zer-. Its opposite 

is so, q.v. Following the analogy of so, it aspirates the 

consonants though originally it ended in s. 
dobair, a plasterer (M'D.), Ir. ddbadoir, W. dwbiwr ; from M. Eni>-. 

dauber, Eng. daub. 
d6bhaidh, boisterous : *du-vati-, root vet, as in onfhadh, q.v. 
fdobhar, water, Ir. dobhar, E. Ir. dob/a; W. dw/r, Cor. rfq/5?r, Br. 

oto^r, Gaul, dubrum, *dubro-n, *dub-ro-, root dub, deep, as in 

domhain, q.v. Cf. Lit. dumblas, mire, Lett. c^6/i (do.) ; Lit. 

duburys, a place with springs, dumburf/s ; Ger. tiimpel, a deep 


place in flowing or standing water. Hence dobharchu 

(" water-dog ") and dobhran, the otter, 
docair, grievous, hard, trouble, E. Ir. doccair, uneasiness, trouble. 

See socair. 
docha, preferable, is docha, prefer • see toigh. 
ddcha, more likely, Ir. docha, 0. Ir. dochu ; comparative of doigh, 

0. Ir. ddig, likely, *dougi-, *douki- ; Gr. SevKet, thinks, 

d8evK7)s, unseemly ; Ger. zeuge, witness ; further allied is Lat. 

duco. Connection with Gr. Sokccd has been suggested, and 

Zimmer has analysed it into ' *do-ech, *do-sech, root sec, say 

(as in casg, etc. : Cam.), citing the by-form toich (G. toigh), 

which is a different word. Hence ddchas, doigh. 
dochair, dochar, hurt, damage, so Ir., E. Ir. dochor ; from do- and 

cor-, i.e., cor, state: dochar, "bad state." See cor, sochair. 

Hence dochartach, sick. 
dochann, injury, hurt, M. Ir. dochond, ill-fortune, 0. Ir. conaichi, 

felicior, from *cuno-, high, root hu (as in curaidh) 1 
dochas, hope, Ir. ddchas, M. Ir. ddchus ; see docha. 
docran, anguish (Sh., Arm. ; not H.S.D.) ; cf. docrach, hard, from 

dod, a tantrum, fret, Ir. sdoid (n.), sdodach (adj.), ddiddeach, 

quarrelsome (Con.). Cf. Sc. dod. 
dddum, a teetotum (Dialectic) ; from the Eng. 
dog, a bit ; from the Eng. dock. 
dogadh, mischief (Sh.), 0. Ir. dodcad (Str.). 
dogail, cynical, doganta, fierce ; from the Eng. dog. 
dogan, a sort of oath (Dialectic, M'L.); Sc. daggand, Eng. doggonit, 

Amer. doggond. 
dogha, a burdock, Ir. meacan dogha ; Eng. dock, Ag. S. docce. 
doibhear, rude, uncivil, so Ir. (Lh., which H.S.D. quotes, O'B., 

etc.) : " ill-bearing "; from do- and heir ? 
doibheas, vice, Ir. ddibheus ; from do- and beus. 
doicheall, churlishness, Ir. doicheall, g. doichle ; E. Ir. dochell, 

grudging, inhospitality : opposed to E. Ir. sochell, meaning 

"kindness," soichlech. Root is that of timchioll. Gaul. 

Sucellos, a god's name. 
ddid the hand, grasp, Ir. ddid, E. Ir. ddit, 0. Ir. inna n-doat, 

lacertorum, *dousenti-; Skr. dos (*daus), doshan, fore-arm, 

Zend daosha, shoulder. Strachan, who cites the meanings 
'hand, wrist," suggests a stem *doventi-, from I. E. dheva 

(move violently), comparing Gr. Kap-iros, wrist, from qrp, turn. 

Hence ddideach, muscular. 
ddid, a small farm : "a holding " ; from ddid, hand. Cf, 

d6ideach, firmly grasping. 



ddideach, frizzled up, shrunk (of hair) ; from dath, singe. 

doigh, manner, trust, Ir. ddigh. For root, see dbcha. 

doilbh, difficult (H.S.D.), dark (Sh., O'B.), Ir. doilbh, dark, gloomy : 

cf. suilbh. 
doileas, injury ; from do- and leas. 
doilgheas, sorrow, so Ir. ; from doiligh, sorry, the Ir. form of 

duilich, q.v. 
doilleir, dark, Ir. doileir ; see soilleir. 

doimeag, a slattern ; cf. Ir. doim, poor, and for root, see soimeach. 
doimh, bulky, gross ; see dbmhail. 

doimh, doimheadach, vexing, galling : *do-ment-, " ill-minded." 
doimheal, stormy (Sh. ; not H.S.D.) : 
ddineach, sorrowful, baneful (Arm., who has doineach with short 

o), 0. Ir. doinmech, ddinmidh. Dr N. M'L. " fateful." dan ? 
doinionn, a tempest, Ir. doineann, 0. Ir. doinenn. See soineann. 
doirbeag, a minnow, tadpole, Ir. dairb, a marsh worm, murrain 

caterpillar, E. Ir. duirh (ace), worm, *dorbi- : I. E. derbho-, 

wind, bend, Skr. darbh, wind, M. H. G. zirben, whirl, 
doirbh, hard, difficult, so Ir., 0. Ir. doirb ; see soirbh. 
doire, grove, Ir. doire, daire, 0. Ir. daire (Adamnan), Berry, W. 

deri, oak grove ; see darach. 
doireagan, peewit ; Dialectic form of adharcan. 
doireann, doirionn (Arg.), tempestuous weather ; see doinionn. 

For phonetics, cf. boirionn. 
doirionta, sullen, so Ir. ; cf. the above word, 
dbirling, ddirlinn, isthmus, beach, Ir. doirling, promontory, 

beach : * do-air-ling- (for ling, see leum) 1 For meaning, see 

ddirt, pour, Ir. doirtim, dortadh (inf.), E. Ir. doirtim, 0. Ir. 

do/ortad, effunderet, dorortad, was poured out, *fort-, root 

vor, ver, pour, E. Ir. feraim, I pour, give ; Lat. Urina, urine ; 

Gr. ovpov ; Norse lir, drizzling rain, Ag. S. var, sea ; Skr. vtiri, 

water. To this Stokes refers braon (for vroen-, verdend ?). 
doit, foul, dark (H.S.D. only) : 

ddit, a small coin less than a farthing ; from the Sc. doit. 
dol, going, Ir. dul, 0. Ir. dul, inf. to doluid, dolluid, ivit, from 

luid, went, *ludo, from I. E. leudho, go, Gr. cActxto/zcu, will 

come, rjkvBov, came. Stokes and Brugmann refer luid to 

*(p)ludo, root plu, plou of luath, q.v. 
ddlach, destructive : " grievous "; from fdol, grief, Sc. dool, from 

Lat. dolor. 
dolaidh, harm, so Ir., E. Ir. dolod, 0. Ir. dolud, damnum, 0. G. 

dolaid, burden, charge ; its opposite is E. Ir. solod, profit : 

*do-lud i " mis-go "; from lud of luid, go (Ascoli). 


d61as, grief, Ir. ddlas : formed from solas, consolation, on the 
analogy of other do- and so- words. See solas. 

ddlum, mean, surly, wretchedness, poverty. Cf. dblach. 

dom, the gall, gall-bladder ; see domblas. 

domail, damage ; apparently founded on Lat. damnum. 

domblas, gall, bile, Ir. domblas, M. Ir. domblas ae, i.e., " bitterness 
of the liver"; from M. Ir. domblas, ill-taste; from do-mlas. 
See bias. 

domhach, a savage ; see doimh. 

domhail, bulky : M. Ir. derg-domla, pi., from *domail, root of 
meall : *do-fo-mell ? 

domhain, deep, so Ir., 0. Ir. domain, W. divfn, Br. don, *dubni-s, 
*dubno-s ; Eng. deep, Got. diups ; Lit. dubus, deep, dumburys, 
a hole in the ground filled with water, dauba, ravine, Ch. SI. 
dubri, ravine : I. E. dheub. See also dobhar. 

domhan, the Universe, so Ir., 0. Ir. domun, Gaul. Dubno-, Dumno- 
(in many proper names, as Dubnotalus, Dumnorix, "World- 
king," Gaelic Domhnall, * Dumno-valo-s, W. Dyfnual), Celtic 
* dubno-, the world, the " deep " ; another form of domhain 
above. Cf. Eng. deep for the "sea." D'Arbois de Jubainville 
explains Dubno- of Gaulish names as " deep," Dumnorix, 
"deep king," "high king"; and he has similarly to explain 
Biturix as "king for aye," not "world king": all which 
seems a little forced. 

Domhnach, Sunday, so Ir., E. Ir. domnach ; from Lat. dominica, 
" the Lord's." See under Di-. 

don, evil, defect, Ir. don ; see next word. 

dona, bad, so Ir., E. Ir. donae, dona, wretched, bad ; opposite to 
sona, son, happy. See sona. 

dongaidh, moist, humid ; from the Sc. donk, Eng. dank. 

donn, brown, Ir., 0. Ir. donn, W. dwn, Gaul. Donnus, Donno- ; 
*donno-s, *dus-no- ; Lat. fuscus ; Eng. dusk, dust. Eng. dun 
may be hence. 

donnal, a howl, complaint ; *don-no-, I. E. dhven, whence Eng. din, 
Skr. dhvana, sound. Meyer says : " Better donal, fern." G. 
is masc. 

dorbh, dorgh, a hand-line, Ir. dorubha ; also drogha, q.v. 

dorc, a piece (Dialectic) : *dorco-, root der, split, Eng. tear; N. dorg. 

dorch, dark, Ir. dorcha, 0. Ir. dorche ; opposed to sorcha, bright, 
*do-reg-io-, root reg, see, Lit. regiu, I see. See rosg. The 
root reg, colour, Gr. pe£(o, colour, epe/3os, Erebus, Norse rokr, 
darkness, Ragna-rokr, twilight of the gods, is allied. Ascoli 
and Zi miner refer it to the Gadelic root rich, shine, 0. Ir. 
richis, coal, Bret, regez, glowing embers, Skr. ric, re, shine. 


d6rlach, a handful, quantity : *dom-lach, from dom, a list. 
d6rn, a fist, Ir. dom, O. Ir. darn, W. dwm, Cor. dom, 0. Br. dom, 

Br. dourn, hand, Gaul. Dumacos, *durno- ; Gr. Siopov, palm, 

Sdpeip, Sdptv, a span ; Lettic dure, fist ; I. E. root der, split. 

*dver, *dur, strong, 
dorra, more difficult, Ir. dorrach, harsh, M. Ir. dorr, rough, 

*dorso- ; Czech drsen, rough (Stokes, Strachan). 
dorran, vexation, anger, Ir. dorrdn, M. Ir. dorr, *dorso- ; see 

above word. 
d6ruinn, pain, anguish, Ir. ddghruing. Cf. E. Ir. dogra, ddgra, 

lamenting, anguish, dogar, sad, from do- and gar, q.v. 
dorus, a door, Ir., 0. Ir. dorus, W. drws, Cor. daras, 0. Cor. dor, 

Br. dor, *dvorestu- ; Lat. fores ; Gr. Ovpa ; Eng. door ; Lit. 

durys ; Skr. dvdr. 
dos, a bush, tuft, Ir. dos, 0. Ir. doss, *dosto-, root dus ; Lat. dumus 

( = dus-mus), thicket ; Eng. tease, teasel. 
j> dosdan, a kind of food given to horses ; from Eng. dust. 
dosgadh, dosgainn, misfortune ; cf. Ir. dosgathach, improvident. 

From do- and sgath, q.v. Ir. dosguidhtheach, morose, 

dotarra, sulky ; see dod. 

doth, a doating on one ; cf. Sc. daut, dote, M. Eng. doten. 
X drabach, dirty, slovenly, Ir. drabaire, drabdg, slut, drab, a stain ; 

from Eng. drab. See drabli. Hence drabasda, obscene. 
>drabh, dissolve, drabhag, dregs, drabhas, filth, E. Ir. drabar-slog, 

rabble ; from Eng. draff, allied to Ger. treber, Norse draf. 

Stokes thinks that the G. is allied to, not derived from, the 

Eng. The Eng. word drab is allied to draff, and so is dregs. 
drabli, scatter, dissolve (M'A., Arg.), not drabli (H.S.D., which, 

however, has drabhach, rifted), drabhach, wide-sutured, 

rifted (Arg.) : 
a drac, a drake ; from the Eng. See rac. 
dragh, trouble, 0. Ir. g. mor-draige, roughness : *drago-, I. E. 

dregho-, Ag. S. trega, vexation, Norse tregr, dragging, 

slovenly, trega, grieve ; Skr. drdgh, pain ; Gr. *Tapax?}, 

T/oax^s (St.). 
4 dragh, pull, draw, Ir. dragdil ; from the Eng. drag, draw, Norse 

dragon, a dragon, Ir. dragun, E. Ir. drac, g. dracon ; from Lat. 

draco(n), Eng. dragon. 
draichd, a slattern (Arm.) : 
draighlichd, a trollop, draggle-tail (Arg.) ; from Eng. draggle-tail ? 

Cf. draghlainn under draoluinn. 
draillsein, a sparkling light (Sh., H.S.D.) ; see drillsean. 


draimheas, a foul mouth ; cf. Ir. drabhas, a wry mouth, dramhaim, 
I grin. The G. seems from drabh above. 

draing", a snarl, grin ; see dranndan. 

dram, dram, a dram, Ir. dram ; from the Eng. 

dramaig 1 , a foul mixture, crowdie (Sh., H.S.D.) ; from the Sc. 

drannd, dranndan, a hum, snarl, Ir. draiut, dranntdn, M. Ir. 
drantaigim, I snarl ; from a Celtic *dran, 1. E. dhreno-, 
sound, drone ; Eng. drone ; Gr. Opyjvos, dirge ; Skr. dlira?}, 
sound, murmur. 

drann, dranna, a word (M'A., Arg.) ; same as drannd. 

draocn, a fretful or ghastly look, hair standing on end, Ir. driuch, 
fretfulness, angry look : root dhrigh ; Gr. dpl£, rptxos, hair. 
For meaning, cf. snuadh, hue, hair. 

draoi, draoidh, druidh, a magician, druid, Ir. draoi, gen. pi. 
druadh, E. Ir. drai, druij g. druad, Gaul, druides (Eng. 
druid). Its etymology is obscure. Stokes suggests relation- 
ship with Eng. true, G. dearbh, q.v., or with Gr. Opkopai, cry 
(as in drannd, diird), or Gr. aOpew, look sharp, Pruss. dereis, 
see. Thurneysen analyses the word as dru, high, strong, 
see tiuaill. Brugmann and Windisch have also suggested 
the root dru, oak, as Pliny did too, because of the Druids' 
reverence for the oak tree. Ag. S. dry, magus, is borrowed 
from the Celtic. draoineach, druineach, artisan, "eident" 
person (Carm.) ; draoneach, "any person that practices an 
art " (Grant), agriculturist ; druinneach, artist (Lh. ). Ir. 
druine, art needlework ; dpova, flowers in embroidery, 

draoluinn, delay, tediousness, drawling ; from the Eng. drawling, 
Sc. drawl, to be slow in action, drawlie, slow and slovenly. 
Dialectic draghlainn, a slovenly person, a mess. 

drapuinn, tape ; from the Eng. drape. 

draos, trash, filth, Ir. draos. Cf. Eng. dross. 

drasda, an drasda, now, Ir. drdsda, M. Ir. trasta, for an trdth sa, 
this time. 

drathais, drawers ; from the Eng. 

dreach, aspect, Ir. dreach, E. Ir. drech, W. drych, M. Br. derch, 
*drka, *drkko-, root derk as in dearc, q.v. 

drfcachd, dreuchd, duty, office, Ir. dreaclit, song, 0. Ir. drecht, 
portio, *drempto-, root drep, Gr. Speito), pluck, cull (Strachan). 

dreag, dr^ag, a meteor or portent ; from the Ag. S. dreag, 
apparition, Norse draugr, ghost. Also driug. 

dreall, dreoll, door-bar, dreallag, a swingle-tree : drs-lo-, root der, 
split, Eng. tree ? Cf. W. dryll, *dhruslo, dpavo). 


dreallaire, an idler j see drollaire. 

dreallsach, a blazing fire ; see drillsean. 

dream, a tribe, people, Ir. dream, E. Ir. dremm ; from dream, 
bundle, handful, manipulus, Br. dramm, a sheaf, *dregsmo- ; 
Gr. Spay/ia, a handful, Spacro-o/zai, grasp ; Ch. SI. drazhaiti, 
grasps ; Skr. dark, make fast, I. E. dergho-, fasten. Hence 
dreamsgal, a heterogeneous mass. dreg : dreng, tramp 'I 
Cf. drong. 

dreamach, peevish, dream, snarl j cf. Ir. dreamhnach, perverse, 
E. Ir. dremne, fierceness, from dreamh, surly, *dremo-, from 
drem, drom, rush, Gr. Spo/ios, a race. G. dreamach may be 
for *dregsmo-, root dreg as in dreangan. 

dreangan, a snarler, Ir. drainceanta, snarling, drainc, a snarl, also 
draint, W. drengyn, a surly chap, dreng, morose, *drengo-, 
root dreg, from dhre of dranndan. 

dreas, bramble, bramble-bush, Ir. dreas ; see dris. 

dreasair, a dresser (house-furniture). 

dreathan-donn, wren, Ir. dreadn, drean, W. dryw, *drivo-, *dr-vo-, 
root der, d/ter, jump 1 ? See dair. Cf. for sense Gr. T/aox^Aos. 
Or from dhrevo, cry, Gr. dpeofxai, G. drannd, q.v. % 

dreigeas, a grin, peevish face, E. Ir. dric, wrathful ; *dreggo-, root 
dreg as in dreangan. 

dreimire, a ladder, Ir. dreimire, E. Ir. dreimm, ascent, vb. dringim, 
W. dringo, scandere, *drengo. Bezzenberger compares the 
Norse drangr, an up-standing rock (cf. cliff and climb). The 
root dreg of dreimire has also been compared to Ger. treppe, 
staircase, Eng. tramp. See dream, people, "goers." Ir. ag 
dreim, advancing. 

dre"in, a grin : *dreg-ni-, root dreg of dreangan. 

dre6chdam, the crying of the deer ; from dhrevo, dhre, cry. 

dre61ail, a wren, Ir. dreoldn : *<lrivolo- ; see dreathan. 

dre61an, a silly person, Ir. dreoldn, W. drel, a clown ; from Eng. 
droll ? Thurneysen prefers to consider these words borrowed 
from Eng. thrall, Norse fircel. The word appears as dre6lan, 
dreallaire, drollaire. In the sense of "loiterer," these words 
are from the Norse drolla, loiter, Eng. droil. 

dreds, a blaze : 

dreugan, a dragon (Dialectic) ; see dragon. 

driachan, plodding, obstinacy, Ir. driachaireachd : *dreiqo- ; cf. 
Eng. drive, from dhreip. 

driamlach, a fishing line, Manx rimlagh, E. Ir. riamnach : 
*reimmen- ; see reim. 

driceachan, tricks (M'D.). 

drifeag, hurry (Heb.) ; see drip. 


dril, a spark, sparkle, Ir. dril, drithle, pi. drithleanna, M. Ir. 
drithle, dat. drithlinn, also drithre, *drith-renn- (for -renn-, 
see reannag), *drith. Hence drillsean, sparkles, from 
drithlis, a spark. Drillsean, rushlight, rush used as wick. 

driodar, dregs, lees, Ir. driodar, gore, dregs : *driddo-, *drd-do-, 
root der, Eng. tear. Cf. Sc. driddle. 

driog, a drop, Ir. driog (driog, Con.), driogaire, a distiller ; seem- 
ingly borrowed from Norse dregg, M. Eng. dreg, dregs. 

driongan, slowness, Ir. driongdn, a plaything, worthless pastime : 

drip, hurry, confusion, Ir. drip, bustle, snare : *drippi-, *dhribh, 
Eng. drive ? N. drepa, hit. 

dris, a bramble, brier, Ir. dris, 0. Ir. driss, 0. W. drissi, W. 
dryssien, Cor. dreis, Br. drezen, *dres$i-. Bezzenberger 
suggests a stem *drepso-, M. H. G. trefs, Ger. trespe, darnel, 
M. Eng. drauk {=dravick of Du.), zizanium. It must be 
kept separate from droighionn, 0. Ir. draigen, Celtic root 
drg, though G. dris might be for *drg-si-, for the W. would 
be in ch, not *. See droighionn. 

drithlean, a rivet : 

drithleann, a sparkle, Ir. drithlinn ; oblique form of dril. 

driubhlach, a cowl, so Ir. (O'R.) ; Sh. has dribhlach. 

driucan, a beak, Ir. driuch. M'A. gives also the meaning, "an 
incision under one of the toes." See draoch. 

driuch, activity (M'A.) : 

driuchan, a stripe, as in cloth (M'A.) : 

driug, a meteor, portent ; see dreag. 

drdbh, a drove ; from the Eng. 

drobhlas, profusion, so Ir. : 

droch, evil, bad, Ir. droch, 0. Ir. droch, drog, W. drwg, Cor. drog, 
malum, M. Br. drouc, *druko-. Usually compared to Skr. 
druh, injure, Ger. trug, deception. Stokes has suggested 
dhruh, whence Eng. dry, and Bezzenberger compares Norse 
trega, grieve, tregr, unwilling (see dragh). 

drochaid, a bridge, Ir. droichiod, 0. Ir. drochet : 

drog, a sea-swell at its impact on a rock (Arg.) : 

drogaid, drugget, Ir. drogdid (O'R.) ; from the Eng. 

drogha, a hand fishing line ; also dorgh, dorbh, Ir. dorubha, 
drubha ; Norse dorg, an angler's tackle. 

droich, a dwarf, Ir. droich, *drogi-, allied to Teut. dwergo-, Ger. 
zwerg, Norse dvergr, Eng. dwarf. 

droigheann, bramble, thorn, Ir. droigheann, 0. Ir. draigen, W. 
draen, Cor. drain, drein, Br. drean, *dragino- : cf. Gr. Tpaxvs, 
rough, dpdarcroi, confuse, Eng. dregs. Bezzenberger compares 
Lit. drignes, black henbane, Gr. 8pd/3rj, a plant. Ebel referred 


it to the same origin as Gr. repxvos, twig. Also droighneach, 

(1) thorn, (2) lumber, "entanglement." 
droillip, tackle : 
drola, a pot-hook, Ir. drol, droltha, M. Ir. drol, drolam, handle, 

E. Ir. drolam, knocker, ring : 
droll, an animal's tail, a door bar, unwieldy stick ; cf. dreallag for 

the last two meanings. 
droll, drollaire, a lazy fellow ; see dreblan. 
droman, the alder tree ; see troman. • 
drong, droing, people, tribe, Ir. drong, E. Ir. drong, 0. Br. drogn, 

droq, factio, Gaul, drungus, whence Lat. drungus, a troop- 

(4th century), *drungo- ; Got. driugan, serve as a soldier, 

Ag. S. dryht, people, Norse drdtt, household, people, 
drongair, a drunkard ; from the Eng. 

dronn, the back, Ir. dronndg : *dros-no-, root dros of druim, q.v. 
dronng, a trunk ; from the Eng. 
drothan, a breeze (M'D.) : 
druabag, a small drop, druablas, muddy water, druaip, dregs, 

lees. The first is from Eng. drop ; druablas is from M. Eng. 

drubli, turbid, Sc. droubly ; and druaip is from Norse 

dijupa, drip, drubhag and druigean (Wh.). 
drub, a wink of sleep, a mouthful of liquid ; from Norse drjupa, 

drip. See the above words. 
druchd, dew, Ir. druchd, E. Ir, drdcht, *drub-tu-, root dhreub j 

Ag. S. dreapian, trickle, Eng. drip } drop, Norse drjupa, drip, 

Ger. trie/en. 
drudh, penetrate, pierce, druidh ; see the next, 
drudhadh, oozing, soaking ; cf. Skr. dru, drdva, melt, run, Got. 

ufar-trusian, besprinkle. Cf. Gaul. Druentia (Gaelic Druie, 

a river in Strathspey), 
drugair, a drudge, Ir. drugaire ; from M. Eng. druggar, a dragger, 

Eng. drudge. 
dmid, close, Ir. druidim, E. Ir. druit, close, firm, trustworthy : 

*druzdo-, *drus, W. drws, door. See dor us. Stokes now 

refers *druzdi- to the same source as Eng. trust. 
druid, a starling, Ir. druid, E. Ir. truid, Manx truitlag, W. drudwy, 

Br. dred, dret : *struzdi ; Lat. turdus, thrush ; Lit. strdzdas 

(Bohemian drazd), thrush, Eng. throstle. 
druidh, a magician ; see draoi. 

druidh, penetrate; see drudh. Cf. Ir. treidhim; treaghaim (Sh.). 
druim, back, ridge, so Ir., 0. Ir. druimm, pi. dromand, W. trum, 

*drosmen- ; Lat. dorsum. 
druis, lust, druiseach, druth, lecherous, Ir. driiis, adultery, E. Ir. 

druth, lewd, a harlot, *druto-. Cf. M. Eng. drub", darling, 


0. Fr. drud (do.), druerie, love, whence M. Eng. druerie, Sc. 

drouery, illicit love. Mayhew refers the Fr. and Eng. to 

0. H. G. driit, dear (also trut, drud) : a Teut. dreuft ? Cf. 

Ger. traut, beloved (Kluge). 
i druma, a drum, Ir., M. Ir. druma ; from the Eng. 
druman, elder ; see ti oman. 

drumlagan, a cramp in back, wrists, etc. (M'D.) : 
du, meet, proper, Ir., E. Ir. du. This Stokes regards as borrowed 

from 0. Fr. du ( = debntus), whence Eng. due. But see 

duthaich, dual. 
du-, do-, prefix denoting badness of quality, Ir., 0. Ir. du-, do-, 

*dus ; Gr. 8vs- ; Got. tuz-, Norse tor- ; Skr. dus-. See do-. 
duaichnidh, gloomy, ugly, Ir. duaichniughadh, to disfigure. See 

duaidh, a horrid scene, a fight, Ir. duaidh, evil (O'B.) : *du-vid? 
duairc, uncivil, Ir., E. Ir. duairc : opposite of suairc, q.v. 
duaireachas, a squabble, slander : du-aireachas. See eireachdail. 
duairidh, dubharaidh, a dowry ; from the Eng. 
duais, a reward, so Ir., E. Ir. duass, gift : *dovestd ; Gr. 8ovvai, to 

give ( = dovenai) : Lit. duti (do.), dovana, a gift ; Lat. duint 

( = dent). Root do, give. 
dual, a lock of hair, Ir., E. Ir. dual, *doklo- ; Got. tagl, hair, 

Ag. S. taegl, Eng. tail, Norse tagl, horse's tail. 
dual, hereditary right, so Ir., M. Ir. dtial, *dutlo- ; see duthaich. 

Stokes refers it to Fr. dH, as he does du, q.v. Ir. dual, just, 

proper, might come from *duglo-, root dhugh, fashion, Gr. 

T€vx*w, Got. dugan, Eng. do. 
duan, a poem, song, so Ir., E. Ir. duan, *dugno- ; Lettic dugdt, 

cry as a crane (Bez.) Stokes derives it from dhugh above 

under dual. 
duarman, a murmur ; cf. torman from toirm. 
dubailte, double, Ir. dubdilte ; from M. Eng. duble, 0. Fr. doble, 

Lat. duplex. 
dubh, black, Ir. dubh, 0. Ir. dub, W. du, 0. W. dub, Cor. duv, 

Br. du, *dubo- ; Gr. TV(f>\6<s ( = 6v(j>-\6<;), blind ; Got. daubs, 

deaf, Ger. taub, Eng. deaf, also dumb. Cf. Gaul, river name 

Dubis, now Doubs. 
dubhach, sad, Ir. dubhach, 0. Ir. dubach ; see subhach. 
dubhailc, wickedness, Ir. dubhailce ; see subhailc. 
dubhailteach, sorrowful ; founded on dubh. 
dubhairt, said ; see thubhairt. 
dubhaith, a pudding : 
dubhan, a hook, Ir. dubhdn, M. Ir. dubdn : 
dubhchlMn, the flank (H.S.D. from MSS.) : 



dubh dan, a smoke, straw cinders, soot ; from dubh. Cf. Ir. 

diibhaddn, an inkstand, 
dubhlaidh, gloomy, wintry ; cf. dubhla, a dark day, day of trial. 

From dubh. 
dubhlan, a challenge, Ir. dubhshldn ; from dubh and slan ; Ir. sldn, 

dubhliath, the spleen, 0. Ir. lue Had, lua liath, Cor. lewilloit, W. 

lleithon, milt of fish. Cf. Lat. lien. 
dubhogha, the great grandson's grandson ; from dubh and ogha : 

dubh is used to add a step to fionnogha, though fionn here is 

really a prep., and not fionn, white. See fionnogha. 
due, ducan (Perth), a heap (Arm.) ; *dumhacdn, E. Ir. duma, 

mound, heap. Root of dun. 
duchas, hereditary right ; see duthaich. 
dud, a small lump (M'A) ; see tudan. 
dud, a tingling in the ear, ear, Ir. dud. See next word. 
dudach, a trumpet, M. G. doytichy (D. of Lis.), Ir. duddg : 

onomatopoetic. Cf. Eng. toot. 
dudlachd, depth of winter : 
duldseag, a plump woman of low stature (Perth) ; " My old 

Dutch ;" duitseach (Arm.). Dutchman, docked cock. 
duil, expectation, hope, Ir. duil, *dMi-, root du, strive, Gr. dvfios 

soul ; Lit. dumas, thought (Stokes for Gr.) 
duil, an element, Ir. dUil, 0. Ir. diiil, dul, *dilli-; Skr. dhUli-, 

dust; Lit. dulkes (do.); Lat. fuligo, soot. Stokes (Diet.) 

refers it to *dukli-, root duk, fashion ; Ger. zeugen, engender ; 

further Lat. duco. Hence dialectic Na duil, poor creatures ! 

Ir. dUil means " creature" also. Hence also duileag, a term 

of affection fcr a girl, 
duileasg, dulse, Ir. duileasg, M. Ir. duilesc, W. dylusg, what is 

drifted on shore by floods. Hence Sc. dulse. Jamieson 

suggests that the G. stands for duilV uisge, " water-leaf." 
duilich, difficult, sorry, Ir. doiligh, E. Ir. dolig ; cf. Lat. dolor, 

duille, a leaf, Ir., M. Ir. duille, W. dalen, M. Br. del ; Gr. BvXka, 

leaves, 6dXX(o, I bloom ; Ger. dolde, umbel : root dhl, dhale, 

bloom, sprout. Gaul. 7T€fxire-8ovXa, " five leaved," is allied, 
duillinnean, customs, taxes (M'D.) : 
duin, shut, Ir. dunaim, " barricading ;" from dun, q.v. 
duine, a man, Ir., 0. Ir. duine, pi. doini (= *dvdnji), W. dyn, pi. 

dyneddon, Cor., Br. den, dunjd-s : " mortal ;" Gr. daveiv, die, 

Odvaros, death, dv-qros, mortal ; Eng. dwine ; Skr. dhvan, fall 

to pieces. 


duircein, the seeds of the fir, etc., duirc-daraich, acorns. See 

dorc. 0. Ir. derucc, glans, is referred by Windisch to the 

root of darach, q.v. 
duiseal, a whip ; from M. Eng. duscken, strike, of Scandinavian 

origin, now dowse. 
duiseal, dusal, slumber j from Norse dusa, doze, Eng. doze. 
duisleannan, ill-natured pretences, freaks (Dialectic, H.S.D.), 

duisealan (M'E.) ; from duiseal : "dreaming?" 
duisg, awake, Ir. duisgim, duisighim, 0. Ir. diusgea, expergefaciat, 

*de-ud-sec-, root sec as in caisg, q.v. 
dul, dula, a noose, loop, Ir. dul, dot, snare, loop, W. dol, noose, 

loop, doli, form a ring or loop ; Gr. SoAos, snare ; Lat. dolus, 

dula, a pin, peg, Ir. dula ; cf. Lat. dolo, a pike, M.H.G. zol, a log. 
duldachd, a misty gloom ; see dudlachd. 
dumhlaich, increase in bulk ; see dbmhail. 
dun, a heap, a fortress, Ir., 0. Ir. dun, W. din, Gaul, dunum, 

-Sovvov, *duno-n, *dunos- ; Ag. S. tun, Eng. town, Ger. zaun, 

hedge, Norse tun (do.) ; Gr, 8vvao-6ac, can. Root deva, du, to 

be strong, hard, whence also dur. 
dunach, dunaidh, woe ; from dona ? 
dur, dull, stubborn, Ir., E. Ir. dur, W. dir, force, Br. dir, steel, 

Gaul, durum, fortress, *dilro- , Lat. durus. For further 

connections see dun. 
durachd, duthrachd, good wish, wish, diligence, Ir. duthrachd, 

0. Ir. duthracht, *devo-traktu-s-, *trakko, press ; Ag. S. 

thringan, Ger. dringen, press forward, Eng. throng (Stokes). 

Windisch has compared Skr. tark, think, which may be the 

same as tark of tar kits, spindle, Lat. torqueo. Verb duraig. 
duradan, durradan, an atom, mote, Ir. durddn ; from the root 

dur as in dur above : "hard bit?" 
dure, a lumpish person : 
durcaisd, turcais, pincers, nippers, tweezers; from Sc. turkas, 

from Fr. turquoise, now tricoises, " Turkish" or farrier's 

durd, a syllable, sound, humming, Ir., E. Ir. ddrd, dordaim, mugio, 

W. dwrdd, sonitus, tordd, *dordo-s, root der, sound, I.E. dher ; 

Lettic dardet, rattle. Further Gr. Opyjvos, dirge, rovOpvs, 

muttering, Norse drynr, roaring, Eng. drone ; root dhre. 
durga, surly, sour, Ir. durganta. Cf. Ir. duranta, morose. G. 

seems to be from Norse durga, sulky fellow, Eng. dwarf. 
durlus, water-cress ; from dur = dobhar and lus, q.v. 
durraidh, pork, a pig, durradh ! grumphy ! Cf. dorra. 
durrag, a worm : 


durrghail, cooing of a dove, Ir. durdail \ also currucadh, q.v. 

durrasgach, nimble (Dial., H.S.D.) : 
dursann, an unlucky accident, Ir. dursan, sorrowful, hard (O'R.) ; 

from the stem of dorr a. 
> dus, dust, duslach ; from Eng. dust. 
dusal, a slumber ; from the Eng. doze. See duiseal. 
duslainn, a gloomy, retired place : 
duth, hereditary ; see du. 
duthaich, a country, district, Ir. ddthaigh, 0. Ir. duthoig, 

hereditary (M. Ir. duthaig), G. duthchas, hereditary right : 

root du as in dun ? Cf. du. 
duthaich, great gut (M'Lagan) : 
duthuil, fluxus alvi = dubh-ghalar ; from dubh and tuil. 


e, accented e, he, it, Ir. e, 0. Ir. e, *ei-s : root ei, i ; 0. Lat. eis 

( = is, he, that), ea, she ( = eja) ; Got. is, Ger. er, es ; Skr. 

ayam. The 0. Ir. neuter was ed, now eadh (as in seadh, ni 

ea-, ea-, privative prefix ; see eu-. 
eabar, mud, puddle, Ir. abar, marshy land, Adamnan's stagnum 

Aporicum, Loch-aber, E. Ir. cann-ebor (see Innear), ^ex-bor, 

*ad : bor, the bor of tobar, q.v. 
eabon, ebony, so Ir. ; from Lat. ebenum, Eng. ebony. 
eabur, ivory, so Ir. ; from Lat. ebur. 
each, a horse, so Ir., 0. Ir. ech, W. ebol, colt, Br. ebeul, Gaul. Epo-, 

*ekvo-s ; Lat. equus ; Ag. S. eoh, Got. aihva- ; Skr. acva-s. 
eachdaran, eachdra, a pen for strayed sheep ; see eachdranach 

for root, 
eachdraidh, a history, Ir. eachdaire'achd, history, eachdaire, 

historian, E. Ir. echtra, adventures ; from E. Ir. prep, ecktar, 

without, *ekstero, W. eithr, extra ; Lat. extra, extemus ; from 

ex (see a, as). 
eachdranach, a foreigner, Ir. eachdrannach, 0. Ir. echtrann, exter j 

Lat. extraneus, Eng. strange. From echtar, as in eachdraidh. 
eachrais, confusion, mess ; cf. Ir. eachrais, a fair, E. Ir. editress, 

horse-fight. See each and treas. 
ead, jealousy ; see end. 
eadar, between, Ir, eidir, 0. Ir. eter, iter, etar, W. ithr, Gor. yntr, 

Br. entre, Gaul, inter, * enter, i.e., en-ter, prep, en ; Lat. inter ; 

Skr. antdr, inside, 
feadh, it, seadh, yes, 0. Ir. ed ; see e. 


eadh, space, E. Ir. ed, root ped ; Gr. tt&iov, a plain ; Lat. op- 

pidum, town ; Ch. SI. pad, tread. Root pedo, go, as in Eng. 

foot, Lat. 2^s, pedis, etc. 
eadha, the letter e, an aspen tree, Ir. eadhadh : 
eadhal, a brand, burning coal (Bibl. Gloss.) ; see eibheall. 
eadhon, to wit, namely, viz., so Ir., 0. Ir. idon, *id-souno-, " this 

here " ; for id, see eadh, and souno- is from *sou, *so as in so. 

Cf. Gr. ov-tos. Stokes (Celt. DecL) takes id from it, is, goes, 

root i, go, of Lat. eo, Gr. ct/u, etc. ; he regards id as part of 

the verb substantive. 
eadradh, milking time, Ir. eadarthra, noon, milking time ; from 

eadar + trdth. 
eadraig, interpose, eadragainn, interposition, Ir. eadargdn, 

separation ; from eadar. 
eag, a nick, notch, Ir. feag, Manx agg, W. ag, cleft, *eggd- : peg ? 
eagal, feagal, fear, Ir. eaguil, eagla, E. Ir. ecla, 0. Ir. ecal (adj.), 

*ex-gal ; see gal, valour, 
eagan, perhaps ; Dialectic for theagamh. 

eagar, order, row, so Ir., E. Ir. ecor, *dith-cor ; from aith- and cuir. 
eaglais, a church, Ir. eagluis. 0. Ir. eclais, W. eglwys, Br. His ; 

from Lat. ecclesia, Eng. ecclesiastic. 
eagna, wisdom, so Ir., 0. Ir. ecne, *aiih-gen- ; see aith- and gen of 

aithne. In fact aithne and eagna are the same elements 

differently accented (*aith-gen-, dith-gen-). 
eairlig, want, poverty, airleig ; cf. airleag, lend, borrow, 
eairlin, keel, bottom, end : *air-lann ; see lann, land, 
eairneis, furniture ; see airneis. 
eala, a swan, so Ir., M. Ir. ela, W. alarch, Corn, elerhc, *elaio, 

*elerko^s ; Gr. eAea, reedwarbler, JAao-as, grosbeak, lAeas, owl, 

eAetds, falcon ; Lat. olor, swan. Gr. ireketa, wild dove, Lat. 

palumba, dove, 0. Prus. poalis (do.), have been suggested. 
ealach, ealachainn, a peg to hang things on, E. Ir. alchuing, 

elchuing, dat. alchaing, pi. alchningi. 
ealadh, learning, skill, ealaidh, knack, Ir. ealadh, E. Ir. elatha, 

gen. elathan, W. el, intelligence : root el : : al (of eilean) 1 
fcaladh, euladh, a creeping along (as to catch game), Ir. eidoighim 

steal away, E. Ir. elaim, I flee, 0. Ir. elud, evasio ; Ger. eilen, 

hasten, speed ; root ei, i, go, Lat. i-re, etc. Hence ealaidhneach, 

creeping cold. Strachan derives it from *ex-ldjo, root la, ela, 

go, Gr. cXavvo (as in eilid, etc.). Stokes now *ass-buim. 
ealag, a block, hacking-stock ; see ealach. 
ealaidh, an ode, song, music ; see ealadh. 
ealamh, eathlamh, quick, expert, Ir. athlamh, E. Ir. athlom, 

athlam, *aith-lam ; *lam is allied to lamh, hand ("handy" is 

the idea). See ullamh for discussion of the root lam. 


ealbh, a bit, tittle, Ir. ealbha, a multitude, a drove, W. elw, goods, 

profit, *elvo- ; cf. Gaul. Elvetios, Elvio, etc. ; *pel-vo-, root 

pel, full 1 
ealbhar, a good for nothing fellow (Suth.) ; from Norse dlfr, elf, a 

vacant, silly person, 
ealbhuidh, St John's wort, Ir. eala bhuidh (O'R.) : 
fealg, noble, so Ir., E. Ir. elg : Innis Ealga = Ireland. Cf. Elgin, 

ealla, nothing ado ("Gabh ealla ris" — have nothing ado with him) : 
eallach, a burden, so Ir., M. Ir. ellach, trappings or load ; cf. Ir. 

eallach, a drove, 0. Ir. ellach, conjunctio, *ati-slogos (Zimmer), 

from sluagh. See uallach and ealt. 
eallach, cattle (Arran), so Ir. : cf. 0. Ir. ellach, conjunction, *ati- 

slogos (Zimmer). 
eallsg, a scold, shrew : 
ealt, ealta, a covey, drove, flock, Ir. ealta, E. Ir. elta : *ell-tavo-, 

from peslo-, a brute, Cor. ehal, pecus ; 0. H. G., fasal, Ag. S. 

fad, proles (Stokes for Cor.). See al. Ascoli joins 0. Ir. 

ellach, union, and Ir. eallach, a drove, cattle, with ealt. See 

ealltuinn, a razor, Ir. ealtin, 0. Ir. altan, W. ellyn, 0. Cor. elinn, 

0. Br. altin, Br. aotenn, *(p)altani ; Ger. spalten, cleave ; Skr. 

pat, split ; Old. SI. xv&-platiti, cut in two. 
eaman, tail ; see feaman, q.v. 
eanach, honour, praise, E. Ir. enech, honour, also face ; hence 

" regard " (Ascoli) : *aneqo-, W. enep ; root oq of Lat. oc-ulus, 

eanach, dandriff, scurf, down : 

eanach-garraidh, endive, Ir. eanach-garraidh ; evidently a cor- 
ruption of Lat. endiva (Cameron), 
eanchaill, eanchainn, brains, Ir. inchinn, E. Ir. inchind, W. 

ymmenydd, Cor. impinion ( = in+pen-), in + ceann, "what is 

in the head." 
eang, foot, footstep, track, bound, Ir. eang, E. Ir. eng, track ; cf. 

root ong given for theagamh. 
eang, a gusset, corner ; cf. Lat. angulus, Eng. angle. 
eangach, a fetter, net, Ir. eangach, a net, chain of nets. From 

eang, foot. 
eangarra, cross-tempered (H.S.D.) : "having angles"; from eang. 
eangbhaidh, high-mettled, M. Ir., engach, valiant ; from eang, 

a step, 
eangladh, entanglement ; possibly from the Eng. tangle ; not 

likely founded on eangach. 


eanghlas, gruel, milk and water, Ir. eanghlais, E. Ir. englas (fern. 

a stem), milk and water, green water (Corm.), from in and 

M. Ir. glas, milk, *glagsa ; Gr. ykdyos, yaAa(KTos), milk, 

Lat. lac ( = *glak-t). Cormac says it is from en, water, and 

glas, grey. en = water, *pino (St.). 
eanntag, nettles ; see deanntag. 
eanraich, eanbhruith, soup, juice of boiled flesh, Ir. eanbhruithe, 

E. Ir. enbruthe, from in and bruith, boil. Corm. and O'Cl. 

have an obsolete broth, bruithe, flesh, and explain it as " water 

of flesh." For en, water, see eanghlas. Most dialects make 

it "chicken-soup," as from eun + bruith. 
ear, an ear, the east, from the east, Ir. soir, eastern, anoir, from 

the east, 0. Ir. an-air, ab oriente ; really "from before," the 

prep, an (*apo7ia) of a nail (see a, from), and air ( = *ari), 

before. The observer is supposed to face the sun. The 

opposite is iar, an iar, from iar, behind, q.v. 
earail, an exhortation, 0. Ir. erdil, irdil, *air-dil ; from aill, 

desire. Hence earal, provision, caution, 
earar, an earar, the day after to-morrow, Ir. oirthior, eastern, 

day following, day after to-morrow, 0. Ir. airther, eastern, 

*ariteros, *pareiteros (Gr. Trapoirepos), comparative of air, 

eararadh, a parching of corn in a pot before grinding : *air-aradh, 

root ar, as in Lat. aridus, arid 1 
earasaid, a square of tartan worn over the shoulders by females 

and fastened by a brooch, a tartan shawl : *air-asaid ? Cf. 

asair for root, 
earb, a roe, so Ir., E. Ir. erb. 0. Ir. heirp, *erbi-s, Gr. e/o«/>os. 
earb, trust (vb.), earbsa (n.), Ir. earbaim, 0. Ir. erbaim, nom- 

erpimm, confido, *erbio, let, leave ; M. H. G. erbe, bequeath, 

Ger. erbe, heir, Got. arbja, heir : all allied to Lat. orbus, Eng. 

earball, a tail, so Ir., E. Ir. erball, *dir-ball ; from air ( = *ari) 

and ball, q.v. urball in Arran and the West, 
earc, heifer (Carm.), cow, Ir. earc, E. Ir. ere, cow (Corm.) : 
earchall, earachall, misfortune : ^air-call ; from air and call, q.v. 
earghalt, arable land ; air + geadhail, which see. 
eargnaich, inflame, enrage : *dir-gon- ; from air and gon ? Also 

feargnaich, which suggests fearg as root. 
earlachadh, preparing food (Suth.) ; from old adj. erlam, ready. 

See ullamh. x 

earlaid, expectation, trust : *ari-lanti-, root lam of lamh* 
earlas, earnest, arles ; see airleas. 
earnach, murrain, bloody flux in cattle : 


earr, end, tail, Ir. earr, E. Ir. err, *ers& ; Gr. oppos, rump ; Ag. S. 

ears, Eng. 
earr, a scar (Lewis) ; Norse orr, arr (do.), 
earrach, spring, so Ir., 0. Ir. errech, *persdko-, frontiers, which is 

from per, as eks, ( = ex) is from ek ; per, before, Lat. per, proe, 

Eng. for, fore, ; as in air, ( = ari). The idea is the "first of 

the year." Cf. Ger. frihhling, spring, of like descent. Such 

is Stokes' derivation. Another view is that earrach is from 

earr, end (cf. for form tbs and toiseach, and earrach, lower 

extremity) meaning the " end of the year," the ceitein, 

May, "first of summer," being the beginning of the year. 

Not allied to Lat. ver. 
earradh, clothes, so Ir., E. Ir. errad, eirred, *dir-red, *ari-reido-n ; 

from reid of reidh. Eng. array comes from the Gaul. 

equivalent ("* : ad-redare), and Eng. ready is allied. Hence 

earradh, wares, 
earradhubh, the wane, the w r ane of the moon : earr+dubh ? 
earrag, a taunt (a blow, Arms.) : 
earrag, a shift, refuge, attempt (H.S.D., from MSS.) : 
earraghl6ir, vain glory : *er-gloir ; the er is the intensive particle; 

Lat. per. 
earraid, a tip-staff, tearraid, tarraid (Dial.) : from Eng. herald ? 
earraigh, a captain (H.S.D.) ; see urra. 
earrann, a portion, Ir. earrunn, M. Ir. errand, *dir-rann ; from 

rann, portion, 
earras, wealth ; see earradh. 

earrlait, ground manured one year and productive next (Oarm) : 
earr-thalmhuinn, yarrow ; see athair-thalmhuinn. 
eas, a waterfall, Ir. eas, g. easa, E. Ir. ess, g. esso, *esti- *pesti ; 

Skr. d-patti, mishap ("mis-fall"); Lat. pessum, down, pestis, 

a pest ; Slav, na-pasti, casus (Bez.). 
eas-, privative, prefix, Ir. eas-, 0. Ir. es-, W. eh-, Gaul, ex-, *eks. 

See a, as, out. 
easach, thin water-gruel ; from eas. 
easag, a pheasant, a squirrel (M'D.), Ir. easbg, pheasant (Fol.), 

weasel, squirrel. For the " squirrel- weasel " force, see neas, 

nios. As " pheasant," it may be founded on the M. Eng. 

fesaunt, 0. Fr. faisan. 
easaraich, boiling of a pool, ebullition, bustle ; from G. and Ir. 

easar, a cataract, from eas. *ess-rad- 1 
easar-chasain, thorough-fare ; cf. aisir. 
easbalair, a trifling, handsome fellow (M'A.) : 
easbaloid, absolution, Ir. easbaldid ; from Lat. absolutio. 
easbhuidh, want, defect, so Ir., E. Ir. esbuid, *ex-buti-s, " being 

out " of it ; from roots of as and bu, q.v. 


easbuig, a bishop, Ir. easbog, 0. Ir. espoc, epscop, W. esgob, Br. 

eskop ; from Lat. episcopus, whence Eng. bishop. 
f easg, a ditch, fen, Ir. easgaidh, quagmire, ease, water, E. Ir. esc, 

water, fen-water, 0. British 'lo-Ka, the Exe, [Scotch Esks], 

*iskd, water, *(p)idsk,d ; Gr. 7rtSa£, well, ttlSvoo, gush. The 

W. wysg, stream, 0. W. uisc requires, *eiskd, from peid, pid. 
easg, easgann, eel, Ir. eascu, g. eascuinne, 0. Ir. escung, " fen- 
snake," i.e., esc, fen, and ung, snake, Lat. anguis. See easg, 

feasga, the moon (a name for it surviving in Braemar last 

century), 0. Ir. esca, esce, msca, *eid-skio- ; from root eid, id, 

as in Lat. idus, the ides, " full light," i.e., full moon (Stokes) : 

*encscaio-, Skr. pnjas, light, Gr. $kyyo<$, light (Strachan). 
easgaid, hough ; better iosgaid, q.v. 
easgaidh, ready, willing, Ir. easguidh, E. Ir. escid, W. esgud, Br. 

escuit ; from eu- and sgith, q.v. 
easgraich, a torrent, coarse mixture ; see easg. 
easp, door latch (Lewis) ; Norse, hespa (do.). 
easradh, ferns collected to litter cattle, E. Ir. esrad, strewing, 

*ex-sratu-, root ster, strew, Lat. sterner e, etc. See casair, bed, 

under caisil-chrb. 
easraich, boiling of a pool, bustle ; see easaraich. 
eathar, a boat, Ir. eathar, ship, boat, 0. Ir. ethar, a boat, *itro-, 

"journeyer"; from ethaim, I go, *itdo, go, root ei, i ; Lat. 

eo ; Gr. ItfXL ; Lit. eimi ; Skr. e'mi. 
eatorra, between them, so Ir., 0. Ir. etarro, *etr-so, *enter-sos. 

For so", see sa. 
£ibh, cry ; see eigh. 

eibheadh, the aspen, letter e, Ir. eadha ; also eadhadh, q.v. 
^ibheall, 6ibhleag, a live coal, spark, Ir. eibhledg, E. Ir. oibell, 

spark, fire, W. ufel, fire, *oibelos, fire, spark (Stokes). 
6ibhinn, joyous ; see aoibhinn. 
eibhrionnach, eirionnach, a young gelded goat ; from Sc. aiver 

(do.), with G. termination of firionnach, etc. Aiver is also 

aver, worthless old horse, any property, Eng. aver, property, 

from Lat. habere. 
£ideadh, 6ididh, clothing, a suit ; see aodach. 
eidheann, ivy, Ir. eidhean, E. Ir. edenn, W. eiddew, Cor. idhio, 

*(pjedenno-, root ped, fasten, hold on ; Lat. pedica, & fetter ; 

Eng. fetter, etc. For sense, cf. Lat hedera, ivy, from ghed, 

catch, proehendo, Eng. get. 
eididh, a web ; apparently a shortened form of eideadh. 
^ifeachd, effect, so Ir. • from Lat. effectus. 
eige, a web, eididh (on analogy of Eididh), *veggid, root ofjigh. 



eigh, ice ; see deigh. Hence eighre, oighre, Ir. oidhir, E. Ir. 

aigred, W. eiry, snow. 
eigh, a file, Ir. oi^Ae : *agi& ; root «(/ of Eng. axe, Got. a^m. 
6igh, a cry, Ir. eigheamh, 0. Ir. egem, Celtic root eig ; Lettic igt. 

Cf. also Lat. aeger (Stokes, Zim.). 
eighreag, a cloudberry ; see oighreag. 
£iginn, necessity, Ir. eigin, 0. Ir. ecen, W. angen, *enknd (Stokes) ; 

Gr. dvdyKr) ( = dv-ay/o?). Allied by root (ank : enk) to thig, 

4 eildeir, an elder j from the Scotch, Eng. elder. 

eile, other, another, Ir. eile, 0. Ir. cw7e, W. aill, all, Br. ei/, a^/, 

Gaul, alio-, *aljo-, ~*allo- ; Lat. alius ; Gr. aAAos ; Eng. else. 
eileach, mill-race, mill-dam, embankment ; from ail, stone, 

" stone-work." 
eilean, an Island, Ir. oilean, E. Ir. ailen ; from Norse eyland, Eng. 

eilean, training ; see oilean. 
eileir, the notch on the staves of a cask where the bottom is 

fixed. (In Arg. earrach) : 
eileir, a deer's walk, eileirig, where deer were driven to battue 

them. Hence the common place-name Elrick. Bk. of Deer 

in d-elerc 1 
eileir, sequestered region, etc. ; see eilthir. 
eilgheadh, levelling of a field for sowing, first ploughing ; cf. Ir. 

eillgheadh, burial, to which Stokes cfs. Umbrian pelsatu, Gr. 

ddrrTCLv, pelsans, sepeliundus. H. Maclean compared the 

Basque elge, field, 
eilid, a hind, so Ir., 0. Ir. elit, W. elain, cerva, *elinti-s, *elani, 

Gr. eAAos, fawn, e'Aa^os ( = eXvcjios), stag ; Lit. elnis, stag ; 

Arm. eXn ; etc. 
eilig, willow-herb, epilobium ; from Lat. helix. 
eilitriom, a bier (H.S.D. for Heb.), Ir. eletrom, eleaihrain, M. Ir. 

eilitrum ; from Lat. feretrum (Stokes). 
eilthir, a foreign land, eilthireach, a pilgrim, Ir. oilithreach, 0. Ir. 

ailithre, pilgrimage ; from eile and' tir, q.v. 
eiltich, rejoice : 
eineach, bounty, Ir. oineach. Cf. 0. Ir. ainech, protectio, root 

nak, attain, as in tiodhlac. Hence the H.S.D. eineachlann, 

protection (from Ir.). 
eirbhe, dyke or wall between crop-land and hill-land (M'F.). : 
eirbheirt, moving, stirring ; E. Ir. airbert, use, airbiur, dego, 

fruor : air and heir, q.v. 
eirbhir, asking indirectly : " side-say " ; air + heir ; cf. abair. 


eirbleach, slack-jointed or crippled person ; cf. Sc. hirplock, lame 

creature, hirple. The possibility of air-ablach (cf. conablach) 

should be kept in view, 
eirc-chomhla, portcullis (M'D.) : 
eire, a burden, Ir. eire, E. Ir. ere, 0. Ir. aire : *pario, root of air. 

Cf. Lat. porto. 
eireachd, an assembly, Ir. oireachdus, E. Ir. airecht, 0. Ir. aired, 

*air-echt, echt being from the root of thig. Stokes refers it to 

the same origin as W. araeth, speech, root req, as in 0. Slav. 

reka, speak, Lat. raccare, cry as a lion, 
eireachdail, handsome, 0- Ir. airegde, prsestans, from aire(ch), 

primas. See airidh. 
eireag, a pullet, young hen, Ir. eireog (Fol , O'R.), M. Ir. eirin, W. 

iaren, Cor. yar, gallina, Br. iarik, *jari-, hen ; Lit. jerube, 

heathcock, N. Slav, jertu, nuthatch (Bez.). 
eireallach, a monster, clumsy old carle (Dial., H.S.D) ; from 

eiriceachd, heresy, so Ir., E. Ir. eres, 0. Ir. heretic, hereticus ; 

from the 0. Ir. form somehow, which itself is from Lat. 

6irich, rise, 6irigh, rising, Ir. eirighim, eirglie, E. Ir. erigim, 

eirgim, inf. 0. Ir. eirge, erge, *eks-rego ; Lat. erigo, erect, Eng. 

erect, rego, I govern ; Gr. o/aeyw, extend ; Eng. right ; I. E. 

root reg. See 
eiridinn, attendance, patience, 0. Ir. airitiu, g. airiten, reception, 

airema, suscipiat, *ari-em-tin-, root em, grasp, take ; Lat. emo, 

buy ; Lit: imu, hold. 
6irig, ransom, Ir. eiric, E. Ir. eric, eiricc : *es-recc, " buying or 

selling out," from reic. Vb. as-renim, reddo, enclitic ernim, 

eirmis, hit, find out, 0. Ir. ermaissiu, attaining, irmadatar, intelli- 

gunt, irmissid, intelligatis, ^air-mess-, *air-med- ; root, med, 

as in meas, judgment, q.v. 
6is, delay, impediment ; founded on deis ? 
6isd, listen, hear, lr. eisdim, 0. Ir. etsim. Ascoli analyses it into 

*etiss, *aith-do-iss, animum instare ; the iss he doubtless 

means as from the reduplicated form of the root sta (cf. 0. Ir. 

air-issim, I stand), an-tus-, great silence ! Cf. Ir. eist do 

bheal = hush ! Root of tosd. 
eisg, eisgear, satirist, Ir. eigeas, pi. eigse, a learned man, E. Ir. 

ecess : *dd-gen-s-to ? See eagna. 
eisimeil, dependence, obligation, M. Ir. esimol, an esimul, *ex-em- 

mo-lo, root em of eudail. Cf. Lat. exemplum. 
eisiomplair, example, Ir. euiompldir, M. Ir. esimplair ; from Lat. 



eisir, eisiridh, oyster, Ir. eisir, oisre ; from M. Eng. oistre, from 

Lat. ostrea. 
eisleach, the withe that ties the tail-beam to the pack-saddle, 

crupper : 
6islean, grief: *an-slan ; cf. Ir. eislinn, weak, E. Ir. eslinn (do.): 

*ex-slan ; see slan. 
eislinn, boards on which the corpse is laid, a shroud (H.S.D., from 

MSS. ; M'E.) : 
eite, unhusked ear of corn (M'E.) : 
6ite, eiteadh, stretching, extending : 
eiteach, burnt roots of heath : 
eiteag, white pebble, precious stone ; from Eng. hectic, lapis 

hecticus, the white hectic stone, used as a remedy against 

dysentery and diarrhoea (Martin, West. Isles, 134). See eitig. 
eitean, a kernel, grain, Tr. eitne, eithne, E. Ir. eitne (n.). 
eithich, false, perjured, Ir. eitheach, a lie, perjury, 0. Ir. ethech, 

perjurium ; root pet, fall ? Cf. Ir. di-thech, denial on oath, 

for-tach, admission on oath, di-tongar i. sentar, fortoing, 

proved by oath : *tongd, swear. See freiteack for root, 
eitich, refuse, Ir. eitighim. For root, etc., see under freiteack. 
eitigh, fierce, dismal, 0. Ir. etig, turpe, adetche, abomination. 

Scarcely *an-teg-, " un-wonted, un-house-\ike " (Zim.), for G. 

would be eidigh. This Stokes (Bez. Beit 21 ) makes *an-teki-s, 

not fair, W. teg, fair, Gr. tlktco, produce, tckvov, child, Eng. 

thing. Still G. should be eidigh. 
eith, go (Sutherland), dh' eithinn, would go, Ir. eathaim, E. Ir. 

ethaim, *itdo ; root ei, i ; Lat. ire, itum ; Gr. et/xt, etc. 
eitig, consumption ; from Sc. etick, from Fr. etique, hectique, Eng. 

eitreach, storm, sorrow : *aith-ter- ? See tuirse. 
eoisle, a charm ; a metathesis of eblas. 
e61, edlas, knowledge, Ir. ebl, eblas, E. Ir. eolas, 0. Ir. heulas, 

d-eulus : *ivo-lestu ? 
e6ma, barley, Ir. eorna, E. Ir. eorna, *jevo-rnio-, *jevo- ; Gr. £eia, 

spelt ; Skr. ydva, corn, barley ; Lit. jawai, corn, 
eothanachadh, languishing (H.S.D. gives it as Dial.; M'E.); see 

eu-, negative prefix, Ir. ea-, eu-, 0. Ir. e~. It stands for an- before 

c, t, p, and s. See an-. 
eucail, disease : an + cdil, q.v. 
euchd, a feat, exploit, Ir. eachd, feat, covenant, condition ; E. Ir. 

4cht, murder, slaughter, from ec (St.). 
euchdag, a fair maid, a charmer : "featsome one," from euchd. 
eud, jealousy, zeal, Ir. ead, 0. Ir. et, W. addiant ( = add-iant), 

longing, regret, Gaul, iantu- in lantumarus, *jantu- ; Skr. 


yatnd, zeal ; Gr. f^rew, seek, (t/Aos, zeal, Eng. zeal ; root jd, 

jat, strive, 
eudail, treasure, cattle, Ir. eaddil, euddil, profit, prey, E. Ir. Hail, 

treasure, booty, E. Ir. e't, herds, riches : *em-tdli-, root em, 

hold, as in Lat. emo (see eiridinn). Also feudail. ed = dirneis 

no spreidh, O'Cl. 
eug, death, Ir. eug, 0. Ir. 6c, W. angeu, Cor. and 0. Br. ancou, 

*enku-s, *enkevo- ; Lat. nex, death ; Gr. vzkvs, corpse ; Skr. 

nag, perish, 
eugail, disease ; see eucail. 

eugais, eugmhais, as eugais, without, Ir. eagmhuis, want, dis- 
pensation, E. Ir. ecmais : *an-comas, " non-power " 1 
eug-, negative prefix, as in eugsamhuil = an-con-samuil ; see 

euladh, creeping away ; see ealadh. 
eumhann, a pearl (H.S.D. from MSS.), 0. Ir. ne'm, g. nemann, 

pearl, niam, sheen, niamda, bright, W. nwyf, vigour, 

nwyfiant, brightness, vigour : *neim. Cf. neamhnuid. 
eun, a bird, Ir. eun, 0. Ir. en, 0. W. etn, W. edn, Cor. hethen, Br. 

ezn, *etno-s, *petno-, root pet, fly ; Gr. TreTo/xcu, fly, Trerrjvd, 

fowls ; Lat. penna, wing ; Eng. feather ; Skr. pdtati, fly. 

Hence eunlaith, birds, E. Ir. enlaith. 
eur, refuse, Ir. eura, refusal, E. Ir. era, eraim, *ex-rajo- (n.), root 

rd, give, W. rhoi, give, Cor. ry, Br. reiff, give ; Skr. rati, 

give, Zend rd. See rath, luck, favour. 

fa, under, Ir. fa, E. Ir. fa (as in distributive numbers) ; a side 
form of/o, q.v., used in adverbial expressions. 

ffa, was (past of is), M. G. fa (D. of Lis.), Ir. fa, fa h- (Keat.), 
M. Ir. fa h-, E. Ir. ba h-, *bdt, *(e)bhv-d-t ; Lat. -bat, -bamus, 
of rege-bam, etc.; root bheu, to be. See bu, the form now used. 

fabhairt, fadhairt, forging, moulding (better faghairt, "tem- 
pering" (Wh.), which suits the pronunciation best); Ir. 
faghairt, tempering (Keat.) ; founded on Lat. faber, smith, 
whence, through Fr., Eng. forge. 

fabhar, favour, Ir. fdbhar, W. ffafr ; from Lat. favor. 

fabhd, a fault ; from Sc. faut, from Fr. faute. 

fabhra, fabhrad, abhra, eyelid, eyebrow, Ir. abhra, fabhra, eyelid, 
E. Ir. abra, n. pi. abrait, Cor. abrans, Br. abrant, eyebrow, 
Mac. Gr. d/Spovres ; further 6(f>pv<s, brow, Eng. brow. There is 
an E. Ir. bra, pi. brdi, dual bruad, *bruvat-. The phonetics 
are not clear. Stokes has suggested Lat. frons, frontis, as 
allied, *bhront- with the prep. a(p)o ( = E. Ir. -a-), ab. 


fabhradh, swirl, eddy (Carm.). Cf. 0. Ir. fobar (St.). 

facal, focal, word, Ir. focal, 0. Ir. focul, from Lat. vocabulum 

(through *focvul, Giiterbock). Stokes and Wind, take it 

from Lat. vocula. 
fachach, the puffin — a water fowl (Sh.) ; root va, blow 1 Ono- 

matopoetic : f-ah-ah, call of bird 1 
fachail, strife (Sh. ; H.S.D. marks it Dialectic) ; cf. Ir. fachain, 

fachant, puny (H.S.D. for N. High.) : 
fachaint, ridicule, scoffing ; from fo-cainnt, "sub-speaking." Cf. 

W. gogan, satire, Br. goge, *vo-can, root can, sing, say. 
fad, fada, long, Ir. fada, 0. Ir. fota, longus, fot, length, *vad-dho- 

or vaz-dho-, Lat. vastus, vast % Hence fadal, delay, desid- 

erium, Keat. fadddil, "long delay," from /ad and ddil. 
fadadh, fadadh, kindling, Ir. fadadh, fadaghadh, faddgh (Keat.), 

Mid. Ir. fatod, E. Ir. dtud, which Zimmer analyses as 

*ad-soud (soud of iompaidh), but unsatisfactorily ; E. Ir. 

adsui tenid, kindles, adsuithe, kindled (Meyer). Cf. fdd. 
fadharsach, trifling, paltry, fagharsach : 
fadhbhag, cuttle-fish : 
fafan, a breeze : 
fag, leave, Ir. fdgaim, 0. Ir. foacbaim, fdcbaim, *fo-ad-gab- ; root 

gab of gabh, q.v. 
fagus, faisg, near, Ir. fogus, E. Ir. focus, ocus, 0. Ir. accus, W. 

agos, Br. hogoz, *aggostu-. See agus. 
faic, see, Ir. faic, 0. Ir. im-aci, vides-ne, *dd-c%-, see chi. The / is 

faich, faiche, a green (by the house), Ir., E. Ir. faithche, the field 

nearest the house, E. Ir. faidche, *ad-cdio-, "by the house," 

Celtic kaio-n, house ; see ceardach. Ascoli refers it to 0. Ir. 

aith, area (an imaginary word), and Jubainville allies it with 

W. gwaen, plain, Ger. weide (see bhan for W.). 
faiche, a crab, or lobster's, burrow (M'A.) ; see aice : 
faichd, hiding place, den, mole's burrow ; see aice. 
faicheil, stately, showy ; cf. Ir. faicheallach, luminous : 
faicill, caution, guard, E. Ir. accill, preparation, watch : *dd-ciall ; 

from ciall, sense ? Cf. dichioll. 
faidh, a prophet, Ir. fdidh, 0. Ir. faith, *vdti-s ; Lat. vates ; Norse 

6tSr, sense, song, M. Eng. wood, Sc. wud ( = mad), Ger. wuth, 

rage. W. has gwawd, carmen : *vdto-. 
faidhbhile, a beech, Ir. feagha, fagh-vile (Lh., Comp. Foe), W. 

ffawydden, Br. fao ; from Lat. fag us. G. adds the old word 

bile, a tree, which is the same in origin as bile, leaf. 


faidhir, a fair, Ir. faidhrin ; founded on Eng. fair, /aire (from 
Lat. ferid). For phonetics, cf. paidhir from pair, and 
staidhir from stair. 

faidseach, lumpish (Sh.) ; faidse, lump of bread (M'A.) : 

faigh, get, Ir. faghaim, E. Ir. fagbaim, 0. Ir. ni fogbai, non 
invenis, from fo-gabim, root gab of gabh, q.v. 

faighe, begging, etc. ; see faoighe. 

faighnich, foighnich, ask : *vo-gen-, root gen, know, as in aithne. 
Cf . E. Ir. imma foacht, asked. Windisch refers to iarfaigim, 
iarfacht, I asked, = iarmifoacht, root ag, say. iarmi-fo-siag 
(St. R.C.^lTT). 

fail, foil, corrupt, putrefy, parboil ; root vel, bubble, boil ; Norse 
vella, boil, Eng. well, Ger. wallen, bubble. 

fail, foil, a stye, Ir. fail, 0. Ir. foil, mucc-foil, hara, tret-fhoil, W. 
gwdl, couch, *vali-, root vel, cover, encircle ; Gr. el\vw, 
envelop (*velu-), tlXap, shelter ; Skr. vald, cave, vali, pro- 
jecting thatched roof. In the sense of " encircling, rolling," 
add Lat. volvo, volumen, Eng. volume, wallow, etc. Further 
allied is G. olann, wool, Eng. wool, Lat. Idna, etc. 

fail, fail, a ring, Ir. fail, 0. Ir. foil, g. falach, *valex ; Gr. eAif, 
a twist, spire, vine-tendril ; root vel, "circle," as above in fail. 
Cf. for vowel Jal, dike; Br. gwalen, "bague sans chaton." 
Also failbhe, Ir. failge, for failghe ; from the stem falach or 
falagh condensed to falgh. 

failc, bathe, lave, Ir. folcadh, 0. Ir. folcaim, W. golchi, Br. goalc'hi, 
wash, *volko ; Lettic icci'lks, damp, wa'lka, flowing water, 
swampish place. Further allied is G. fliuch, q.v. Possibly 
here place Volcae, the Rhine Gauls, after whom the Teutons 
named the Celts ; whence Wales, Welsh, etc. 

failcin, pot-lid (Arran), failceann (Rob.) ; horn fail, ring (Rob.). 

faile, smell, savour ; see dile. 

faileag, dog-brier berry ( = mucag) : 

faileagan, little lawns (Carm.) : cf. dilean. 

faileas, shadow, aileas (Dial.) ; from fo-Uus ? or allied to ail, 
mark 1 

failleagan, ailleagan, faillean, root or hole of the ear, faillean, 
sucker of a tree : *al-nio~, root al, nourish 1 

faillig, failnich, fail, faillinn, failing, Ir. faillighim, E. Ir. faill, 
failure, W. gwall, Br. goall, *valni- ; root val of feall, q.v. 
Borrowing from Eng. fail, from Lat. fallo, is, however, 
possible in the modern languages. 

failm, a helm ; from the Norse hjdlm, Eng. helm. 

failmean, kneepan (M'A.) ; from fail, ring (Rob.). Seefalman. 

failt, failte, welcome, hail ! Ir., 0. Ir. fdilte, *vdletid, root vdl, vel, 
glow ; W. gwawl, lumen ; Gr. aAea, warmth, sun's heat ; Got. 


mdan, be hot, 0. H. G. walm, heat (Bez.). Cf. Caesar's 
Valetiacus. Borrowing from Lat. valete seems to be Zimmer's 
view (Zeit. 30 28). Rhys suggests VV. gwell ; Hend., Eng. 

fainear, under consideration, Ir. fa dedra, remark, fe ndedr, f£ 
ndeara (Munster). Foley gives tabhair fa d' aire = "observe." 
"Thoir fainear " = observe, consider. The above may be a 
fixed fa d' aire =fa-deara, with n from the plural an, their. 

fainleag, ainleag, a swallow, Ir. dinleog, 0. Ir. fannall, W. 
gwennol, Cor. guennol, Br. gwenneli, *vannello-. Cf. Fr. 
vanneau, lapwing, It. vannello, Med. Lat. vannellus, which is 
usually referred to Lat. vannus, fan. * vat-n-allo-s (Holden). 

fainne, a ring, Ir. fdinne, dinne, 0. Ir. dnne, *dnnid ; Lat, dnus, 
Eng, annular. 

fair, fair, far, fetch, bring ; a curtailed form of tabhair through 
thabhair or (tha)bhair ? Cf. thoir. 

fair, dawn, E. Ir. fair, W. gwawr, Br. gouere-, morning, gwereleuen, 
morning-star, *vdsri-, Lit. vasard, summer, Skr. vdsard, 
early shining, morning (adj.), Lat. ver, spring, Gr. cap, 
spring (Stokes). 

fair, faire, ridge, sky-line ; from fair, dawn % Cf., however, Ir. 
fairedg, hillock, and faireag, below. 

fairc, bathe ; see fatkraig. 

fairc, links, lands sometimes covered by the sea (M'A., who says 
that in Islay it means " hole ") ; from Eng. park ? 

fairce, fairche (M'D.), a mallet, Ir. farcha, farcha, farca, M. Ir. 
farca, E. Ir. forcha tened, thunderbolt ; root ark as in adharc ? 

faircill, a cask or pot lid, E. Ir. farcle : *vor-cel-, root eel, cover. 

faire, watching, Ir., E. Ir. faire; see aire. 

faire ag, a gland, swollen gland, Ir. fairedg (Fol., O'R.) ; cf. W. 
chwaren, gland, blotch, root sver, hurt, Ger. schwer, difficult. 
The W. precludes comparison with Lat. varus, pimple, varix, 
dilated vein, Eng. varicose. 

fairge, the ocean, Ir. fairrge, 0. Ir. fairgge, Ptolemy's Vergivios, 
the Irish Atlantic ; from the same root as fmrg. In Suther- 
land /ain/* means the "ocean in storm." Usually pronounced 
as if fairce. W. Mor Werydd, the Atlantic. 

fairgneadh, hacking, sacking : 

fairich, perceive, feel, Ir. airighim, 0. Ir. airigur, sentio; same 
root as faire (Stokes, Beit. 8 341). 

fairleas, an object on the sky-line (H.S.D. from MSS.j ; *f-air- 
leus ; from leus, light. 

fairmeil, noisy : allied to seirm. See foirm ? 

fair sing, wide, Ir., 0. Ir. fair sing, W. eang ( = *ex-ang, ehang), 
*f-ar-ex-ang : " un-narrow," root ang, narrow (Stokes for W.). 


fairtlich, fairslich, baffle; *vor-tl-, "over-bear," root tel, tol, bear 

(Lat. tolero, Eng. tolerate) ? 
faisg, pick off vermin : for root see caisg 
faisg, near : see fagus. 
faisg, squeeze, wring, Ir. fdisg, E. fr. faiscim, W. ytvasgu. 

premere, 0. Br. guescini, Br. goascaff, stringere, *vak*hd ; Skr. 

vdhate, press ; Eng. wedge ; farther Lat. vexu. *fo-ad-sech 

faisne, a pimple, weal (H.S.D., Dial.) : 
faisneachd, laistine, prophecy, omen, Ir. fdisdineachd, fdisdine, 

0. Ir. fditsine ; for fditk-sin', where tit is deaspirated before s ; 

horn faith, with the termination -sine (stitief) Zeuss 2 777. 
faisneis, speaking, whispering, Ir. fdisneis, rehearsal, M. Ir. faisneis, 

E. Ir. aisne'is, vb. aisnedim, narrate, *as-in-feid-, infiadim, 

root, veid, vid, know ; see innis. 
faite, a smile, Ir. faitbe (O'li.), laugh, 0.. Ir. faitbim, I laugh, 

*fo-aitk-tibim, tibiu, 1 laugh, *stebio ; Lit stebius, astonish, 
faiteach, faiteach, timorous, shy, Ir. fditeach, fai'cheas, fear 

(Keat.), 0. Ir. faitech, cautus : *f-ad-tech, "home-keeping"'? 
faitheam, a hem, Ir. fdithim, fathfkiiaim ; fo and faaim. See 

fal, turf, sods, dike, Ir. fat, hedge, fold, 0. Ir. fal, saepes, W. 

gwawl, rampart, Pictish fahel, murus, *vdlo- ; Lat. vallum, 

Eng. wall. See further under fail, stye. 
fal, a spade, peat spade, Manx faayl, W. pdl, Cor. pal ; from Lat. 

pdla. Also "scythe" (Wh.). 
falach, a hiding, covering, Ir., E. Ir. folach, W., Br. golo, *vo-lug6, 

*lugo, hide, lie ; Got. liuyan, tell a lie, Eng. lie (Stokes). 

Ernault refers it to the root leg/i, logh, lie, as in G. laig/ie : 

" under-lie," in a causative sense, 
falachd, spite, malice, treachery, Ir. fala. See faillig, Jeall for 

faladair, orts (M'D.) : 
faladair, a scythe, really " man who works the scythe," a turfer, 

from fal : " scythe " properly is iarunn faladair. 
faladair, bare pasture (H.S.D. for Heb.) : "turf-land," from fal. 
fala-dha, a jest, irony, fun ; see fealla-dha. 
falair, an interment, funeral entertainment (Stew.) =farair ? 
falaire, an ambler, mare, Ir. fahure, ambling horse ; seemingly 

founded on Eng. palfrry. The form alaire exists, in the 

sense of " brood-mare" (M'DougalPs Folk and Hero Tales), 

leaning upon al, brood, for meaning. Ir. falaradk, to amble, 
falaisg, heath-burning, Ir. folosg (do.), E. Ir. foloiscim, 1 burn 

slightly ; from/o and loisg, q.v. 



falamh, empty, Ir. folamh, M. Ir. folum, E. Ir. folom, folomm ; 
cf. 0. W. guollung, M. Br. gollo, Br. goullo. Windisch de- 
rives the G. from lorn, bare, but the modern aspiration of 
folamh makes this derivation doubtful. Ernault refers the 
Br. to the root of Lat. langueo. 

falbh, go, falbhan, moving about, walking, waving, Ir. foluamhain, 
bustling, running away, E. Ir. foluamain, flying ; see fo and 
Luaineck. 0. Ir fulumain, volubilis, allied to Lat. volvo, Eng. 
wallow, would suit the phonetics best, but it does not appear 
in the later dialects. The verb falbh is made from falbhan. 
Hennessey referred the G. to Jalamh, empty. Cf. E. Ir. 
falmaigim, empty, quit (Zim.). 

falbhair, the young of live stock, a follower as a calf or foal ; from 
the Sc. follower, a foal, Eng. follower. 

falcag, common auk, falc (Heb.) ; from Norse dlka, Eng. auk. 

fallaid, dry meal put on cakes : 

fallain, healthy, Ir. fa lldin, E. Ir. folldn ; for fo + sl&n, q.v. 

fallsa, false (M'D.), Ir., M. Ir. fallsa ; from the Lat. falsus. 

falluing, a mantle, so lr., M. Ir. fallalng, Latinised form phalingis 
((Jeraldus), dat. pi., W. tfaling ; from Lat. palla, mantle, 
pallium. Cf. 0. Fr. pallion, M. Eng. pallioun. M.E. / aiding, 
sort of coarse cloth (Hend.). 

fallus, sweat, Ir. f alius, alius, 0. Ir, alias : *jasl, root jas, jes, 
seethe, yeast, VV. jas, what pervades, Br. gortl ( = vo-jes-l), 
leaven ; Eng. yeast, zeal ; Gr. (few, boil. 

falmadair, the tiller: " helm- worker," from falm, helm, from 
Norse hjdlm, helm. Seefailm. 

falmair, a kind of fish (H.S.D. for Heb.), falmaire, herring hake : 

falman, kneepan : 

fait, hair, Ir. folt, 0. Ir. folt, W. gwallt, Cor gols, caesaries, 0. Br. 
guolt, *valto-s (Stokes), root vel, cover ; Lat. vellus, fleece, 
Idna, wool, Gr. Aacrtos, hairy ( = vlatios) ; Eng. wool ; Lit. 
velti, hairs, threads. Stokes compares only Russ. volotl, 
thread, Lit. waltis, yarn, Gr. Aao-ios. Same root as olann, 
wool, *vel, *vol, *ul. 

faltan, a tendon, snood ; for altan, from alt. 

famhair, a giant, Ir. fomhor, pirate, giant, E. Ir. fomdr, fomorach, 
a Fomorian, a mythic race of invaders of Ireland ; *fo-mor, 
" sub-magnus " (Zimmer). Stokes refers the -mor, -morach, 
to the same origin as mare of nightr/ian?, Ger. mahr, night- 
mare. Rhys interprets the name as " sub-marini," taking 
mor from the root of mub, sea. The 6 of mor, if it is long 
(for it is rarely so marked) is against these last two deriv- 

famhsgal, fannsgal, hurry, confusion (Arg.) : 


famh-thalmhainn, fath, a mole, fadhbh (Lh.), W. gwadd, Corn. 

god, Br. goz ; M. Eng. wont, talpa. Dialectic ath-thalmhain. 
fan, stay, Ir. fanaim, 0. Ir. anaim ; root an, breathe, exist, as in 

anam., anail : " gabhail anail " = taking rest. Stokes suggests 

an = mn, root men, remain, Lat. maneo, Gr. fxkvoi, a phonetic 

change not yet proved for Gaelic. W. di-anod, without delay, 
fanaid, mockery, Ir. fonomhad, E. Ir. fonomat : *vo-nom-anto-, 

root nem, take, for which see nctmhad. 
fanaigse, dog violet (H.S.D. quoting O'R.), Ir., fanaigse (O'R.) : 

from pansy ? 
fanas, a void space ; from Lat. vanus. 
fang, a sheep-pen, fank ; from Sc. fank. 
fang, a vulture, Ir. fang, raven 
fann, faint, Ir. E Ir. fann, W., Br. gwan, Cor. guan, debilis, 

*vanno-s, root vd, ven, spoil, wound ; Got. wunns, affliction, 

winnan, to suffer, Eng. wound, wan ; Gr ar//, infatuation, etc. 

Others have connected it with Lat. vanus and with Eng. want. 

Fannan-fedir, weak breeze (M'D.). 
fannadh, fishing with a feathered hook (H.S.D. for Heb.) : 
faob, an excrescence, knob, piece, Ir. fadhb (Lh.f), 0. Ir. odb, 

obex, W. odd/, : *ud-bhv-o-, " out-growth," root bhu, be (see 

bu). Stokes gives a Celtic *odbd-s, from e&go-s, ozgo-s (I), 

allied to Gr. oo~xq, twig 1 Lat. obex ; or to Lit. udega t tail. 

Liden equates, Lat. off a, a ball. Stokes now ocr</>us. 
faobh, booty, Ir. fadhbhaim, I despoil, 0. Ir.fodb, exuvias : *vodvo-, 

from I. E. vedh, slay, thrust ; Skr. vadh, slay ; Gr. wfleco, push. 

The root may be vedh, pledge, Gr. aedkov, war prize, Eng. 

faobhag, the common cuttle-fish (Heb.). 
faobhar, edge, so Ir., E. Ir. faebur, 0. Ir., faibur, machera, 

sword, *vaibro-s, Lat. vibro, vibrate, brandish, Lit. wyburti, 

wag (Stokes). Cf. further W. gwaew, pi. gweywyr, a lance. 
faoch, faochag, a periwinkle, Ir. faochog, M. Ir. faechog ; cf. W. 

faoch, curve (Carm.) : 

faochadh, a favourable crisis in sickness, relief ; see faothaich. 
faochainn, entreat earnestly, strive, inf. faochnadh (M'A., Arg.) : 
faochaire, knave (Carm.) : 
faod, feud, may, Ir. feadaim, I can, E. Ir. fetaim, can, setar, 

seitir, potest, *svento ; Got. swings, strong, Ag. S. swift (do.), 

Norse, svinnr, clever, Ger. geschwind, swift (Stokes). 
faodail, goods found by chance or lost, waif : " foundling," E. Ir. 

etaim, I find, *pento, Eng. find. See eudail. 
faodhail, a ford, a narrow channel fordable at low water, a hollow 

in the sand retaining tide water : from N. vatSill, a shallow, 

a place where straits can be crossed, Shet. vaadle, Eng. wade. 


faoghaid, faghaid, faodhailt, starting of game, hunting : 

faoghar, a sound ; see rather foghar. 

faoighe, faighdhe, begging, asking of aid in corn, etc., M. Ir. 

faigde, 0. Ir. foigde, mendicatio, *fo-guide ; from fo and 

guidhe, beg, q.v. 
faoilidh, liberal, hospitable, Ir. faoilidh, joyful, 0. Ir. fdilidh, 

blithe, *vdleti-s, allied to fdilt, welcome (Stokes). Hence 

faoilte, welcome, delight. Root, *vil, Gr. IXapos, gay 1 ? 
faoileag, faoileann, a sea-gull, Ir. faoiledn, 0. Ir. foilenn, W. 

gwylan, Br. gwelan, whence Fr. goeland and Eng. gull. For 

root, Stokes compares Eng. wail. 
faoilleach, faoillteach, the month extending from the middle of 

January to the middle of February, Ir. faoillidh (do.), 

faoilleach (do.), holidays, Carnival. The idea is " Carnival " 

or month of rejoicing ; from faoilidh. Usually referred to 

faol, wolf: "wolf-month." Cf . feill. February in Ir. = mi 

na Feile Brighde. 
faoin, vain, void, Ir. faon, M. Ir. faen, weak : 
faoisg, unhusk, faoisgeag, a filbert, unhusked nut, 0. Ir. desc, 

concha, aesc, classendix, Lat. aesculus 1 (Stokes). Cf. W. 

gweisgion, husks, gweisgioni, to husk, 
faoisid, faosaid, confession, Ir. faoisidin, 0. Ir. fdisitiu, *vo- 

sestamtion- (Stokes), furoissestar, confessus : fo and seasamh, 

q.v. Cf. Gr. ix/ucmj/zi, submit, 
t faol, faolchu, a wolf, so Ir., E. Ir. fdel, fael-chu, W. gweilgi, the 

sea (" wild dog "), *vailo-s ; Arm. gail. 
faolainn, a stony beach (Heb.) : " the beach," vaftlinn. 
faolum, learning ; see foghium. 
faomadh, fainting from closeness or excitement, falling (Lewis) ; 

from aomadh. 
faondradh, wandering, exposure, 0. Ir. airndretkach, errantia 

( = air-ind-reth-) ; G. is for fo-ind-reth-, root ret, run, of ruith, 

q.v. For ind, see ionn-. 
faotainn, getting, E. Ir. foemaim, I receive, root em, grasp, hold, 

Lat. emo. G. is for *vo-em-tin-. 
faothaich, relieve, be relieved from fever, etc., Ir. faothamk, 

recovery after a crisis, alleviation : *fo-thamh ? 
far, upon, far an (am), where, Ir. mar a n-, where ; from mar and 

rel., not from for. 
far, with, far rium, with me, Ir. a bh-farradh, with (lit. " in 

company of," with gen.). Seefarradh and mar ri. 
far, freight (a ship), Ir.faraim, faraighim, farthadh or faradh, a 

freight : 
far, bring ; see fair. 


far-, over ; see far, upon, and air (b). Far-ainm, nick-name ; 

far-cluais, listening ; etc. 
farachan, death watch beetle: "hammerer"; from fairche, 

hammer, Ir. farachan, a hammer (also Gaelic, Wh.). The 

possibility of its being from faire must not be overlooked, 
faradh, a roost, Ir. faradh (do.), E. Ir. forud, a bench, seat, shelf : 

*for-sud, root, sed, seat, as in suidhe, q.v. Cf. W. gor-sedd, a 

seat. E Ir.forad, platform, *ver-podo-. 
faraich, a cooper's wedge ; see fairce. 
farail, a visit, inquiry for health ; from far or for and -ell-, -eln-, 

go, root, el, as in Lat. amb-ulare, Gr. kXdelv. See further 

under tadhal. 
faraire ; see forair. 
faraire, lykewake : 
farasda, easy, gentle, Ir. farasda, forasda, solid, reasonable, 

" staid " : *for-asda ; for asda, see fasdadh. Farasda is con- 
fused with furasda, q.v. 
farbhail, a lid ; from far-bheul, " super-os," from beul, mouth, 
farbhalach, a stranger ; for falbhalach, from falbh ? 
farbhas, a surmise ; *far-meas, from meas, judge. Cf. eirmis. 
farbhas, noise : 

fardach, a mansion, hearth, home ; cf. dachaidh. 
fardadh, alder bark for d}^eing black (H.S.D., Dial.), lye, or any 

colour in liquid (M'A.) ; from far and dath ? 
fardal, delay, M. Ir. fordall, staying, E. Ir. fordul : 
y far dan, a farthing, Ir. far din ; from the Eng. 

fardorus, lintel, Ir. fdrdorus, E. Ir. fordorus, porch, W. gwarddrws, 

lintel ; from for, far and dorus. 
farfonadh, a warning (H.S.D.) ; see root mfathunn : *vor-svon. 
fargradh, a report : *vor-gar, root gar as in goir. 
farlus, chimney or roof-light, E. Ir. forles ; from for and leus, q.v. 

Cf. arias. 
farmachan, a sand lark (H.S.D., Dial.) : 
farmad, envy, Ir. formad, 0. Ir. format : *for-mad, the mad being 

for mento- (*ver-mento-, Stokes), root men, Lat. mens, Eng. 

mind. See dear mad. 
farmail, a large pitcher (Heb.) : 

farpas, refuse of straw or hay (H.S.D., M'E.) ; cf. rapas. 
farpuis, strife, co-fharpuis : 
farr, off! be off! 

farrach, violence, Ir. farrach, forrach ; see farran. 
ffarradh, company, vicinity, M. G. na warri (D. of L.), Ir. 

farradh, E. Ir. farrad, i fharrad, near, 0. Ir. in arrad ; from 

ar-sod-, " by-seat," root sod, sed, sit, as in suidhe. Hence Ir. 

compound, prep, a bh-farradh ; and from the same source 

comes the G. mar ri, q.v. 


farradh, litter in a boat : 

farragan, a ledge (Arran), =faradk, dh hardened. 

farraid, ask, inquire ; faghairt (Perth), which suggests fo-gar-t, 
root, gar, speak Cf. iarr. 

farral, farran, anger, force, Ir. farrdn, vexation, anger, forrdn, 
oppression, M. Ir. forrdn, destruction, E. Ir. forranack, 
destructive. Hence G. far rant a, great, stout, Ir. farrdnta 
(O'B.). Also farrach. The root seems to mean "superiority f 
root vers, vors, as in fedrr, q.v. ? 

farrusg, a peeling, inner rind ; M. Ir. forrusc ; from for and rusg, 

farruinn, pinnacle ; from far and rinn. 

farsaing, wide ; better fairsing, q.v. 

farspach, farspag, arspag, a seagull : 

farum, noise, Ir. fothrum, E. Ir. fothrom, fothrond, W. godornn, 
tumultuous noise (Hend.) ; for fo-thoirm, from toirm. Stokes 
suggests fo-thrond, from torann. The roots are allied in 
either case 

fas, grow, Ir. fdsaim, 0. Ir. dsaim, fdsaim, root aux, aug, increase, 
Lat. augeo, Gr. av£(o, Eng. eke, wax. Stokes and Strachan 
refer fas to a stem (p)dt-to-, pdt, pat, eat, feed, Gr. 7raT€o/xcu, 
eat, Eng. feed, food. Lat. pasco, past am. 

fas, empty, waste, fasach, a desert, Ir. fas, fdsach, 0. Ir. fas, fdas, 
vanus, fds-ich, desert : *vdsto-s, a waste ; Lat. vastus, vastare ; 
Eng. waste, Ger. wilste. Hence fasan, refuse of grain : 
"waste." fdsach, desert, is neuter, see M'A. pref. VIII. 

fasair, harness, girth-saddle ; see asair. 

fasan, fashion ; from the Eng. 

fasdadh, hiring, binding, Ir. fastogh, hiring , see foisteadh. 

fasdail, astail, a dwelling, E. Ir.fastud, holding fast, vb. astaim, 
fastaim, 0. Ir. asstai, moratur, adsaitis, residentes, *ad-sod-, 
root, sed, sod of suidhe (Thur.). W. eistedd, sitting, is for 
*ex-sod-ijo. It is possible to refer astaim to *ad-std-, root 
sta, stand, Lat. sto ; the -asda of farasda, " staid," seems 
from it (cf. tairis). 

fasgadh, shelter, Ir. fosgadh, 0. Ir. foscad, umbra : *fo-scdth 1 
"sub-umbra"; see sgdih, shade. 

fasgaidh, a picking or cleansing off of vermin. See faisg. 
fasynadh f 

fasgnadh, winnowing, fasgnag, asgnag, corn-fan, Ir. fasgnaim, I 

faspan, difficulty, embarrassment : 

fath, a mole ; seefamh. 

fath, vista (Carm.) : 


fath, a cause, reason, Ir. fath,fdth, E. Ir.fdth, : *vdt-u- ; root vdt 
as mfdidh ? See next. 

fathamas, a degree of fear, awe, a warning ; also fothamas : 
*fo-ted-mess-, root of meas, tomhas, etc. 

fathamas, occasion, opportunity : *fo-tad-mess-, see amas. 

fa than, athan, coltsfoot, Ir. fathdn (O'R.) : 

fathanach, trifling, silly : 

fathraig, fothraig, bathe, Ir. fothrugaim., 0. Ir. fothraicim, 
fothaircthe, balnearum, fothrucud, a bath, *vo-tronkatu- 
(Stokes), W. trochi, mergere, balneare, Br. go-zronquet ; Lit. 
trinkti, wash, bathe (Bez.). 

fathast, yet, M. Ir., E. Ir. fodesta, fodechtsa, for fo-fecht-sa, the d 
being otiose and caused by analogy (Zim., Zeit. 30 21) 
Atkinson suggests with a query fo'ndf fhjecht-sa. The root 
word is fecht, time: "under this time, sub hoc tempus." 
See/eachd, time. Hence also feasd ( = i fecht-sa). 

fathunn, news, floating rumour, fabhunn (Dial ) : *vo-svon, root 
sven, sound (see tabhann), or root bon, ban, Eng. ban, 0. Ir. 
atboind, proclaims % 

fe, feath, (feith, fiath), a calm, M. Ir. feith, E. h. feth, 0. Ir. feth, 
Gadelic root vei, *ve-jo-, root ve, ve, blow, Gr. <j«j/o, air, (whence 
Eng. air), Ger. wehen, to blow, Eng. wind, especially weather 
(root vet) for the G. sense. 

feabhas, feobhas, goodness, " betterness," Ir. feabhus, 0. Ir. febas, 
superiority, feib, distinction, *vi&us, g. vesv-ids (Thur., Zeit. 28 
149, and Brug.), from vesu- or vesv-, as in fiii, q.v. Stokes 
doubtfully compares Lat. vigeo, Eng. vigour (Bez. Beit. 19 75). 

feachd, an army, host, expedition, Ir. feachd, an expedition, E. Ir. 
fecht (ar fecht 7 sluayad), W. gwaith, action, work. This 
Zimmer refers to 0. Ir. Jichim, I fight (Lat. vinco, Got. veihan, 
root viq), as well as f feachd, time, Ir. feachd, E. Ir. fecht, 
oenfhecht, once, W. gwaith, turn, vicem. Stokes separates 
the latter (feachd, time, E. Ir. fecht, journey), giving as 
stem vektd, root vegh (Lat. veho, Eng, waggon) ; for fecht, 
campaign, hosting, he gives the Celtic viktd, root viq, as 
Zimmer does. The words seem, as Stokes has it, from two 
roots, but now they are indistinguishably mixed. Osthoft' 
regards yeac^fi?, time, as allied to Lat. vices; seejiach. 

fead, a whistle, Ir. fead, M. Ir. fet-, fetdn, a flute, a whistle, W. 
chwythell, a whistle, chwyth, a blast, breath, *sviddo-, *svizdo-, 
Lat. sibilus, Eng. sibilant. See further under seid. 

feadh, length, extent, so Ir. ; see eadh. 

feadhainn, people, some people, troop, Ir. feadhainn, E. Ir. fedain, 
company, cobeden conjugatio, W. gwedd, team, yoke, root ved f 
I. E. vedh, Eng. wed, Lat. vas, vadis, surety, Skr. vi-vadhd, 


fealan (M'A. feallan), itch, hives ; it also means " worm " (see 

fiolan), M. Ir. filun, glandular disease, jiolun saith, anthrax, 

malignant struma, all which Stokes takes from L. Lat. fello, 

feall, treachery, Ir. feaU, E. Ir. fell (*velno-), W. gwall, defect, Br. 

goall (do.), Cor. gal, malus, malum, Br. gwall (do.), root vel, 

cheat ; Lit. ap-vilti, vilidti, cheat, Lett, wildt, deceitful ; 

Norse vel, a deceit, wile, Eng. wile; Zend vareta, error. 

Stokes hesitates between the above and vel from u(p)el, Got. 

ubils, Eng. evil. 
fealla-dha, joking, irony: *feall + dhd, "double-dealing." 
feallsanach, philosopher, Ir. feallsamhnach, feallsamh, philosopher, 

0. Ir. felsttb ; from Lat. philosopkus. 
feamach, gross, dirty (Sh., O'R.) : from feam, tail, as in feaman. 
feamainn, sea-weed, Ir. feamuin, E. Ir. femnach, W. gwymon, Fr. 

go'emon, *vit-s-mdni-, root, vi, vei, wind, as in feith, vein 1 

Stokes gives the stem as vemmdni- (vembani- ?), which suggests 

*vegvo-, root veg, as in few. 
feaman, a tail, Ir. feam, M. Ir. feam, mentula, Manx famman ; 

also G. eaman, *engvo-, Lat. inguen, groin, 
feann, flay : 
feannadh, skinning, excessive cold ; see fionnadh. The idea of 

" cold " is metaphorical. E. Ir. fennaim, I skin, is referred 

by Stokes to the root of Eng. wound : he gives the stem as 

feannag, hooded crow, Ir. feannog, fionndg : cf. fionna, pile, for 

root : " piled crow" 1 
feannag", a lazy-bed ; older fennoc, trench : from feann, flay. 
fear, a man, Ir. fear, 0. Ir. fer, W. gwr, 0. VV. gur, Corn, gur, Br. 

gow, *viro-s (Rhys thinks the Celtic start was ver : cf . W. 

gwr = ver, super, and G. eadh, 0. Ir. ec? = Lat. id, etc.): Lat. 

vir ; Ag. S. wer\ Norse verr, Eng. werwolf; Lit. wyras ; Skr. 

fearann, land, so Ir., E. Ir. ferand, also ferenn, a girdle, garter, 

root vera, enclose, look after ; Skr. varand, well, dam, vrnoti, 

cover, enclose ; Gr. epvo-Oai, draw, keep ; Ch. SI. vreti, 

claudere : further Lat. vereor, Eng. ware. 
fearg, wrath, so Ir., E. Ir. ftrg, 0. Ir. fere, ferg, *verg& ; Gr. 

opyyj ; root vergo, swell, be puffed up. Hence feargnadh, 

fearna, alder tree, Ir. feam, fearndg, E. Ir. fern, fernog, W. gwern, 

Corn', gwernen, Gaul, verno-, Fr. verne, *vemo- ; Gr. tpvia, wild 

figs (1 Bez.). 
fearr, better, Ir. fedrr, 0. Ir. /err, *vers, *ver(i)s, a comparative 

in -is from the prep, ver ( = G. far, for, super) ; now com- 


parative for math, but evidently once for fern, good, *vcrno-$, 

Lat. supemus (cf. -no- of magnus disappearing in major, and 

-ro- of Celtic mdros in G. mo). Stokes refers ferr to vers, 

raise, *uersos-, height, top ; Lat. verruca, steep place, Lit. 

wirziis, top, Skr. varshman-, height, vdrshiyas, higher. Cf. 

W. goreu, best ( = Lat. supremus). 
fearsaid, a spindle, Ir fearrsaid, M. Ir. fersaid, *versatti- *vcritati-, 

W. gwerthyd, Cor. gurthit, 0. Br. guirtilon, fusis, M. Br. 

guerzit, root rerf, turn ; Lat. vertd, vortex ; Ger. werden, to be, 

Eng. worth, be, M.H.G. wirtel, spindle ring. Skr. vdrtate, 

turn, roll, vartidd, spindle ball, 
fears aideag, thrift or sea gilly-flower ; from obs. fear sad, estuary, 

sand-bank, passage across at ebb-tide, whence place-name 

Fersit, and in Ireland Belfast ; for root see feart. 
feart. attention, notice ; Br. gortos, to attend, root vert, vort ; 

Ger. warten, attend, Eng. ward,, from ware, Nor. vartSa, ward. 

An extension of root ver, watch, Lat. vereor, etc. 
feart, a virtue, efficiency, deed, Ir. feart, 0. Ir. firt, pi. ferta % W, 

gwyrth ; from Lat. virtus (Windisch, Stokes), 
ffeart, a grave, Ir. feart, 0. Ir. fert, tumulus, *verto- ; root ver t 

cover, enclose, which see under fearann. Cf. Skr. vrti. 

enclosure, hedge, 
fearthuinn, rain, Ir. fearthuinn, E. Ir. ferthain, inf. to feraim, 

I pour, give, *verao, rain : Lat. urina, urine, Gr. ovpov (do.) : 

Norse ur, a drizzle, Ag. S. war, sea ; Skr. vtiri, water, Zend, 

vara, rain. See dbirt. 
feascradh, shrivelling, so Ir. (O'R.) : 
feasd, am feasd, for ever, Ir. feasda, henceforward, E. Ir. /esta, 

ifesta, now, from this point forward, i fecht-sa ; from feachd by 

metathesis of the s. See fathast. 
feasgar, evening, Ir. feascar, 0. Ir. fescor, *vesqero-, W. ucher, 

*uksero- for *usqero- ; Lat. vesper ; Gr. lcr7re/3os. 
feathachan, slight breeze ; see feothachan. 

fe*ile, generosity, hospitality, Yx.feile, E. Ir. file ; from Hal, q.v. 
tfe"ile, charm, incantation, E. Ir. elf, hele, mo fhele ; from Norse 

heill, auspice, omen, Eng. hale, etc. ; allied to 0. Ir. cSl, 

augurium, W. coel, omen, 0. W. coil (Zim., Zeit. 3S 147). 

For G. feile, see Inv. Gaelic Soc. 7V. 17 243. Stokes regards 

Zimmer's derivation from N. a failure, and compares W. wylo, 

wail, weep, as Ir. amor, music = W. afar, grief, and G. cebl 

= Ger. heulen, howl. Rhys cfs. W. eli, oil, ointment. 
f6ile, f6"ileadh, a kilt, E. Ir., 0. Ir. fial, velum : 0. Ir. ronfeladar, 

he might clothe us ; from Lat. velum, a covering, velare, Eng. 

veil. In Islay, Jura, etc., it is an t-sibhleadh. McL. and D. 



also gives eibhleadh. Hend. questions if Lat. See uanfebli 
in Fled. Br. 68. Root sveil as in fill, spaoil, etc. 1 

feill, a fair, feast, Ir. f'eil, festival, holiday, 0. Ir. feil, W. gwyl, 
festum, Br. goel, *vegli- ; Lat. vigilia, Fr. veille, a watch, 
vigil, Eng vigil, wake. The Celtic words are borrowed from 
Lat. (Windisch, Stokes). Hence Jeillire, an almanack. 

fein, self, Ir., 0. Ir. fein, *sve-j-sm, "self there," *sve-j, *sve, Pruss. 
swais, Ch. SI. svoji ; Lat. suus, se ; Gr. e, 05. Zeuss explains 
fein as be-shin, "quod sit hoc," be being the verb to be. This 
explanation is due to the divers forms of the 0. Ir. word for 
" self, selves" : fesine (=be-sin-e, sit id hoc), f'esin, fadesin 
(= bad-e-sin), foddn, etc. 

F6inn, g. F^inne, the Fingalians, Ir. Feinne, Fiann, E. Ir. fiann, 

*veinnd, also E. Ir. fian, a hero, *veino-s, root, vein, strive ; 

Lat. venari, hunt; Skr. venati, go, move, desire. Zimmer 

' takes the word from Norse fj&ndi, an enemy (Eng. fiend), 

which he supposes the Irish troops called themselves after 

* the 5 Norsemen. 

feirm, a farm, Ir. feilm ; from M. Eng. ferme, Eng. farm. 

feisd, feis, a feast ; better feusd, q.v. 

feith, wait, Ir. feithim, E. Ir. fethim, inf. fethem ( = G. feitheamh), 
*veto, root vet ; Lat. vetus, old, Eng. veteran ; Gr. eros, year ; 
Eng. wether ("yearling"). 

feith, a sinew, a vein, Ir., 0. Ir. feith, fibra, *veiti-s, root vei, vi, 
wind, bend ; Lat. vlmen, withe, vitis, a vine ; Gr. trea (long 1), 
willow ; Eng. withe ; Lit. vytis, willow-wand, Ch. SI. viti, 
res torta ; Skr. vayati, weave, flecto. The W. shows a stem 
*vitt&, vein, W. gwythen, Br. gwazen, Cor. guid- ; cf. Lat. 
vitta, fillet. Hence feith, a bog channel (Ir. feth, a marsh, 
bog-stream), and feithleag, honeysuckle, M. Ir. feithlend, 
woodbine, W. gwyddjid (do.). 

feitheid, a bird or beast of prey (M'A.), Ir. feithide, a beast : 

feochadan, corn-thistle, thistle (Arm., H.S.D.), Ir. feochadan 
(O'R.), feothaildn (O'B.), &nd fedthdn. Cf. fobhannan. 

feocullan, the pole-cat, Ir. feochullan (Fol., O'R. has feocullan like 
Sh.). Cf. Sc. fethok, fithowe, pole-cat, M. Eng. ficheu, now 

feobharan, pith, puft* (feo'ran) — Dial. ; feodharan, root, *vet, vetuA 

feobhas, goodness ; see feabhas. 

feddar, pewter, Ir. peatar, W. ffeutar ; from the Eng. pewter. 

feodhaich, decay, Ir. feodhaim, M. Ir. feodaigim, wither : 
" senesco ; " *vetu-, root vet, as in Lat. vetus, G. feith ? 0. 
Ir. feugud, W. gwyw, Lat. vietus ; *vivagatu ? 

fe6il, flesh, Ir. feoil, E. Ir. fedil, 0. Ir. feuil, *vepoli-s ; Skr. 
vapd, fat, vdpus, body, form ? 


fedirlig, a farthing land, fe6irling ; from Ag. S. feor}>Ling, Eng. 

fe6irne, chess, Ir. feoime (Sh., O'R., Fol.) : 

fedrag, a squirrel, Ir. feorog (Sh., O'R., Fol.), W. gwiwer, Br. 
gwiber ; Lit. vovere, Lettic ivdweris, Pruss. weware ; Lat. 
viverra, ferret (Pliny). 

feoraich, inquire, fiafraigh (Kintyre Dial.), Ir. fiafruighim, 0. Ir. 
iarfaigim : *iar-fach, prep, iar and fach, E. Ir. faig, dixit, 
*vakd, say ; Lat. voco, call, vox, voice ; Skr. vac, say. The r 
of G. and modern Ir. has shifted to behind the f) while a 
prothetic/ is added. 

fedrlan, a firlot ; seefeoirliig. 

feothachan, feothan (Arran), a little breeze ; root vet, as in 

feuch, fiach, behold, see, try, Ir. feuch, /each, E. Ir. fechaim, 
fegaim, *veikb ; Gr. clkuv, image (Eng. iconoclastic), eoiKa, 
I seem, et/ca^w, conjecture ; Skr. vie, appear, arrive. 

feud, may, can ; seefaod. 

feudail, cattle ; usual spelling of eudail, q.v. 

feudar, 's fheudar, it is necessary, M. Ir. is eidir, it is possible, 
for is ed fhetir, it is what is possible. Feudar is the pres. 
pass, of feud, may. In Q. the "may" has become "must."' 
The negative, cha 'n fheudar, is common in E. Ir. as ni fhetir, 
ni etir, cannot be. 

feum, use, need, Ir. feidhm, pi. feidhmeanna, need, use, duty, need- 
service of a vassal, E. Ir. feidm, effort, *vedes-men-, " need- 
service ;" root ved, as in feadhainn. Hence feumannach, a 
steward : "a servitor." 

feun, a waggon, wain, 0. Ir. fen, W. cywain, vehere, *vegno-, root 
vegh, carry ; Lat. veho, vehiculum, vehicle ; Gr. 6'xo?, chariot ; 
Eng. waggon, wain; Skr. vahati, carry. 

feur, fiar, grass, Ir. feur, 0. Ir. fer, W. gwair, Cor. gwyr, *vegro-, 
I.E. root veg, increase, be strong ; Lat. vegeo, quicken, 
vigor, vigour, Eng. vegetation ; Ag. S. wacan, nasci, Eng. 
waken. Strachan and Stokes refer it to the root veg, ug, be 
wet, moist, Lat. uvidus, moist, Eng. humour, Gr. vypos, wet, 
Norse vbkr, moist ; but judged by the Latin, the Celtic should 
be vebro-, which would not give W. givair. 

feursa, a canker, feursann, a worm in the hide of cattle : 

feusag, fiasag, a beard, Ir. feusog, feasog, E. Ir. fe'sdc, beard, fex, 
hair, *vanso, 0. Pruss., wanso, first beard, Ch. SI. vasti 

feusd, feusda, (fe"isd, f^is), a feast, Ir. feis, feusda, E. Ir. feiss ; 
from Lat. festia, Eng. feast. 


feusgan, fiasgan, a mussel : 

fhuair, found, invenit, Ir. fuair, 0. Ir. fuar, myeni, frith, inventus 
est, *vovora, root ver ; Gr. evpov, I found, cvprjKa (Strachan, 
Prellwitz). The root ver is likely that found in Gr. opaw, I 
see, Lat. vereor, Eng. ware. 

flabhras, a fever, Ir., M. Ir. fiabhrus ; from Lat. febris. 

fiacaill, a tooth, Ir., 0. Ir. fiacail. There is an E. Ir. fee for fee, a 
tooth, a stem *veikk& : 

fiach, value, worth ; see next. 

fiach, fiachan, debt, value, Ir. fiach, 0. Ir. jiach, *veico-, Lat. 
vices, change, Ger. wechsel, exchange, Skr. vishti, changing, 
in turn (Osthoff). This is the right derivation. 

fiadh, a deer, Ir. fiadh, E. Ir. fiad, 0. Ir. fiadach, venatio, W. 
gwydd, Br. guez, goez, savage, *veido-s, wild ; 0. H. G. weide, 
a hunt, Ger. weide, pasturage, Norse veiftr, hunting ; further 
is G. fiodh, wood, Eng. wood. Hence fiadhaich, wild. 

fiadhaich, invite, welcome (Skye) : 

fiadhair, lay or fallow land ; from the above root of fiadh. Cf. 
Ger. weide, pasture. Also G. fiadhain, wild, Ir. fiadhdin, 
wild, uncultivated. 

fial, generous, Ir. fial, E. Ir. fial, modest, W. gwyl. Bez. suggests 
*veiplo-, Teutonic viba-, Ger. weib, Eng. wife. Cf. Ir. jialus, 
relationship. The underlying idea is " kindness, relation- 

fiamh, awe, reverence, Ir. fiamh, fear, reverence, ugly, horrible, 
E. Ir. Jiam, horrible : 

fiamh, aspect, appearance, trace, Ir. fiamh, track, trace, chain, 
fiamh (O'Cl.) =lorg, E. Ir. fiam, a chain, *veimo-, root vei, 
wind, as in feith. Fiamh ghaire, feath ghaire (Arg.), a 
slight smile, is in Ir. fdetheadh an ghdire, appearace of a 
smile, E. Ir. feth, aspect. 

fianaidh, peat cart ; carn-fianaidh (Ross) ; see feun. 

Fiann, the Fingalians ; see Fdinn. This is the real nom. case. 

flan tag, the black heath-berry ; root vein as in the above word. 

fianuis, witness, a witness, Ir. fiadhnuise, fiadhan, a witness, 0. Ir. 
fiadnisse, testimony, fiadu, ace. fiadain, testem, *veiddn-, I. E. 
root veid, vid, know, see, as in fios, q.v. ; Ag. S. witta, a 
witness, Eng. witness, root, wit, know. 

fiar, crooked, Ir. fiar, E. Ir. fiar, W. gwyr, Br. goar, gwar, *veiro-; 
root vei, wind as in fe'ith ; Eng. wire, Ag. S. wir, wire. 

flat, fiata, wild ; a participial formation horn fiadh. Also fiadhta, 
so Ir. 

fiatach, quiet and sly (Skye) : 

fiathail, calm ; see fe. 


fich, an interjection denoting "nasty !" Eng. fie, Norse fp, Ger. 

pfui. Also Dial, fuich, fuidh, which leans on Norse fui, 

rottenness (" Cha bhi fuidh ach far am bi faile "). 
fichead, twenty, Ir. fiche, ar fkichid, 0. Ir. fiche, g. fichet, W. 

ugeint, ugain, Cor. ugens, ugans, Br. ugent, *vikns, *vikntos ; 

Lat. viginti ; Gr. etKocrt ; Zend vicaiti. 
fideadh, a suggestion (H.S.D.) : *vid-dho-, root vid, wit. 
fideag, a small pipe, reed, flute, Ir. fidedg ; for root, see fead. 

Shaw also gives the meaning " small worm." M'L. has 

fidean, a green islet or spit uncovered at high tide, web of sea- 
clam (Isles) ; from the N. fit, webbed foot of waterfowl, 

meadow land on the banks of firths or rivers, fitja, to web, 

Eng. fit. 
f idhleir, a fiddler ; from fiodhull. Ir. fidileir is Eng. fiddler 

directly borrowed. Hence G. fidleireachd, restlessness ; 

" fiddling " about, 
fidir, know, consider, lr. fidir, knows, 0. Ir. fetar, scio, fitir, novit, 

*viddetor, *vi<l-dho- (the -dho- as in creid, Windisch) ; root 

vid, see, as in fios. Thurneysen explains it as *videsar 

(aorist stem vides-) becoming vid-shar, but d-sh does not 

produce t or d without an n before it. 
fige, figis, a fig, Ir. fige ; from Lat. ficus, Eng. fig. 
figh, weave, Ir. fighim, E. Ir. figim, 0. W. gueiy, testrix, W. given, 

to weave, Cor. guiat, tela, Br. gwea, M. Br. gweaff, *vegio; 

Ger. wickeln, roll, wind, curl, wieche, wick, Eng. wick. Ag. S. 

wecca (Stokes). Usually referred to the root vei, vi, wind, 
file, filidh, a poet, Ir. file, g. filidh, 0. Ir. fili, g. filed, *velet-, 

" seer" ; W. gwelet, to see, Br. guelet, sight, *velo. Cf. Norse 

volva, prophetess, sibyl. Old Germanic Veleda, a prophetess 

fill, fold, Ir. fillim, fold, return, 0. Ir. fillim, flecto, *velvo ; Lat. 

volvo, roll, volumen, Eng. volume ; Gr. elXvco, envelop ; Got. 

af-valvjan, roll away, Eng. wallow. Cf. W. olwyn, a wheel 

(Stokes). Windisch (Curt. Et.) suggests vald as root, allied 

to Norse velta, roll, Got. valtjan, Eng. toelter, Ger. walze, roll, 

waltz. See especially till. 
fillein, a collop : a " roll " ; from fill. 
fine, a tribe, kindred, Ir., 0. Ir., fine, 0. Br. coguenou, indigena, 

*venjd, kinship ; Norse vinr, a friend, Ag. S. wine, 0. H. G. 

wmi (do.) ; I. E. root ven, love, Lat. Venus, verier or, Eng. 

venerate, Skr. van, love 
f inealta, fine, elegant, Ir. finealta ; cf. M. Ir. fin- in Finscothach, 

fair-flowered, Fin-shnechta, bright-snow, root svtn ; Gr. rjvo\j/, 

bright (Stokes for M. Ir.). 


finiche, jet (M'D., M'A.), finichd, black as jet (M'E.) : 

finid, end ; from Lat. finit, the colophon of so many tales when 

finideach, wise, so Ir. (Lh., Sh., H.S.D., which gives C. S. as 

authority) : 
finne, a maiden (Arm., M'A., M'E.) : "fairness, beauty"; from 

fionn (*vindid). 
finnean, a buzzard : 
ffioch, wrath, Ir. fioch, E. Ir. fich, feud, I. E. *veiqo-, fight ; Got. 

veihan, strive, 0. H. G. wigan, fight ; Lat. vinco. Hence 

fiochdha, angry, 
fiodh, wood, so Ir., 0. Ir. fid, W. guid, gwydd, gwydden (sing.), 

Corn, gulden, Br. gwezenn, tree, gwez, trees, Gaul, vidu-, *vidu-; 

Eng. woo't, Ag. S. wudu, 0. H. G. witu. Hence ffiodhcheall, 

chess play, E. Ir. fidchell, W '. gwydd 'bivyll, "wood-sense," from 

fiodh and ciali Also fiodhag, wild fig, fiodhan, cheese-vat, 
fiodtiradh, an impetuous rush forward (Heb ) : 
fiodhull, a fiddle, E. Ir. fidil, from Low Lat. vitula, whence Fr. 

viola, Eng. viol, violin. Cf. Eng. fiddle, from Med. Lat. 

fidnla, Lat. fidis. 
fioghuir, a figure, Ir. fiogkair, M. Ir. figur ; from Lat. figura. 
fiolagan, a field-mouse (Arran) : 
fiolan, fiolar, an earwig, nesscock, W. chwil, beetle, chiviler, 

maggot, Br. cliouil ; Gr. o-iX^-q, cockroach, Eng, sylph. 

Cf. feallan. 
fiomhalach, a giant (Sh.) ; from fiamh. 
fion, wine, Ir. fion, 0. Ir. fin, W., Cor., Br. gwin ; from Lat. 

f ionag, a mite, insect, a miser, Ir. {incog, a mite in cheese, etc. : 
fionn, white, Ir. fionn, 0. Ir. find, W. gwyn, Corn, guyn, Br. 

gwenn, Gaul, vindo-, *vindo-, a nasalised form of root vid, veid, 

see, as in fios. Cf. Servian vidny, clear, 
fionn-, to, against, Ir. fionn-, ionn-, 0. Ir. hid- ; see innn-. 
fionna, fionnadh, hair, pile, Ir. fionnadh, E. Ir. finda, iindfad, 0. 

Ir. iinnae, pilorum, *ves-nid, root ves, clothe, Lat. vestis, Eng. 

vestment. Stokes has compared it to Lat. villus, hair, which 

he takes from *vin-lus, but which is usually referred to the 

root vel of vellus, lana, etc. The -fad of E Ir. is for *vida i 

aspect, W. gwedd, root vid, see. 
fionnachd, refreshment: "coolness," *ionn- fhvaehd : ci.fionnar. 
fionnan-fe6ir, grasshopper, Ir. finnin feoir (O'lt.) : 
fionnairidh, a watching: *ind-faire ; nee fionn-, to, and fa ire 
fionnar, cool, Ir. fionnfhuar, M. Ir. indfhuar ; from fionn- and/ttai . 
fionnas-garraidh, parsley (M'L.) ; 


fionndairneach, rank grass, downy hoard (H.S.D.) : 
ffionndruinne, (white) bronze, E. Ir. finch nine, white bronze : 

*find(b)ruine (Hend.) Eng. bnmze. 
fionnogha, grandson's grandson, Ir. fiorinua ; from fionn-, ad-, and 

fionnsgeul, a romance, Tr. finnsgeul ; from jionn- and sgeul : ande- 

f ior, true, Ir. ftor, 0. Ir. fir, W. gwir, 0. W. guir, Br. gwir, *vero-; 

Lat. vervs ; Ger. wahr. Root ver, vor, var, see, as in Eng. 

beware, ward. Before the noun the word is fir. Hence 

f irean, righteous man, 0. Ir. firian, W. gwirion, *veridno-s. 
fios, knowledge, Ir. fios, 0. Ir. fiss, *md-tu-, root vid, veid, know ; 

Lat. video, see ; Gr. etSov, ISdv, saw, ot8a, know, Got. 

vitan, watch, Eng. wit ; Skr. vid, know, vetti, to know. Hence 

fiosrach, knowing, 
fir-chlis, the northern lights ; see fear and clis. 
fir-chneatain, backgammon men : 
fire faire, interjection — " what a pother f from the Sc. fiery-fary, 

fireach, hill ground, mountain : cf. fearann, root *ver. 
firead, a ferret, Ir. jiread : from the Eng. 
fireun, an eagle, Ir. fir-en : " true-bird ;" from ftor and eun. So 

in E. Ir. fir-iasc is the salmon. So in Reay Country (Rob.;, 
firionn, male, so Ir. ; E. Ir. firend ; from fear. 
fise faise, interjection — noise of things breaking, talking secretly, 
fitheach, a raven, Ir., 0. Ir. Jiach ; this is a dissylable, *vivo-ko-; 

the phonetics being those of biadh. Stokes gives *veijako-s 

or *veivako-s. It is still distantly allied to Ger. weihe. 
fithreach, dulse, so Ir. (Lh., O'B., etc.) : 
fiu, worthy, Ir. fill, 0. Ir. flu, W. gwiw, Cor. guiu, 0. Br. uuiu, 

Gaul, vesu-, *vesu-, vesu-, good ; Skr. vdsu, good ; root ves, be, 

Eng. ivas. Some give *visu (*visu-) as the stem, Gr. mtos, 

like ( = visvo-s), Skr. vishu, seque. Hence fiubhaidh, a prince, 

valiant chief, Ir. Uiibhas, dignity ; also fiughanta, generous, 

Ir. JiugJiantach, ffiintach (Keat.), worthy, 
fiughair, expectation, E. Ir. fiugrad, praedicere ; from Lat. fgura. 

Ir. has fioghair, figure, fashion, sign, 
fiuran, a sapling, Iwfiurdn (Sh., O'R., Fol.) : 
fiuriiaidh (fiubhaidh), an arrow ; see iuthaidh. 
flaiche, a sudden gust of wind (Sh., O'R ) : 
ilaitheanas, heaven, glory, flaitheas, sovereignty, Ir. Jiaith- 

eamhnus, 0. Ir. flaithemnas, gloria ; from fiaithem, lord, g. 

flaitheman ; see jiaih. 
fflann, red, blood-red, so Ir., E. Ir. fland, blood, red : vl-ando-, 

root, vol oifuil, q.v. 


f, a flask, W. fflasg ; from the Eng. 
flath, a chief, prince, Ir. flaith, 0. Ir. jiaith, chief, dominion, 
flaithem(an), chief (*vlatimon-), W. gwlad, region, M. W. 
gulatic, rex, Corn, gulat, patria, Br. gloat, realm, Gaul, vlatos, 
*vlato-s, *vlaii-s, root vala, via, be strong ; Lat. valere, Eng. 
valid ; Got. valdan, Ger. walten, rule, Eng. weild, Walter ; 
Ch. SI. vlada,, rule, Russ. vladiete, rule, 0. Pruss. waldnika-, 
king. Also *valo-s as the final element of certain personal 
names — Domhnall, * Dumno-valo-s (see domkan), Conall, 

* Kuno-valo-s (*kuno-s, high, root ku, as in curaidh, q.v., 
Teutonic HUn-, Humbold, Humphrey, Hunwald, etc.), Cathal, 

* Katu-valo-s (see cath), etc. 

fleachdail, flowing in ringlets (H.S.D., from MSS.); from Lat. 
plecto, plait. 

fleadh, a feast, Ir. jleadh, 0. Ir. fled, W. gwledd, 0. W. guled, 
pompae, *vldd, root vel, wish; Gr. d\airivq, feast, eASo/xou, 
wish, eA7Tis, hope ; Lat. voluptas ; Eng. mtcV/, we//. 

fleadhadh, brandishing ; Eng. wield ; see flath. 

fleasg, a rod, wreath, Ir. fleasg, garland, wand, sheaf, 0. Ir. flesc, 
rod, linea, *vleska, from *vledska, root vW / Ger. wald, wood, 
Eng. wo/d ; Gr. aAo-os, grove ; Ch. SI. vladi, hair. From the 
Celtic comes the Fr. fleche, arrow, whence Kng. Fletcher, 
arrow-maker. See fleisdear. 

Heasgach, young man, bachelor, so Ir., M. Ir. fleagach : " wand- 
bearer." From fleasg, above. The Ir. fleasgaigh ealadhna, 
itinerant medicine men, carried fleasgan to denote their pro- 

fleasgairt, a barge or boat hung with festoons ; from fleasg. 

fleisdear, arrow-maker j from Sc. fledgear, M. Eng. flecchere, now 
fletcher, from 0. Fr. flechier. See fleasg further. 

fleodradh, floating (Heb), fleodruinn, a buoy; from Norse fljdta, 
to float, Eng.y?ocr£. 

fleogan, an untidy, flabby person, a flat fish (Arms.), fleoidhte, 
flaccid (Sh.) : 

fliodh, chickweed, a wen, Ir. fliodh, fligh, chickweed, W. gwlydd, 
chickweed, soft stems of plants, *vldu-. Same root as in fleasg. 

fliuch, wet, Ir., 0. Ir., flinch, W. gwlyb, 0. W. gulip, Corn, ylibor, 
humor, Br. gloeb, wet, *vlqu-s, wet; Lat. liquidus ( = vliquidus) ; 
Lit. wa'lks, wet, wa'lka, swampy place. Seefailc. 

fl6, hallucination (H.S.D. for N.H.) : 

flod, a state of floating ; from Eng. float, Norse floti, a raft. 

fiodach, lukewarm ; see plodadh. 

flur, plur, flower, Ir. pMr, M. Ir. pHr ; from the M. Eng. flour, 
0. Fr. flour, Lat. florem, G. fldr is from the Scotch, 


fo, under, Ir., 0. Ir. fo, W. go-, 0. W. guo-, Cor. go-, Cor., Bret. 

gou-, Ganl. vo- : *vo, for *u(p)o ; I. E. upo ; Gr. vtto, ; Lat. 

s-ub ; Got. w/ ; Skr. wpa, hither, 
fd, brink (Carm.) : 
fobhannan (f6thannan), a thistle, Ir. fobhthdn. fothanndn, E. Ir. 

omthann, *omo-tanno-, "raw or rough twig"? See amh and 

caorrunn. Dial, fonntan (Arran). 
focal, word ; see facal. 
fochaid, scoffing, Ir. fochmhuid, fochuidbheadh, M. Ir. fochmaid, 

E. Ir. fochuitbiud, *fo-con-tib-, root £e6, smile, 0. Ir. tibiu, 

laugh ; Lit. stebius, be astonished, 
fochair, presence, am fochar, coram, Ir., M. Ir. fochair : *fo-char, 

car being cor, put. 
fochann, young corn in the blade, Ir. fochan, M. Ir. fochon ; 

*vo-kuno1 Root kun, ku, increase, Gaul, cuno-, high, etc. 

See curaidh. 
f6d, a peat, turf, Ir. fod, 0. Ir. fot : *vonto- 1 
fodar, fodder, Ir fodar ; from the Eng. fodder. 
fdgair, expel, banish, Ir. fdgair, command, proclaim, 0. Ir. 

focairim (do.), fdcre, monitio : *fo-od-gar- ; root gar of goir. 
ffogh, quiet, careless (Stew.) : 
foghail, a hostile incursion, Ir. foghail, E. Ir. fogal ; *fo-gal : root 

gal, valour, war. See gal. 
foghail, foghail, noise, bustle, merriment ; for first sense, see 

foghair, for second, see othail. 
foghainteach, valorous, Ir. fdghainteach, good, fit, serviceable, 

Joghaint, ability : " capable" ; from foghainn, suffice. See 

fbghnadk. Ir. foghaintidhe, a servant, 
foghair, a sound, tone, so Ir., 0. Ir. fogur, sonus : *fo-gar- ; root 

gar of goir. Strachan makes the root part fog, and refers it 

to fuaim, q.v. 
foghar, harvest, Ir. fdghmhar, M. Ir. fogamur, autumn, E. Ir. 

fogamur, fogomur, last month of autumn : *fo-gamur, the 

gamur being from the root of geamhradh, winter, q.v. The 

idea is " sub hiemem." Cf. W. cynauaf, harvest, 0. W. 

kynnhaeaf, from cyn, before, and gauaf winter. 
f6ghlum, learning, Ir. foghtuim, 0. Ir. foglaim, vb. fogliunn : 

*vo-g ''end 6, *glendo, make clear; Eng. glance, Ger. glanz, 

splendour ; Ch. SI. gl§dati, show, 
foghnadh, sufficiency, service, Ir. foghnamh, 0. Ir. fognam, service ; 

from fo and gniomh, deed, 
foichein, a wrapper, infant's clout : 
foichlean, a sprout, young corn (Arm.), faichean (Arg.), Ir. 

foichnin ; see fochann. 



f6id, a peat ; see f6d. 

foidheach, a beggar ; see faoighe. 

foidhearach, naked (H.S.D., Dial.) : 

foidhidinn, patience, Ir. foighid, 0. Ir. foditiu, toleratio (*vo-dam- 
tin-), vb. fodamim, patior, root dam ; Lat. domo, I tame, 
subdue ; Gr. 8a/xaw (do.) ; Eng. tame ; Skr. ddmyatl, tame. 

foighnich, ask j see faighnich. Also, more Dialectic, foinich. 

foil, macerate, broil ; see fail. Hence foileag, a cake suddenly 
and imperfectly toasted. 

foil, pig-stye ; see fail. 

foil, slow, stately, fdill, composure, Ir. fdil, foill, softly ! a while, 
M. Ir. co fdill, slowly, for a while, E. Ir. co foill, slowly : 

foileadh, slow development : 

foill, treachery, 0. Ir. foile, astutia. G. is for *volni-, Ir. 
for *volid, both side-forms to feall, treachery, q.v. 

foillsich, reveal, 0. Ir. foillsigim, *svolnestikio ; see follas. 

foinich, ask ; see faighnich. 

foinne, a wart, Ir. faine, faithne, W., Cor. gwennn, blister, Br. 
gwennhaenn, a wart ; Eng. wen, Ag. S. wenn (Era.). 

foinneamh, foinnidh, handsome, genteel ; cf. next word, also Lat. 
vinnulus, delightful, root ven, as in G. fine, etc. 

foinnich, temper, Ir. foinnim, temper, knead, foinnighte, tempered, 
kneaded. Cf. above word. 

foir-, prefix meaning " super," same as for- : see far, air(b). 

fdir, help, Ir. foir (vb. and n.), E. Ir. foriuth, I help, 0. Ir. don- 
f6ir, to help us : *vo-ret- ; root ret of ruith, run. For force, 
cf. furtachd. The W. gwared, release, Br. goret, are of like 
elements. Similarly foirbheart (an Ir. word really), assist- 
ance, is from foir- and heir. 

foirbhillidh, acceptable (M'D.) ; from for and bail, good % 

foirceadal, foircheadal, instruction, catechism, Ir. foircheadal, 
0. Ir. forcital, doctrina, vb. forchun, doceo : *for-can- ; root 
can, say, sing. See can. 

foireann, foirionn, a band, crew, Ir. fuirionn, E. Ir. fairenn, 0. Ir. 
foirinn, 0. W. guerin, W. giverin, people, M. Br. gueryn, 
*vorend, *vorinni-, multitude, root ver, enclose ; Ag. S. vorn, 
multitudo, caterva ; Lit. wora, long row in Indian file ; Skr. 
vrd, troop, company See fearann. 

foirfe, perfect, Ir. foirfe, complete, old, Ir. foirbthe, perfectus, 
forbe, perfectio, vb. forbanar, perficitur, forfenar, consum- 
mate : *for-ben- ; root ben, ba, go (Lat. venio, Gr. /?atVw, 
efirjv, etc.), practically a verb "to be" (Stokes Neo-Celtic 
Verb Subst.). 

fbirin, assistance, E. Ir. inf. dat., foirithin ; see fdir. 

foirinn, border land (Cam.) : 


foirm, noise ; side form of toirm ? 

fdirmeil, brisk, lively (Sh., etc.) : from Eng. formal (Rob.). 

foirmeilich, formalists. 

fbirne, a band, dwellers, Ir. foirne (O'B.) ; an oblique form of 

foireann, g. foirne. 
fdirneadh, intruding ; see teirinn, tedmadh. 
foirneis, a furnace ; see fuirneis. 
foirneata, conspicuously brave ; see niata. 
fois, rest, Ir. fois, 0. Ir. foss, residence, remaining, rest, W. ar-os ; 

*vosso- ; root ves, be, rest ; Gr. acrrv, city (*vastu) ; Skr. vdstu, 

place ; Lat. Vesta ; Eng. was, Ger. wesen, be, Got. visa, 

remain. So all etymologists till Windisch (1892) suggested 

the root std, that is *vo-sto-. Stokes still holds by old (1903). 

Hence foisdin, taciturnity, Ir. foisdine. 
foisteadh, wages, hire, Ir. foistighim, I hire ; M. Ir. foss, servant, 

W. givas (Eng. vassal); from the same root as/oa's. Also 

folach, covering, hiding ; see f alack. 
folach, rank grass growing on dunghills ; *vog-lo-, root, vog, veg 

of feur. 
folachd, a feud, bloodiness ; see full. 

folachdain, water-parsnip (H.S.D. quotes only O'B ), Ir. folaehtain : 
follas, publicity, follaiseach, public, Ir. follus, public, manifest, 

0. Ir. follus, clear, shining, manifest, *svolneatu-8 ; see solus. 
fonn, land, Ir. fonn, E. Ir. fond ; from Lat fundus, which, again, 

is connected with G. bonn, q.v. 
fonn, a tune, Ir. fonn, tune, desire, delight, M. Ir. adbonn, a 

strain ; *svonno-, root sven, sound, Lat. sonus, Eng. sound. 

See seinn. 
fonnsair, a trooper (M'A.) : 

for-, super-, Ir., 0. Ir. for- ; prep, for, for which see far, air (b). 
forach, forch, projection into the sea (Garni.) : 
forail, command, Ir. fordilim. See ear ail for formation and root, 
forair, watch, Ir. foraire ; from for and aire. 
forasda, sedate, so Ir. ; see farasda, in the sense of " staid." 
forbhas, ambush (Sh., H.S.D. , which quotes Lh. and C.S.), Ir. 

forbhas, E. Ir. forbas, siege : 
fore, a fork, Ir. fore, E. Ir. fore ( = gobul) ; for Lat. furca, Eng. 

fore, push (especially if legs are forked), pitch with a fork ; from 

fore, fork, 
forf hais, foras, information, inquiry, Ir. foias, E. Ir. foras, fonts, 

true knowledge : *for-fiss, from fiss or fios, knowledge, q.v. 

Foras feasa, " Basis of knowledge." 
forgan, keenness, anger ; from a side-form forg (*vorg) of fearg ? 


fdrlach, a furlough ; from the Eng. 

forluinn, spite, hatred (H.S.D.), Ir., M. Ir. for lonn ; from for and 

lonn, fierce, 
forman, a mould, Ir formdn ; from Lat. forma. 
forradh, gain (H.S.D.), excrescence, shift (M'E.) ; from for and 

rath ? See rath. 
forsair, a forester ; from the English, 
fortail, strong, hardy, (an Ir. word clearly), Ir. foirteamhail, 

fortail, brave, stout, E. Ir. fortail, predominant, strong ; from 

Lat. fortis. 
fortan, fortune, Ir. fortun ; from Lat. for tuna. 
fortas, litter, refuse of cattle's food, orts ; from the Eng. oris. 

Lh. has an Ir. fortas, straw, 
fds, yet, still, Ir. fos, M. Ir. fos, beos, 0. Ir. beus, beius. Stokes 

makes it a comparative in s form beo-, allied to Lat. bed, 

gladden, be-ne, well, 
fosg, fosgag, the lark (Carm.) : 
fosgail, open, so Ir., E. Ir. oslaicim : *f-od-as-leig ; Gaelic root 

leic or leig, let. See leig and cf. tuasgail. 
fosgarach, open, frank : 
fosglan, porch (Carm.) : 
fosradh, pounded bark (or anything) to stop leaks ; cf. Ir. fosradh, 

scattering, from *vo-ster-, root ster, strew, 
fosradh, hand feeding of cattle (Heb.) : 
fothach, the glanders in horses, Ir. fothach, fothach : 
f6tus, a flaw, refuse (M'A. says "rotten pus," and gives fdt, rotten 

earth) : from Sc. faut, as in fabhd. 
frabhas, refuse, small potatoes (Arg.) : 
frachd, freight ; from Sc. fraught, Eng. freight. 
fradharc, vision, sight, Ir. rddharc, E. Ir. ? odarc : *ro-darc ; root 

derk, see, as in dearc, q.v. 
fraigein, a brisk, warlike fellow ; see frogan. 
fraigh, wattled partition, E. Ir. fraig : *vragi-, root verg ; Skr. 

vraja, hurdle ; Gr. elpyo}, shut in. 
fraileach, sea-weed (Sh., O'R.) : 
frangalus, tansy ; lus na Fraing (Cameron), the French herb ; 

from Fraing, France. Ir. lus na bhfhrancach ; M. Ir. frangcan, 

tansy (St.). 
fraoch, heather, Ir. fraoch, 0. Ir. froech, W. grug, Cor. grig, M. Br. 

groegon, *vroiko- ; Gr. kpetK-q. Hence G. fraoch, wrath, Ir. 

fraoch, E. Ir. fraech, furor, 
fraochan, toe-bit of shoe ; " heather-protector," from frarch ? 
fraoidhnidh, flourishing : 
fraoidhneis, froinis, a fringe ; from the Eng. 
fraoileadh, a flustering by liquor ; Dial, sraoileadh : 


fraoil, a place of shelter in the mountains (Sh., O'R.), fraoinibh 

(D. Ban.) : 
fras, a shower, Ir. fras, E. Ir. frass, *vrastd ; Gr. cparrj, dew ; Skr. 

varaham, rain, 
freagair, answer, Ir. freagairim, E. Ir. frecraim : *frith-gar-, root 

gav of goir. 
freasdal, serving, attending, Ir. freasdail, 0. Ir. f vestal, fvesdel : 

*J ris-do-el- ; for root see fvitheil. Dr Cameron referred it to 

fvis and tal, which see in tuarastal. 
freiceadan, a guard, watch : *frith-coimhead-an ; from coimhead, 

guard, look, q.v. 
freiteach, a vow, interdictory resolution, E. Ir. fretech, fristoing, 

repudiation, renunciation, 0. Ir. frisiossam, renuntiaverimus ; 

root tong, tog, swear, Lat. tongeo, think, Eng. think. Stokes 

gives the final root as tag, take, Lat. tangere. Ir. tong, 

swear, is allied to W. tyngu. 
freoine, fury, rage : 
freothainn, bent-grass (Arg.) : 
freumh, friamh, a root, Ir. fve'amh, E. Ir. /rem, W. gwraidd, 

gwveiddyn, Cor. grueiten, Br. grisienn, *vrd-md, *wrdjo-, 

*vrdnu- : Lat vadix, root ; Gr. pi£a ; Got. vaurts, Eng. wovt, 

fride, a tetter, ring- worm, M. Ir. frigde, flesh- worm, E. Ir. frig it, 

W. gwraint, M. Br. gruech, *vrgntid, root verg ; Eng. ivriggle. 
frideam, support, attention : 
1 frighig, fry ; from the Eng. frying. 
friochd, a second dram, a nip : 
friochdan, a frying pan, Ir. friochtdn ; cf. Ir. friochtalaim, 1 fry. 

From fvy of the Eng. 
frioghan, friodhan, a bristle, pig's bristle ; M. Ir. fvighan i. 

guairech muc ; root vrg as in fraigh 1 Cf . W. gwrych, hedge, 

bristles, *vrg-ko-. Hence frioghail, sharp, keen, 
frionas, fretfulness : *friogh?n-as, " bristliness f from frioghan. 
friotach, fretful (Stew.) ; see frith, sour look, 
f frith, an incantation to discover if far-away persons live (Heb.), 

fate (Sh., O'R.) ; from the Norse frett, enquiry of the gods 

about the future, Sc. fret, freit. 
frith, frioth, small, trifling (Sh. O'R.), which M'A. says antecedes 

the noun, is the prep, frith or ri. 
frith, a sour or angry look (A. M'D.), frithearachd, peevishness, 

Ir. frithir, peevish : *vrti- ; root of vi " against" ] 
frith, a forest, deer forest, Ir. frith, wild, mountainous place, W. 

ffridd, forest ; from M. Eng. fvitS, deer park, Ag. S. fvits. 
frith-, fre-, freas-, prefix = prep, ri by force and derivation ; 

which see. 


fritheil, attend, Ir. friotholaim (Con. friothdlaim), E. Ir. frithailim, 
root -al- (Ascoli), go ; root al, el, eln of tadhal, q.v. 

frithir, earnest, eager (Stew.), Ir. frithir, earnest, peevish j of. 
frith, sour look. 

frog, a hole, fen, den, rdg (Suth.) : 

frogan, liveliness, a slight degree of drunkenness : 

froighnighe, a dampness oozing through the wall ; from fraigh 
and snighe. 

froineadh, a sudden tugging, rushing at (M'D.) : 

froinis, a fringe ; see fraoidhneis. 

frdmhaidh, hoarse, rough : 

fruan, acclivity (Carm.) : 

fuachd, cold, so Ir., 0. Ir. uacht, bcht, *aukto- ; Lettic auksts, 
cold (adj.), Lit. duszti, cold, be cold. 

fuadaich, drive away, Ir. fuadaigkim, drive away, snatch away, 
E. Ir. fdataigm : *fo-od-tech (?) ; see teich. Hence fuadan, 

fuadarach, hasty, in a hurry (Stew., Arm. and H.S.D.), Ir. fuadar, 
haste ; from fuad- of fuadaich 1 Cf . Sc. J 'outre, activity. 

fuagarthach, exiled ; see fbgair. 

fuaidne, loose pins of warping stakes. Cf. 0. Ir. fuat. 

fuaigh, stitch, fuaigheal, sewing, so Ir., E. Ir. fuagaim, uagaim, 
0. Ir. uaimm (n.) : "oug-s-men- ; root poug, pug, stitch, 
stick; Lat. pungo, Eng. punch. Zimmer (in 1882), referred 
it to the root of high, the idea being " integrate," from 
6g, uag, "integer." 0. Ir. oigthidi, sartores. 

fuaim, noise, so Ir., E. Ir. f uaimm (pi. fuamand). Neither 
*vog-s-men (Strachan ; root vog of Skr. vagnu, sound, Got. 
vopjan, cry, Eng. whoop) nor *voc-s-men (Stokes ; root voq, 
voice, Lat. voco) can give ua, only 6 or a. 

fuaithne, loom posts (Uist), Ir. uaithne, pillar, post, E. Ir. uatne, 
a post (bed post). So Henderson ; fiiidne (Wh.) : 

fual, urine, so Ir., 0. Ir. fual : *voglo- or *voblo- ; root vog., veg, ug, 
be wet, ; Gr. vypos, wet, Eng. hygrometer ; Lat. humidus, uveo, 
(for ugveo), be moist, Eng. humour ; Norse vokva, moisture. 

fuar, cold, Ir. faar, E. Ir. uar, W. oer, Cor. oir : *ogro-, root ug, 
aug of fuachd, q.v. Stokes refers it to the root veg, ug, dis- 
cussed under fual, especially Gr. vypos, wet ; a root which 
would rather be vob in Celtic (cf. Lat.), and this would not 
give W. oer. Strachan suggests either Ch. SI. ognf, fire (Lat. 
ignis) or Gr. 7rayos, frost (root pdg, fix, fit). Hence fuaradh, 
windward side, fuaran, a well, fuarraidh, damp, fuarralanach 
(Ir. fuardlach, chill), cold feeling, etc. ; fuar bhalla, an out- 
side wall ; fuar-shlat, the rough strong hoop used to bend in 
staves at the ends of casks (Wh.). 



fuasgail, loose, untie, so Ir., E. Tr. fuaslaicim ; see tuasgail. 
fuath, hatred, so Ir., M. Ir. fuath ; cf. E. Ir. uatk, awe, terror, 

terrible, and see uath for root, 
fuath, a spectre, so Ir., 0. Ir. fuath, figura, forma : 
fucadh, fulling cloth, M. G. owkM' (D. of L.), Ir. ucaire, fuller ■ cf. 

fudag, a shoe-strap (H.S.D. says Dial.) : 
fudaidh, mean, vile ; from Sc. footy, fouty. • 

fudar, powder, Ir. pudar ; from the Eng. 
fudraic, smart, in good condition : 
fuidh ! an interjection. See fich. 
fuidheall, remainder, Ir. fuigheall, 0. Ir. fuidell, W. gweddilt ; 

also G. fuidhleach, remains, E. Ir. fuidlech : *vodtlo-, dtl 

allied to Eng. deal, dole, Ger. teil (St. with query), 
fuidir, a fool (Carm.) : 
fuidreadh, commixing, pulverising ; from fudar. Dial, fudradh, 

turning hay in the sunshine to dry it. 
fiiidsidh, craven ; from Sc. fugie, one who flies from the fight, 
fuigheag, a thrnm, Ir. fughog ; from a short vowel form of root 

of fuaigh. 
fuil, blood, Ir., 0. Ir. fuil, gen. fola, folo : *voli-, root vol, vel, 

well ; Eng. well. Stokes agrees 
fuilear, cha 'n fhuilear dhomh, I need, must ; for furail, 0. Ir. 

fordil, excessive injunction, infliction, same root as earail. 
firing, fuiling, fulaing, suffer (thou), Ir. fulangaim, E. Ir. 

fulangim, 0. Ir. fidoing, sustinet, inf. fulang : "under-go", 

from fo and Hong, going, root lenq, spring, go, as in leum, 

q.v. Further allied is Ger. verlangen, desire, Eng. long, Lat. 

fuin, bake, Ir. fuinim, I knead, bake, boil, E. Ir. fuinim, bake, 

cook. Zimmer takes the word to mean "to fire, bake," from 

the Norse funi, flame, fire, E. Ir. oc-fane = Norse vitS funa, 

a-roasting ; but unlikely. Possibly *voni-, " dress," root ven, 

von, Lat. Venus, Eng. venerate. 
fuirbidh, a strong man, also fuirbearnach ; compounds of b\ and 

heir, with for, super. 
fuirearadh, a parching of corn ; see eararadh. 
fuirich, stay, Ir. fuirighim, E. Ir. fuirigim, noun fuirech, 0. Ir. 

fuirset (s future) : *vo-reg ; root reg, stretch, go ; Lat. porrigo, 

rego. See rack. 
■J fuirm, stools, a form, Ir. ftiirm, W. ffurf; from Eng. form. 
fuirneis, foirneis, a furnace, Ir. fumeis ; from the ting, 
fuithein, fuifein, a galling, taking off the skin by riding (M'D.) : 

fo-bian 1 
fulaing (vb.), fulang (n.) ; aeefuilig. 


fulaisg, rock ; from fo + luaisg, q.v. 

fulbh, gloom (Arg.) ; see suilbh. 

fulmair, a species of petrel, fulmar ; from Sc., Eng. fulmar. 

fulpanachd, articulation, jointing (Sh., O'R., H.S D.) ; cf. alp. 

funntainn, benumbment by cold ; see punntuinn. Sc. fundy. 

furadh, parching corn (Carm.), also furaradh. See fuirearadh. 

furail, incitement, command, Ir. furdil, E. Ir. urdil, furdil, 0. Ir. 

irdil ; the sajne as earail, q.v. 
furan, a welcome, Ir. fmdn, foran (Connaught) ; root ver, as in 

E. Ir. feraim fdilti, I welcome. The root means in E. Ir. 

"give rain" (see fearthuinn). The root of fhuair seems 

mixed with that of fearthuinn. See fearthuinn. 
furas, patience : *f-air-asta, asta (standing, staying) being for 

ad-sta-, ad and sta, stand, 
furasda (furas), easy, easier, Ir. furas, furasda, E. Ir. urusa: 

*air-usa, from usa, easier, q.v. 
furbaidh, wrath (Sh., O'R), furban (H.S.D., from MSS.) ; see 

furbhailt, furailt, courtesy, kindly reception; also furmailt. 

For the latter Armstrong gives " ceremony" as force, which 

may be from Eng. formality. The words, otherwise, seem 

from for-fdilte. 
furm, a stool ; see fuirm. 

furlaich, hate, detest (Arms.), revolt against (Rob.) : 
furtachd, relief, help, so Ir., 0. Ir. fortacht (gen. in -an) : *for- 

tiacht ; for Gaelic root tiagh, tigh, see tighinn. 
fusgail, a heather brush ; cf. Sc. whisker, a bunch of feathers for 

sweeping, Eng. whisk. 
futhar, the dog-days ; from Sc. /wre-days. 


. gab, a tattling mouth ; from Sc. gab (do.), M. Eng. gabben, to 
chatter, mock, Norse gabb, mockery, 0. Fris. gabbia, accuse. 

gabairt, a transport vessel (Heb.) ; from Sc. gabert, a lighter, 
from Fr. gabarre, storeship, lighter. 

gabh, take, Ir. gabhaim, 0. Ir. gabaim, gaib, capit, inf. gabdil, W. 
gafael, prehensio (Eng. gavelkind), Cor. gavel : *gabo, capio, 
do, *gabagli ; Got. giban, give, Ger. geben, Eng. give ; Lit. 
gabenti, bring. 

gabhadh, danger, peril, Ir. gdbha(dh), E. Ir. gdba, gdbud : cf. E. 
Ir. gdd, danger, Gr. x^C^j retire, xC t0S » want, x w / 3ts } Lat. he-res. 

gabhagan, a titlark (Sh., O'R., H.S.D.) : 

gabhal, fork ; see best G. form in gobhal. 


gabhanD, flattery (Kirk, etc. j O'R.), gossip (Perth); from gabh ; 

" take in" i 
gabhar, goat ; see best G. form in gobhar. 
gabhd, a crafty trick ; from Sc. gaud, a trick. Cf. M. E. gaude, 

specious trick (Chaucer), from Lat. gaudiuvi, Eng. gaud. 
gabhlan, a wandering, a man devoid of care (H.S.D., which makes 

it Dial. ; M'E.) : 
gach, each, every, Ir. gach, 0. Ir. each, cech, omnis, qui vis, W. 

pob. 0. W., Cor. pop, Br. pep, pob : *qo-qa, *qe-qa, root qo, qe f 

of interrogative co ; Lat. quisque ; Skr. kag-ca ; etc. 
gad, a withe, switch, Ir. gad, E. Ir. gat : *gazdo- ; Got. gazds, 

goad, 0. H G. gart, sting, rod, Norse, gaddr, sting, Eng. 

yard ; Lat. hasta, spear (from ghaz-dhd %) 
gad, gat, an iron bar ; from Sc. gad, a bar of metal, Eng. gad, 

wedge of steel, M. Eng. gad, spike, bar, Norse, gaddr, as 

under gad. 
gadaiche, thief, Ir. gaduigh, E. Ir. gataige ; see gold. 
gadair, tie the fore feet of a horse, etc. (H.S.D., Dial) ; from gad. 
gadhar, gaothar, lurcher dog, Ir. gadhar, mastiff, hunting dog, 

M. Ir. gadar, mastiff, E. Ir. gagar ; from Norse gagarr, dog 

(K. Meyer) 1 The Norse has gagg, the fox's cry, gagl, a 

wild-goose ; this seems to prove that the Norse has a root 

gag, howl, and is likely the original source of gagar. 
gadluinne, a slender, feeble fellow, a salmon after spawning (Sh.) : 

gadmunn, hair insect, nit (H.S.D., M'A.) : 
gadraisg, tumult, confusion (H.S.D., Dial.) : 
gafann, henbane (Sh., O'B., H.S.D.), Ir. gafann, Cor. gahen : 
gag, a cleft, chink, Ir. gag : *gdgg&, gds-g, I. E. root ghdg, further 

gho, gha ; Eng. gap, gape ; Gr. \do-KOi, yawn, x^°s, abyss, Eng. 

chaos ; Lat. fauces, throat. Cf. W. gag. Skeat takes hence 

Eng. jag. 
gagach, stuttering (Sh., O'R.), Br. gak ; an onomatopoetic word. 

Cf. Eng. gag, which Skeat queries if from G. 
gagan, a cluster : 

gaibhteach, a person in want, craver ; from gabh. 
gailbheach, stormy, prodigious, E. Ir. gailbech, blustering ; cf. 

Eng. gale, of Scandinavian origin, Dan. gal, furious, Norse 

galinn (do.). Also gailbhinn, a storm at sea, a storm of 

gailbhinn, a great rough hill (Sh., " gailebhein," H.S.D.) : 
gaile, excitement (M'D.) : 
gaill, surly look, etc. ; see goill. 



gailleach, gailleach, the gum, a swelling of the gum (in cattle), 
seam of shoe uppers, or junction of inner and outer barks of 
trees, Ir. gailleach (O'B.) : 

gailleag, a blow on the cheek, Ir. gailleog ; from gaill. Cf. 

gaillionn, a storm ; cf Norwegian galen, wind-storm, Norse galinn, 
furious, Eng. gale. 

gaillseach, an earwig, so Ir. : 

gaillseach, a mouth overcharged so that the cheeks swell out, a 
mouthful of flesh. See goill. 

gaineamh, sand, so Ir., E. Ir. ganem ; root gd of Gr yala, earth % 
Stokes gives the stem as gasnimd, root ghas, Lat harena, 
sand. But gasn- should give G. gann. Also gainmheach, 
E. Ir ganmech, 

gainisg, gainisgeag, sedge, a small divinity in marshes and 
sedges by water, moaning for deaths to come (Carm.) : 

gainne, a dart, arrow (Sh., O'B., H.S.D., M'E), gainne, arrow- 
head (Arg.), Ir. gainne : gasnid ; root gas of gad, q.v. 

gainntir, a prison, Ir. gaintir (Fol.) : 

gair, near ; see gar. 

gair, call, crow ; see goir. 

gair, a shout, outcry, Ir., E. Ir. gair, \Y.gawr, clamor : *gdri-; Gr. 
yfjpvs (Dor. yapvs), voice ; root gar, ger, as in goir, q.v. 

gair, laugh, gaire, a laugh, Ir. gdirim, gdire, E. Ir. gdire (n.) ; 
from root gar, as in the foregoing word. Stokes gives the 
stem as *gdsrid, and cfs. Skr. hasrd, laughing, has, laugh. 

gairbh, a greedy stomach, deer's paunch : 

gairbheil, gaireal, freestone, gravel, Ir. gairbhM, pron. grabheal ; 
from Eng. gravel. 

gairbhtheann, a species of wild grass (H.S.D.) : 

gairdeachas, rejoicing, Ir. gdirdeachas, M. Ir. gdirdechad, delight- 
ing ; from gair, laugh. K. Meyer regards this as from older 
' *gartiugud, shortening or whiling time, from goirid, E. Ir. 
urgartiugud, while time, amuse ; with a leaning on gair, 
laugh. Cf. W. difyru, amuse, divert, from byr, short. 

gairdean, gaoirdean, an arm j from Sc. gardy, arm, gardis, yards, 
same as yard. 

gairgean, garlic ; from Eng. garlic and G. garg, bitter, by popular 

gairgeill^ stale wine, Ir. gairgin, dung ; from garg. 

gaireas, goireas, convenience ; see goireas. 

gairisinn, disgust, Ir. gairseamhuil, obscene, wanton : 

gairm, a call, office, Ir. gairm, pi. garmanna, 0. Ir. gairm, W., Br. 
garm, a shout : *garsmen- ; root gar of goir, q.v. 


gairneal, a meal chest, Ir. gairneal, a meal magazine, garner ; 
from Sc. garnell, girnell, Eng. garner, from 0. Fr. gernier, 
from Lat. granarium, granary. 

gairneilear, a gardener ; from the English. 

gais, a torrent (H.S.D. and Ir.), surfeit ; from Eng. gush ? 

gais, wisdom, lance, plenty (Carm ) : 

gais, shrivel up ; from gas, twig 1 For sense, cf. crannadh. 

gaisde, a trap (Sh., O'B,, H.S.D. ), Ir. gaisde, 0. I. goisie, noose ; 
from gaoisd, horse hair 1 

gaisde, a wisp of straw (H.S.D.) ; cf. gaoisd. 

gaise, a daunting (M'A.) ; cf. gais, shrivel. 

gaisge, valour, Ir. gaisge, bravery, E. Ir. gaisced, gasced, bravery, 
feats of arms, armour, weapons ; the idea seems to be *' feats" 
and the root the same as in gasda, q.v. 

gal, weeping, Ir. gut, E. Ir. got, I. E. gel, pain ; Ger. qual, pain, 
qudlen, torment ; Lit gelti, to smart. Cf. galar. 

tgal, valour, war, E. Ir. gal, 0. Br. gal, puissance, *gald, W. gallu, 
posse, Br. galloet (do.), Cor. gallon, might : *galno- ; Lit. 
galiu, I can, Ch. SI. golemu, great. Hence the national name 
Galatae, Galatian, also Gallus, a Gaul (but see Gall). 

galad, good girl, brave girl, fern, for laochan, used in encouraging 
address : a ghalad. Root is gal (*galnat), brave. 
4 galan, a gallon, Ir. galun ; from the Eng. 

galar, a disease, Ir , 0. Ir. galar, W. galar, grief, Br. glar, glachar 
(do.) ; *galro-n. Bez. suggests as allied Norse galli, flaw, 
Umbr. holtu, Ch. SI. zulu, bad, sore. But cf. gal, weep. 

gale, thicken cloth, fulling ; from the Eng. walk, waulk. 

Gall, a Lowlander, stranger, Ir. Gall, a stranger, Englishman, 
E. Ir. gall, foreigner ; from Gallus, a Gaul, the Gauls being 
the first strangers to visit or be visited by the Irish in Pre- 
Roman and Roman times (Zimmer). For derivation see gal, 
valour. Stokes takes a different view ; he gives as basis for 
gall, stranger, *gallo-s, W. gal, enemy, foe : *ghaslo- ? root 
ghas, Lat hos-tis, Eng. guest. Hence he derives Gallus, a 
Gaul, so named from some Celtic dialect. 

galla, a bitch ; cf. W. gast, a bitch. G. is possibly for *gas-lid. 
Pott has adduced Spanish galgo, greyhound, which, however, 
is founded on Canis Gallicus. See gasradh for root. 

gallan, a branch, a youth (fig.) : *gas-lo-, root gas of gas, q.v. 
Cf. W. gelin, a shoot. 

galluran, wood angelica, so. Ir. : gal -\-jiu^a.n. 

galuban, a band put upon the dugs of mares to prevent the foal 
sucking (H.S.D., Dial.) : 

gamag, a stride, Ir. gdmus, proud gait or carriage : *gang-mo- (1) ; 
Sc. gang, Ger. gang, gait. Cf. gbmag. 


gamhainn, a year-old calf, a stirk, Ir. gamhuin, a calf, E. Tr. 
gamuin, pi. g. gamna, year-old calf ; from gam, winter : 
"winter-old." For root, see geamhradh. Confirmed by the 
proverb : " Oidhche Shamhna, theirear gamhna ris nalaoigh" 
— On Hallowe'en the calves are called stirks. Similarly and 
from the same root are Norse gymbr, a year-old ewe lamb, Sc. 
gimmer, Gr. x^ a P ^ a yearling goat (Dor.). Hence 
gamhnach, farrow cow. 

gamhlas, malice, gannlas, ganndas (Dial.) j from gann ? 

ganail, rail, fold (Sh., O'B., H.S.D.), Ir. ganail : cf. gunwale. 

gangaid, deceit (Sh., O'B., etc.), bustle, light-headed creature 
(Sh.), Ir., M. Ir., gangaid, deceit, falsehood : 

gann, scarce, Ir. gann, 0. Ir. gann, gand : *gando-s ; Skr. 
gandhdyate, hurt ; Lit. gendu, be injured (Stokes). 

ganradh, a gander, Ir. gandal ; from the Eng. 

ganraich, roaring noise as of billows or birds : 

gaog, a lump as in yarn or cloth ; cf. goigean. 

gaoid, a blemish, Ir. gaoid, a stain ; cf. E. Ir. goH, a wound : 
*gaizdo- ; Lit. zaizda, a wound. 

gaoir, a noise, a cry of pain or alarm, sensation or thrill of pain 
(Perth.) j from gair, shout % 

gaoisd, gaoisid, horse hair, M. Ir. goisideach, crinitus, 0. Ir. goiste, 
suspendium, laqueus : *gaissinti-, *gait-tinti ; Gr. x atTr /) 
mane, flowing hair. 

gaoistean, a crafty fellow (H.S.D. from MSS.), Ir. gaistin ; cf. 
gaisde, a trap. 

gaoithean, a fop, empty-headed fellow j from gaoth, wind. 

gaol, love, Ir. gaol, kin, family, E. Ir. gdel, relationship : *gailo- ; 
Lit. gailus, compassionate ; Got. gailjan, gladden, Ger. geil, 
wanton ; Gr. $i\o<s, friendly. Stokes and Strachan agree. 

gaorr, faeces, ordure in the intestines, gore, lr. garr ; probably 
from Eng. gore, Ag S gov, dirt. Hence gaorran, big belly, 
a glutton. In Arg. pronounced with Northern ao sound ; in 
North, pronounced with ao broad as in Arg. Consider skar 
in sharn (Sc.) ; cf. caoirnean or gaoirnean. 

gaorsach, a bawd, slut : " dirty wench ;" from gaorr and the 
female termination -sach ? Cf. siursach. 

gaort, giort, a saddle girth ; from the Eng. 

gaoth, wind, so Ir., E. Ir. gaeth, goeth, 0. Ir. gdith : *gaito-, from 
root gai, I. E. ghai, ghei, ghi, drive, storm, as in G. geamh- 
radh, q.v. Eng. ghost (I. E. ghoizdo-s) is allied. Stokes 
refers it to the root of gath solely, which is ghai as above. 

gar, warm, Ir. goraim, 0. Ir. gorim, Br. gov, burning, W. gwres, 
heat : *goro, I warm ; Gr. depos, summer heat, Otpfxos, warm, 
Eng. ^rwo-meter ; Lat. furnus, oven, furnace ; Ch. SI. 


goreti, burn; further Eng. ivarm (I, E. *gh u ormo-, Teut. 

gar, gair, gaire, near proximity, Ir. gar, near (adj. and adv.), 

M. Ir. gar, shortly, W. ger, gar. near. See goirid for root, 
gar, although (Dial.) : *ga-ro. For ga, see ge ; ro is the verbal 

garadh, garradh, a garden, Ir. gardhadh, M. Ir. garrda ; from the 

Norse garftr, a yard, M. Eng. gard, gar]?, Eng. yard, garden. 
garadh, garaidh, a den, copse, garan, thicket, Ir. gardn, under- 
wood, thicket, garrdn, grove, root gar, bristle, be rough, I. E. 

gher, stand stiff, tear, scratch ; Gr. x^P a ii a stake, x a P^P a ^ 

ravine ; Lat. hir-tutus, hirsute, her, hedge-hog, furca, a fork J 

Lit. zeriii, scrape, etc. See garbh. 
garbh, rough, so Ir., 0. Ir. garb, W. garw, Br. garu, hard, cruel : 

*garv>- ; I. E. gher, scratchy, rough, tearing ; Gr. XVP> hedge- 
hog, Lat. her (do.), hirsutus, hirsute, Skr. hdrshati, be stiff. 

See garadh further. Some join it with Lat. gravis, but as 

this is allied to Gr. fiapvs, heavy, the G. would rather be 

barbh. Lat. horreo ? 
garbhag, sprat, garvie (Dial ) ; from the Sc. garvie. In Arran, 

garbhanach is the sea-bream, but this is from G. garbh. 
garbhan, the gills of a fish (N. H.). See giiiran. 
garcan, a hen's complaint ; onomatopoetic. See grachdan. 
garg, fierce, angry, bitter, Ir. garg, 0. Ir. garg, gargg : *gorgo-s ; 

Gr. yopyos, rough, frightsome. There is an obsolete M. Ir. 

gearg, *gergo-s. 
garlach, a screaming infant, little villian, vagabond, Ir. garlach ; 

from gar, cry, with the termination -lach (see bglach). 
garluch, a mole (Sh., O'B., H.S.D.), Ir. garluch : *gar-luch ; luch 

and gar (1). 
garmainn, garman, a weaver's beam, Ir., E. Ir. garmain, 0. Ir. 

gen. garmne, W. car/an ; from the root of cuir, put ? *ger, 

*gher, spear? 
garrach, a glutton, gorbelly, dirty creature, Ir. garrfhiach, a 

glutton (O'B.) ; allied to Eng. gorbelly, gore, by borrowing (1). 
garradh, a garden ; better spelling than garadh, q.v. 
garrag, a young crow ; cf. Eng. gorcrow, root gor of Eng. gore, as 

in garrach. 
garrag, a sudden yell, Ir. gartha, clamour, roaring ; from gar of 

gart, surly aspect, gloom ; cf. goirt, sore, sour, 
gart, standing corn, Ir. gort, cornfield, 0. Ir. gort, seges ; Gr. 

\6pros, fodder. See goirtean further, 
gartan, a garter ; from the Eng. 


gas, twig, a stalk, Ir. gas : *gastd ; Lat. hasta (see gad). Bez. 
queries if not from *gaksd, Lit. zagarai, brushwood. 

gasaid, fray (Dial.) : 

gasda, excellent, Ir. gasda, clever, ingenious, E. Ir. gasta (do.) : 
*gassavo-s, *gas-tavo, root gad {gads) ; Gr. dyadds, Eng. good, 
Lat. habilis ? 

gasg, a tail : *gad-sko- ; Zend zadhanh, podex, Gr. x*^ cacare. 

gasgag, a step, stride : *gad-sko-, root gad, go, M. Ir. gaid, goes ; 
Eng. gait, Ger. gasse, way. 

gasradh, salacity in female dogs, W. gast, a bitch ; root gas, gat-s, 
M. Br. gadales, meretrix, Fr. gou'ine, 0. Ir. goithimm, futuo. 

gasraidh, rabble, mercenary soldiers, Ir. gasradh, band of domestic 
troops, " youths," from gas, military servant ; borrowed from 
the W. givas, whence Eng. vassal. Seefasdadh. 

gat, an iron bar ; see gad. 

gath, a dart, sting, Ir. qath, E. Ir. gai, gae, Gaul, gaiso-n ; Norse 
geirr, spear, Ag. S. gdr, Eng. ^rar-lic ; Gr. x " ^ shepherd's 
crook ; Skr. heshas, missile. 

ge, whoever, ge b' e, whatever, whoever, Ir. gibe, E. Ir. ce be \ for 
ge, see co, the interrogative pronoun ; be is the subj. of b\. 

ge, though, Ir. gidh, 0. Ir. ce, ci, cia ; same root as above. See 
also ged. 

geacach, sententious, pert ; from Sc. geek, to sport, to deride, Ger. 
gecken, hoax. 

gead, a spot of arable land, a garden bed, a spot in a horse's fore- 
head, Ir. gead : 

gead, a lock of hair (H.S.D.) ; also " to clip " : 

geadas, a pike, Ir. geadus ; from Norse gedda, Sc. ged, allied to 
Eng. goad. 

geadh, a goose, Ir. geadh, E. Ir. ged, W. gwydd, 0. Cor. guit, auca, 
Cor. goydh, goose, Br. goaz, givaz : *gegdo-, root geg, cry like a 
goose ; Norse gagl, wild goose, M. H. G. gage, gige, cry like 
a goose, gigze, produce inarticulate sound ; Lit. gagonas, 
goose-like, Servian gagula, a water-fowl, Russ. gagara, silver- 
diver (Stokes). It cannot be referred to the roots of Eng. 
goose and gander (ghans-, ghandro-). 

geadhail, a ploughed field, park (Arg., M'A.) ; hence earghalt, 
arable land : same root as gead, viz., ged, hold, Eng. get. 

geal, a leech, E. Ir. gel, W. gel, Cor. ghel, Br. gelaonen ; Gr. 
jSSeAAa, /3\.€Tve<s, leeches (Hes.) : Skr. jaluka, blood-leech ; 
I. E. root gel, devour, Lat. gula, throat, Eng. gullet, etc. 

geal, white, Ir. geal, E. Ir. gel : *gelo-, I. E. root ghel, clear, shine, 
glow ; Lit. geltas, pale-yellow ; Eng. gleam, glow ; Gr. xK'ud, 
be warm, x^ At9 > unmixed wine ; etc. Stokes connects it with 
Lit. zila-s, grey ; the usual derivation joins it with Lat. 


helvus, light bay, Eng. yellow, Lit. zelti, grow green, Ch. SI. 

zelenu, green. Hence gealach, the moon, so Tr. ; gealan, a 

gealbhan, a fire, little fire : *gelvo-, I. E. ghel, glow ; Eng. glow, 

gleam ; Gr. x^ iw j he warm. See geal. 
gealbhonn, a sparrow, so Ir., M. Ir. gelbund, W. golf an, Cor., Br. 

golvan ; from geal, white. Cf. Gr. x € ^ L & ( *> v > swallow, Norse 

gal (do.), 
geall, a pledge, Ir. geall, 0. Ir. gell, pignus : *gis-lo-, root gis, geis, 

of giall, hostage, q.v. Stokes derives it thus : *geldo-s, 

*geldo-n, now *gelno-n, gislo-n-, Got. gild, tribute, Ger. geld, 

money, Eng. yield, guild ; Gr. o</>eAA<o, owe, reXdos (Hes.), 

geall, desire, longing, Ir. geall : in the G. phrase, an geall air, 

Keating's i ngeall, in need of ; from geall above, 
gealtach, cowardly, Ir. gealtach, fearful ; see geilt. 
geamhradh, winter, Ir. geimhreadh, E. Ir. qemred, 0. Ir. gaimred, 

0. W. gaem, W. gauaf, Cor. goyf, Br. goam, M. Br. gouaff ': 
*gimo- (for Gadelic), *gaiamo-, *gaimo- (for Brittonic, Stokes) ; 

1. E. ghim, gheim, ghiem ; Skr. himd, cold, Zend zima, winter ; 
Ch. SI. zima ; Gr. xeipuv ; Lat. hiems. The 0. Ir. gam, for 
gem, has its vowel influenced by the analogy of samh of 
samhradh (Thur.). Thur. now suggests Celt. *giamo ; cf. 
Gaul. Giamillus. 

geamhta, geamhd, anything short and thick, Ir. geamhddg, a little 

cake of bread (O'R.) ; for root, cf. geimheal. Cf. Ir. giobhta, 

giota, a piece, 
geamnaidh, chaste, Ir. geanmnuidh, E. Ir. genmnaid, 0. Ir. genas, 

castitas ; from the root gen, birth, Eng. genteel, gentle. See 

gean, mood, humour, good humour, Ir. gean, favour, approval, 

affection ; cf. Lat. genius, ingenium, root gen, Eng. kin, kind. 

E. Ir. gen, laugh, may be compared to Gr. yai/os, joy (Bez.) ; 

Stokes suggests *gesno-, Skr. has, laugh, 
geangach, crooked, thick and short ; see gingein. 
geanm-chnd, chesnut, Ir. geanmchnit : " chastity tree ;" a mistaken 

translation of Lat. castanea, chesnut, as if from castus, chaste, 
geannair, a hammer, wedge, Ir. geannaire ; see geinne. 
gearail, a complaint, Ir. geardn, M. Ir. gerdn, root ger, cry ; 

0. H. G., queran, sigh, chara, weep, Ag. S. cearu, sorrow, Eng. 

care ; further allied is root gar, sound, as in goir. Cf. W. 

gerain, cry, squeak, and Gr. Svpofxau, lament, 
y gearasdan, a garrison, Ir. gairision ; from the Eng. 
gearnal, girnell ; see gdirneal. 


gearr, short, cut (vb.), Ir. gearr, gedrraim, E. Ir. gerr, gerraim : 
*gerso-s. Stokes cfs. Gr. xept'uMv, X € W<*>v, worse, Skr. hrasva, 
short. Cf. M. Eng. garsen, gash, 0. Fr. garser. 

gearr, a hare, Ir. geirrfhiadh : " short deer ; " from gearr and 
fiadh, the latter word being omitted in G. 

gearrach, diarrhoea, bloody flux : 

gearraidh, the pasture-land between the shore-land and the moor- 
land (Heb.) ; from N. gertSi, fenced field, garth. Shet. 

gearrail, a gelding, Ir., M. Ir. gearrdn ; from gearr, cut. 

Gearran, the 4 weeks dating from 15th March onwards (H.S.D.). 
This forms a part of the animal nomenclature given to the 
several periods of Spring-time : first the Faoilleach, explained 
as " Wolf-month " ; then the Feadag, or Plover, a week's 
length ; then the Gearran, or Gelding, variously estimated 
as to length and time ; then came the Cailleach, or Old 
Woman, a week's time ; then perhaps the three days of the 
Oisgean, or ewes. See Nich. pp. 412-414. 

geas, spell, taboo, charm, Ir., E. Ir. geis, taboo, gessim (vb.) : 
* gesso, *ged-to, root gSd of guidhe, q.v. 

geata, gate, so Ir., M. Ir. geta ; from Ag. S. geat, Eng. gate. 

ged, although : *ge-ta ; same as ciod. 

geil, a bubble, well (Carm.) ; also boil : 

g^ill, yield, submit, Ir. geillim, E. Ir, giallaim, 0. Ir. geillfit, 
dedentur ; from giall, hostage. 

geilt, terror, fear, Ir. geilt, a distracted person, wild, M. Ir. 
geltacht, flying, E. Ir. geilt, mad by fear ; Norse vertSa at 
gjalti, to turn mad with terror (borrowed from Celtic, Stokes, 
Thurneysen ; borrowed into Celtic, Zimmer). Stokes refers 
it to a root ghel, fly, suggested by Gr. xt\i§uv, a swallow. 

geimheal, a fetter, chain, Ir. geimhiol, E. Ir. geimel, gemel : 
*gemelo-, root gem, fasten ; Gr. ykvro, grasped (^ye/x-ro), 
ydfios, marriage ; Lat. gemini, twins ; Ch. SI. zima, com 
prim ere. 

geimhleag, geimhleag (Wh.), a crow-bar, lever ; from Sc. gaie- 
lock, a spear, javelin, Ag. S. gafeloc, spear, possibly from an 
early form of W. gaflach, a dart, the root being that in 
gobhal, fork. 

geinn, a wedge, so Ir , E. Ir. geind, W.gaing, Br. genu, 0. Br. gen, 
M. Br. guenn : *genni-, root gen, as in Lettic dfenis, the wood 
wedged into the fork of the ploughshare, dfenulis, sting, 
Ch. SI. z§lo (do.). N. gand, gann, a peg, stick, Lat. offendo, 
*fendo, Eng. offend (Stokes and Liden). Cf. Ir. ding. 

geintleach, a heathen, Ir. geinteach, M. Ir. genntlige (adj.), gennti, 
gentiles ; from the Lat. gens (gentis), gentilis, 


geir, tallow, Ir., E. Ir. geir, W. gwer, gired, grease. Cf. Gr. XP t(u ) 

anoint, Scr. gharmti (do.), *ghrsjo. 
geis, gestation, gestators ; milk (Carm.) : 
geisg, creaking noise ; sec gwsgan. 
V gedb, a wry mouth ; from the Eng. gape, Ag. S. geapian. 

geoc, geoic, a wry neck; formed on Eng. cock? Cf. Sc. gekk, 

gedcaire, a glutton, Ir. gedcaire, a glutton, stroller, parasite, M. Ir. 

geocac/i, mimus ; formed on Lat. jocosus (Stokes), 
geodh, geodha, a creek : from the Norse gjd, a chasm, whence 

N. Scotch geo. 
geola, ship's boat, yawl ; from the Scandinavian — Mod. Norse 

jula, Swedish julle, Dan. jolle, Sc. yolle, Eng. yawl, jolly-bo&t. 
ge61ach, a wooden bier, the shoulder-bands of the dead ; for root, 

see giiilan ? 
gedpraich, a torrent of idle talk ; cf. gedb above, 
geolan, a fan, geulran (Sh.), Ir. gedilrean ; from the root of 

giulan ? 
gedtan, a spot of arable ground (H.S.D.), a driblet or trifling sum 

(M'A.) : 
geuban, giaban, the craw or crop of a bird ; see gebb. 
geug, a branch, Ir. g*ug, ge'ag, E. Ir. gee : *gnkd, knkd, W. cainc, 

ysgainc ; Skr. cailku, twig, stake ; Ch. SI. sakii, surculus. 
geum, a low, Ir. geim, a lowing, roar, E. Ir. geim, shout, gessim, I 

low : ^gengmen- ; Lit. zvengiu, neigh ; Ch. SI. zvega, sound. 

Cf. Eng. squeak. Cf. Ch. SI. gangnati, murmur, 
geur, giar, sharp, Ir. geur, 0. Ir. ger : 

gheibh, will get, Ir. gheibhim ; root-accented form of faigh, q.v. 
giaban, gizzard ; see geuban. 
giall, a jaw or cheek, jowl, Ir., M. Ir. giall, faucibus ; the G. form 

ciobhall seems borrowed from Ag. S. ceafl, Eng. jowl ; perhaps 

all are from the Eng. 
f giall, a hostage, pledge, Ir. giall, 0. Ir. giall, W. gwystl, hostage, 

Cor. guistel, obses, Br. goestl, Gaul. Co-gestlos, *geislo-, 

*geistlo- ; 0. H. G. gisal, Ger. geisel, Norse gisl, Ag. S. gisel. 
giamh, giomh, a fault, blemish : 
gibeach. hairy, gibeag, a rag, bundle, Ir. giobach, giobog, and 

giob, tail, rag, 0. Ir. gibbne, cirrus : 
gibeach, neat ; for sgibeach 1 See sgiobalt. 
gibein, a piece of flesh (M'E.) ; from gib of giblion. 
giblean, April : 
giblion, entrails of a goose, gibean (St Kilda), grease from the 

solan goose's stomach : 
gibneach, cuttle-fish: *gebbi-; Ger. quappe, turbot 1 ? 



gidheadh, nevertheless, Jr. gidheadh : for an older cid + ed 
" though it (is) " ; Lat. quid id. See co and eadh. 

gigean, geigean, master at death revels (Carm.) : 

gigean, a diminutive man, little mass ; native form of ceig, q.v. 

gighis, a masquerade, so Ir. ; from Sc. gyis, a mask, gysar, a 
harlequin, one that disguises himself at New Year, gys, to 
disguise, M. Eng. gisen, dress, prepare, from 0. Fr. {de)gviser 
Eng. dis-guise. 

gilb, ;i chisel : *glbi- ; cf. (ir. yXdcfuo, carve. But cf. W. gylyf, 
sickle, () Cor. gilb, foratorium, allied to G. gidlbneach, q.v. 

gille, lad, servant, Ir. giolla, E. Ir. gilla ; cf. Eng. child, Ag. S. 
did. Zimmer thinks it is borrowed from the Norse gihh\ 
stout, brawny, of full worth, Eng. guild, Ag. S. gild, payment 
(see geall), gilda, fellow, used in the names of Norsemen 
converted to Christianity instead of maol, slave. Gille-fo- 
luinn, sea-grass ( Wh.). 

gilm, a buzzard : 

gilmean, a fop, flatterer ; see giolam, 

gimleid, a gimlet, lr. gimUad ; from the English. 

gin, beget, Ir. geinim, M, Ir. genar, was born, 0. Ir. ad-gainemmar, 
renascimur, gein, birth, W. geni, nasci, Br. gartet, born, 
*geno, nascor ; Lat. gigno, genui, begat ; Gr. yiyvo/jwu, 
become, yevos, race; Eng. kin ; Skr. jdna, race, stock, jdndmi, 
beget. Hence gin, anyone. 

gineal, offspring, W. genii II : lr. ginealach, a generation, G. 
ginealach, M. Ir. genelach, genealogy, from Lat. genealogist, 
root gen as in gin. 

gingein, a cask, barrel, thick set person (not II.S.D.) : 

giobag, gibeag, fringe, rag, Ir. giobdg. See gibeach. 

gioball, vesture, cast clothes, Ir. giobdl ; see gibeach. 

gioball, a chap, odd fellow ; a bad fellow (Perth) ; a metaphoric 
use of gioball above. 

giodaman, a perky fellow : 

giodar, dung, ordure (H.S.D. for C.S.), ir. giodar (do.;, gea<lan, 
buttock : *geddo-, root ghed, cacare ; Gr. x*C w 5 cacare, \68avos, 
the breech ; Skr. had, cacare, Zd. zadhanh, podex. 

giodhran, a barnacle (bird), Ir. giodhrdn, 0. Ir. giugrann, \\ . 
giuyrain : *gegurannd ; root geg as in geadh, q.v. Fick has 
compared Lat. gingrum, goose. Also giuran. In Is of 
Arran, giuraing, a shell fish that bores holes in wreckage. 

giog, cringe ; also " peep" (M'A.) : 

giogan, a thistle (Sh., O'R. giogun) : 

giolam, gileim, tattle, Ir. giolmhaim, solicit : 

tgiolc, reed, Ir. <//'<>/<■</<■/<, ]■]. \y. gUcach : 


giolc, stoop, aim at (M'A ) : 

giolcair, a flippant fellow : 

giolcam-daobhram, animalcule (H.S.D.) : 

giomach, a lobster, Ir. giomach, gliomach (/), W. ceimvxich : 

giomanach, a hunter ; from the Eng game. 

gionach, greed, M. Ir. ginach, craving ; from tgin, mouth, O. Ir. 

gin, W. gen, gena, mentum, Cor. genau, os, Br. guen, cheek : 

*genu- ; Gr. -yews, chin ; Lat gena, cheek ; Eng. chin. 
giorag, panic, apprehension, noise, Ir. giorac, noise (giorac, Con.) : 
giort, a girth, Ir. giorta ; from the Eng. 
giosgan, creaking, gnashing, Ir. giosgdn ; also Ir. dioxedn. 
giseag, a fret or bit of superstition, a charm ; see geas. 
gith, a shower, series (H.S.D.) ; cf. E. Ir. gith, way of motion, 

Skr. hi, set in motion, impel, hiti, impelling, 
githeilis, running to and fro on trifling errands, trifling, E. Ir. 

gith, way, motion. See above word. 
githir, gir, corn-reapers' wrist pain : 
giud, a wile : 

giugas, refuse of fish left on shore : 
giuig, a drooping of the head, languor : 

giulan, a carrying : *gesu-l<>-, root ges, carry, Lat. gero, gestum. 
giulla, giullan, a lad, boy, Ir. giolla, servant, footman. From 

the same source as gille. 
giullaich, prepare, manage well ; from giulla, the idea being 

" serving ;" cf. Ir. giolla above, and Ir. giollas, service. 
giumsgal, flattery : 
giuram, complaining, mournful noise (H.S.D.) ; cf. I. K. gevo-, cry, 

as in guth, q.v. 
giuran, gills of a fish, garbhan, : *gober-, root of gob 1 
giuran, barnacle goose ; see giodhran. 
giuthas, fir, Ir. giumhas, E. Ir. gius : *gis-usto, root gis ; Gcr. 

kien, resinous wood, kien-baum, Scotch fir, Jciefer (kien-fohre), 

pine, Ag. S. cen, fir-wood, *Hz-n (Schrader). Cf. root gis of 

gaison, 0. Ir. gae. Ag. S. gyr, abies. 
glac, take, seize, Ir., M. Ir. glacaim, glaccad, grasping, E. Ir. 

glace, hand, handful : ^glajiko- (*?), Eng. clasp. See glas. 
glag, noise of anything falling, noise, horse-laugh, Ir. glagairc, a 

babbler, glagan, mill clapper: *glag-k<>- ; (Jr. yAafw (*tlagj6), 

sing, noise; Eng. clack, M. Eng. clacke, mill clack, Norse 

Ma/ca, chatter bird -like ; also Eng. clap. There is a degree 

of onomato-poesy about these words Cf. clag. 
glaib, dirty water, puddle, Ir. gldib ; cf. Idib. 
glaim, complaint, howling, Ir. gldim, M. Ir. gldimm : *glag-.s-md- ; 

Ger. klagen, weep (Strachan, Stokes). 



glainne, glaine, a glass, Tr. gloine, E. Ir. gloine, glaine, W. gin in, 
a gem, what is pure ; from glan, clean. 

glaiseach, foam (M'A.), glais-sheile, water-brash, from obs. glais, 
stream, E. Ir. glaiss, same root as glas. 

glaisleun, lesser spear-wort (Sh.), Ir. glaisltun ; from glas and 
leun or lean, a swamp (Cameron). 

glaistig, water imp ; from glas, water. So Carm. Manx glashtyn, 
kelpie, etc. 

glam, devour, Ir. gldmaim, devour, gobble, gldmaire, glutton : 
*glad-s-mo- ; Ch. SI. gladu, hunger. Sc. glam. 

glamair, a smith's vice ; from the Norse klo'mbr, a smith's vice, 
Ger. klemmem, pinch, jam. 

glamhsa, a snap as by a dog ; for form, compare Ir. glamhsan, a 
murmur, which is an aspirated form of glaim, howling. The 
G is similarly from glam, devour, with possibly a leaning on 
the idea of noise as in glaim. H.S.D. has glamhus, open 
chops, Glomhas, open chasm (Wh.). 

glan, clean, pure, Ir., 0. Ir. glan, W. glain, Br. glan, Gaul, river 
name Glana : *glano-s, root, gle, gel, gla, shine ; Gr. yA?jvea, 
shows, ykrjvrj, eyeball, yeAeiv, shine (Hes.), and yXaivol, bright 
ornamentation (Hes.), from root glai, from which Eng. clean 
comes (thus : gle, gla : glei, glai). 

glang, a ringing noise ; see gliong. 

glaodh, a cry, call, Ir. glaodh, M. Ir. gloed, a shout ; ci. 0. Ir. 
adglddur, appello, Skr. hrtidate, sound, Gr. yAokrcra, tongue 
(*y\(3)6ia 1), Ir. and G. would then be from an 0. Ir. *glaid, 
from *glddi-. Hence glaodhar, glaoran, a noise, prating. 

0. Ir. gloidim, ringo. 

glaodh, glue, Ir. glaodh, M. Ir. glded, E. Ir. glded ; *gloi-do-, from 

1. E. gloi, glei, be sticky ; Gr. yAoia, yXia, yXtvrj, glue : Lat. 
gluten ; Ch. SI. gle'nu, mucus ; Eng. clay, Ger. klei, slime. 
W. glud and M. Br. glut are from the Lat. 

glaodhan, pith of wood ; from glaodh, the idea being " resinous or 

gluey stuff." 
glaomar, a foolish person (Dial.) : " noisy one ;" from glaodh. 
glaoran, blossom of wood-sorrel: *gloiro-, "bright," root glei of 

glas, a lock, Ir., 0. Ir. glas : *glapsd ; Eng. clasp. 
glas, grey, Ir. glas, green, pale, E. Ir. glass, W., 0. W., Br. glas, 

green : *glasto-, green; Ger. glast, sheen (Bez.), root glas, to 

which Ger. glass, Eng. glass, are probably allied. 
gl6, very, Ir. gU t very, pure, 0. Ir. gle, bright, W. gloew, bright, 

0. W. gloiu, liquidum : *gleivo-, I. E. ghlei-, shine ; Eng. 

gleam, glimmer, Ger. glimmen ; Gr. x Atw > x A6a /°^ ? > warm 

(Kluge). Bez. refers it to the root of Eng. clean (see glan). 


gleac, a wrestle, fight, Ir., E. Ir. gleic : *glekki-, *gleg~ko- t I. E. 

gleyhb, wager ; Ag. S. pltgeu, Eng. pledge, play ; Skr. glah, 

play at dice, cast in wappenshaw. 
gleadh, an onset, deed (H.S.D.) ; cf. Ir. gleo, g. gliadh, tumult, 

E. Ir. gliad, battle : 
gleadh, tricks (Sh., O'B. gleadh, H.S.D.) ; Ir gleadh (O'R.) j for 

gleagh, gleg, root of gleac 1 
gleadhraich, gleadhair, noise, rattling, clang of arms, Ir. gleagh- 

rach, shout, noise ; cf. Norse gle&ir, Christmas games, gletSr, 

merriment, Eng. glad. Ir. gliadrach, loquacious. If E. Ir. 

glechrach means "noisy," the stem is glcgar, which also 

appears (Mart. Gorman, edited by Stokes). 
gleann, a glen, so Ir., E. Ir. glenn, glend, W. glan, brink, shore, 

M. Br. glenn, country, Br. glann, river bank : *glennos (a 

neuter s-stem). Stokes compares M. H. G. klinnen, Swiss 

kldnen, to climb, Norse klunna, cling to. Norse gil % 
gleidh, preserve, keep, Ir. gleithim, keep, clear up, cleanse, E. Ir. 

gleim, make clear, put in order, lay by. See gle for root, 

and also gleus. 
gleithir, a gadfly (M'D., Sh., O'R.) : *glegh- ; cf. Sc. cleg, Norse 

kleggi, gadfly. 
gled, dazzling haziness about the eyes : 
gleog, a drooping, silly look ; cf. sgleogair. 
gleoid, a sloven, Ir. gleoid. See sgleoid. 

glebisg, gleosg, a vain, silly woman, Ir. gleosg. See next word, 
gledman, a silly, stupid fellow, Ir. gleodkmdn : 
gleorann, cresses, wild angelica, Ir. glebrann, wild angelica; cf 

E. Ir. glebir, sheen, M. Ir. gleordha, bright ; root is likely 

that of gle (*glivo-ro-). • 

gleus, order, trim, tune, Ir. gleus, E. Ir. gles ; for root, see gleidh 

and gle'. Strachan adduces E. Ir. glese, brightness, and takes 

it from *glent-t-, allied to Cer. glauz, splendour, Eng. glance. 

Cf. W. glwys, fair, pleasant. Hence gleusda, diligent. 
f glib, a lock of hair, Ir. glib : *glb-bi ; cf. Eng. clip. Hence 

Eng. glib. 
glib, sleet, glibshleamhuinn, slippery with sleet (Sh., who gives 

glib, slippery) ; from Sc. glib, slippery, Eng. glib. 
glic, wise, Ir. glic, 0. Ir. glicc : *glkki-. Stokes compares Gr. 

KaAxcuW, ponder, and takes from G. the Sc. gleg. 
glidich, move, stir : 
glinn, pretty, (Strathspey and Lochbroom Dialects for grinn), Ir. 

glinn, bright ; Eng. glint, gleam, glance. 
gliog, gliogar, a tinkling, clink, Ir. gliogar ; Eng. click, clack : an 

onomatopoetic root. 


gliogram, a staggering ; from gliogar, the idea being " noise- 
making " 1 Cf. Ir. glingin, drunkenness. Also G. gliogach, 

clumsy, unstable, 
gliomach, slovenly, long-limbed fellow ; cf. Ir. gliomach, a lobster, 
gliong, ringing noise, Ir. glionc (O'R.) ; allied to, or from, the 

Eng. clink, Teut. kling. 
1 gliostair, a clyster ; from the Eng. 
gliuchd, a blubbering, crying : 
gloc, the clucking of a hen, noise, loud note ; Eng. clock, cluck, 

W. clwc ; Lat. gfoclre ; etc Onomatopoetic. 
gloc, swallow greedily, glochdan, a wide throat; from the Sc. 

glock, gulp, glog, swallow hastily, E. Eng. glucchen, gulchen, 

swallow greedily, Ger. glucken, gulken, klucken. 
glochar, a wheezing, difficult respiration, Ir. glocharuach ; cf. Sc. 

glag, glagger, make a noise in the throat as if choking, 

glugger, to make a noise in the throat swallowing. Allied to 

gloc, etc. 
gloc-nid, a morning dram taken in bed : from gloc and nead. 
glodhar, ravine, chasm (Kintyre) ; in Lewis names N. gljufr. 
glog, a soft lump, glogair, a stupid fellow : " unstable one" ; from 

glug, gluig. 
glog, a sudden, hazy calm, a dozing (M'A.) : 
gloic, having hanging cheeks, as in hens : 
gloichd, gloidhc, gloibhc (Wh.), a senseless woman, an idiot ; from 

the Sc. glaik. 
gloin, gloine, glass ; see glain. 
gl6ir, glory, Ir., K, Ir. gldir, Br. gloar ; from Lat. gloria, whence, 

Eng. glory. 
gloir, speech, Ir. glor, E. Ir. gloruch. noisy ; same as gldir, glorv 
gloirionn, spotted in the face (H S.D.), drab-coloured (M'A.) : 
,.\ glomadh, glomainn, the gloaming ; from the Eng. 

glomhar, a muzzle, an instrument put into a lamb or kid's mouth 

to prevent sucking, E. Ir. glomar, bridle ; root, glom, glem. 

Ger. klemmen, jam, M. H. G. klammer, tenaculum, Lat 

glomus, a clew, 
glomhas, a rock, cleft, chink : 
glong, a slimy substance ; root glen, be slimy, Gr. (iXzvva, slime, 

snot, 0. H. G. klenan, cleave. See sglongai'l. 
glonn, a deed of valour, Ir. glonn, E. Ir. glond, a deed : *gl-onno-, 

root of gal '? 
glonn, loathing, qualm, Ir. glonn, E. Ir. glonn, crime : " facinus 

extended use of the above word, 
glothagach, frog's spawn (Sh., O'R.) : 
gluais, move, Ir., E. Ir. gluaisim, 0. Ir. gluas- : *gl-eu*so-, from 

root gel, Lat. volo-, fly, Gr. /JdAAco I So Dr Cameron. 


glue, socket of the eye : 

glug, noise of liquid in a vessel when moved, Ir. glug (do.), glugal. 

clucking of a hen ; Eng. cluck. All are onamatopoetic. See 

gloc. Also glugach, stammering : " clucking." Cf. Sc. 

glugger, to make a noise in the throat by swallowing any 

gluig, addled (of an egg) ; from the above word. Cf. W. clwc, 

soft, addled (of an egg). 
glumadh, a great mouthful of liquid, glumag, a deep pool ; allied 

to glug afjove. 
glumraidh, hungriness, devouring (as sea waves) (Hend.) : 
gluil, the knee, Ir., 0. Ir. glun, W., Br. glin : *glunos. Stokes 

compares Albanian <fu (g'uri, g'uni), knee. Possibly by dis- 
similation of the liquids for *gnilnos, from *gnii, *gneu, 

allied to Eng. knee, Gr. yvv£, on the knee, 
glupad, dropsy in throat of cattle and sheep (Carm.) : 
glut, voracity, glutair, a glutton, W. gl.wth (do.), Br. glout from 

Lat. glutire, swallow, Eng. glutton ; M. Ir. glota, belly. 
gnaithse ich, arable land under crop (M'A.) : 
gnamhai), periwinkle (Sh., O'B., H.S D.), Ir. gnamhan : 
gnath, custom, usual, Ir. gndth, 0. Ir. gndth, solitus, W. gnawd, 

custom : *gnato- ; Lat. (g)notus, known ; Gr. yvotrros (do ) ; 

Skr. jndta (do.) ; root gnd, gnd, gen, know, Eng. know, etc. 
gne, nature, kind, Ir. gne, 0. Ir. gne, gen. gnee, pi. gnethi (neuter 

•s-stem) : *gneses- ; root gen, beget, Lat. genus, Gr. yevea-L$ 

genesis, yevos, Eng. kind. 
gniomh, a deed, Ir. gniomh, 0. Ir. gnim : *gnemu- ; root gne, do, 

from gen, beget, as in gin. Hence dean, ni, rinn. 
gno, gnodh, gruff (Arm.) ; cf. Ir., E. Ir. gnd, derision. 
gnob, a bunch, tumour : from the Eng. kitob. 
gnog, a knock ; from Eng. knock. 
gnogach, sulky (Sh., O'R., etc.), gnoig, a surly frown (H.S.D.) ; 

cf. gnu, gring. 
gnoigean, ball of rosin put on horns of vicious cattle (Skye) : 
gnoimh, visage, grin (Arm., M k D., M'A.) ; guoimh (Rob.) ; cf. 

gnoin, shake and scold a person (M'A.) : 
gnomh, grunt of a pig (M'A.), for gromh, Ir. grossachd : an 

onomatopoetic word, allied to Lat. grunnire, grunt, Gr. ypv, 

swine's grunt, Eng. grunt, grumph. See gndsd. 
gndmhan, groaning (of an animal), grunting ; a long-vowel form 

of gnomh ? 
gnos, a snout (especially of a pig), Ir. gros t grosmch, having a 

large snout: *grupso- \ Gr. yp'Vs a griffin, "hook-nosed," 

ypvTros, bent, Ger. krumm. • 


gndsd, gn6sad, gnusd, low noise of a cow, Ir. gnusackd ; *grum-so ; 
see gnomh, grunt, and gnbmhan. Aran Ir. gnosacht, grunt 
of pig. 

gnothach, business, Ir. gnofhuig (pron. gnathuigh), gno (pi. 
gnothaidhe) : *gnavo~ t active, Lat. gnavus, active, Eag. know. 
See gniomh and gnatli, for root. 

gnu, gab, surly, parsimonious, gnugach, surly. See gnb and griiig. 

gnuis, the face, countenance, Ir., O. Ir. gnuis, (fern, ^-declension ; 
*gwOMi- : root gen, know, Eng. know, etc. 

gnuth; a frowning look ; see gnu. 

go, a lie, fault, Ir. go, lie, fraud, 0. Ir. go, gdo, gdu, W. gau, Br. 
gou, gttou : *gavo-. Cf. (Jr. yavcros, crooked, yavcrdSaq, a liar 
(Ernault). Bezzenberger gives several alternatives; Lit. 
pri-gduti, deceive, or Persian zur, false, or Gr. \avvos, spongy, 
Xaos, abyss. 

gob, a beak, bill, Ir. gob, bill, mouth, E. Ir. gop-choel, lean-jawed ; 
*gobbo, root gobh, gebh ; Gr. yafx^Xai, ya/x<£uc, jaws ; Ch. 
SI. zohu, tooth, zobati, eat ; Skr. jambhas, a tooth. Stokes 
compares it (*gobh-nd-) to Zend, zafan, mouth The relation- 
ship to Eng. gobbet, gobble, Fr. gobet, 0. Fr. gober, devour, is 
not clear. But cf. also Eng. gab, gabble, G. gab. 

gobha, gobhainn, a smith, Ir. gobha, g. gobhann, 0. Ir. goba, g. 
gobann, 0. W. gob, W. gof, pi. gofion, Cor. go/, Br. go, Gaul. 
Gobann- : *gob&n- ; root (706&, as in Gr. yd/z<£os, a bolt, Eng. 
comb (Windisch), for which see gob. Lat. faber may, however, 
be allied, and the root then be gliob. Gobha-uisge, water 
ousel ; also gobha-dubh. 

gobhal, a fork, Ir. gabhal, fork, gable, 0. Ir. gabul, W. gafl, Br. 
gaol : *gabalu- ; Eng. gable, Ger. gabel, fork ; Gr. K€<f>a\y, 

gobhar, a goat, Ir. gabhar, 0. Ir. gabor, W. Grq/'r, Corn, gauar, Br. 
(jra6r, ^a^r, Gaul, gabro- : *gabro- ; root gab of (?a6A, take, as 
Lat. caper is allied to capio, take (Loth) *? Stokes gives the 
stem as *gam-ro, root gam of geamhradh, winter, and 
gamhuinn, I. E. ghim ; but mm, of gliim could not change to 
Gaul, ab in gabro-. 

gOC, a tap, cock ; from the Eng. cock. 

gocaman, an usher, attendant, sentinel, or look-out man ; Martin's 
(Western Isles, p. 10.3) gockmin, cockman; from Scandinavian 
gok-man, look-out man (Arms. ; Mackinnon says it is Danish). 
For root, cf. Ger. gucken, peep. Norse, gauksman : gauk ma6"r, 
cuckoo man. Norse gaukr, cuckoo ; Sc. gowk. 

gddach, giddy, coquettish (Sh., etc.) ; cf. gabhd. Godadh nan 
ceann, tossing of one's head (Wh.). 


godsag, a titbit : 

gog, a nod, tossing of the head, Ir. gog ; from Eng. cock, godadh 

gogaid, a giddy female, Ir. gogaide ; from Eng., Fr. coquette. 
gogail, cackling, noise of liquor issuing from a cask, Ir. gogallach ; 

Eng. cackle. The words are onomatopoetic. Also goglais. 
gogan, a wooden milk-pail, also cogan ; from Sc. cogue, cog, 
apparently allied to M. Eng. cog, ship, Norse kuggi, a small 
ship, Teutonic kuggon-, ship, 
goic, a tossing of the head in disdain, a scoff, Ir. goic ; founded on 

the Eng. cock, like gog, q.v. 
goid, steal, Ir. goidim, E. Ir. gataim : * gad-do , root gad, ghad, 
ghed, seize ; Gr. yav^wu, lyjx^ov, hold, contain ; Lat. pre- 
hendo, seize, praeda, booty, hedera, ivy ; Eng. get. Thur. has 
compared the Lat. hasta, spear, giving a stem *ghazdho-. 
goigean, a bit of fat meat, cluster, thread tangle or kink; cf. 
gagan : *gaggo- ; cf. Gr. yayyAiov, ganglion, a " knot," Eng. 
goil, boil, Ir. gailim, seethe, boil : *gali- ; I. E. gel, well, Ger. 

quellen, gush. See next, 
goile, a stomach, appetite, Ir. goile, gaile, stomach, appetite, 
throat, M. Ir. gaile ; also 0. Ir. gelim, I consume ; Lat. gula, 
throat (Eng. gullet), glutire, swallow (Eng. glutton) ; Skr. 
gilati, swallow ; I. E. gel, allied to root of goil. 
gdileag, a haycock, cole ; from the Sc. cole, Eng. coll, 
goileam, tattle, chattering, also gothlam (I = le) ; see gothlam. 
goileam, fire (kindling) (Carm.) : 

goill, distorted face, angry face, grin, blubber lip ; cf. Ir. gailledg, 
a blow on the cheek, G. gailleag. Cf. for root Gr. x € ^ *j lip, 
*X«rAos = Skr. ghas, eat, swallow, 
goillir, a Lewis bird of the size of the swallow, which comes to 

land in winter (Arms.) : 
goimh, anguish, pain, Ir. goimh : *gomi-, root gom, gem, press, 

Lat. gemo, groan, Ch. SI. zimy, compress. 
goin, gointe ; see gon. 

goir, call, cry, crow, Ir. goirim, E. Ir. gairim, 0. Ir. adgaur, 
convenio : *garo, speak, I. E. ger, cry ; Gr. yepavos, crane, 
SeLptav, abuse ; Skr. jdrate, cry, crackle ; further Lat. garrio, 
chatter i*gars-) ; Eng. garrulous, Lit. garsas, noise ; also root 
gdr, as in Gaelic gair, Gr, yyjpvs, voice, etc. 
goireas, convenience, apparatus ; from gar, near, and goirid. 
goirid, short, Ir. gairid, 0. Ir. garit. For root, see gearr (Skr. 
hrasva, short, etc.), from which comes the comparative giorra. 
Also gar, near, q.v. 



goirt, sore, sour, Ir. goirt, sore, salt, E. Ir. goirt, bitter : *gorti-, 

I. E. gher, be rough, as in garbh. 
goirtean, a little field of corn, croft, Ir. goirtin, govt, garden, corn- 
field, 0. Ir. gort, seges, W. garth, enclosure, Br. garz (do.) : 

*gorto- ; Lat. kortus ; Gr. x°P T0 $) straw-yard ; Eng. garden, 

garth, etc. 
goisear (pi. -an), guisers, waits, singers about Christmas, etc. 

(Carm.) : 
gdisinn, gdisne, a snare, Ir. yaisde, 0. Ir. goiste, suspendium. Cf. 

goisridh, company, people ; see gasraidh. 
goisdidh, gossip, godfather, M. Ir. goistibe, godfather; from 

M. Eng. godsibbe, now gossip. 
golag, a budget : *gulo- ; Gr. yvAtos, wallet, 0. H. G. Mulla. 
golanach, two-headed (H.S.D.) : "forked," from gobhlan? 
gomag, a nip, pinch (M'L., g6mag), gamag, large bite (Skye) : 
gon, wound, bewitch, Ir. gonadh, wounding, E. Ir. gonim : *gono, 

I wound, I. E. ghen ; Gr. <f>6vo<s, slaughter, detvoy, hit; Norse, 

gunnr, battle, 0. H. G. gundea (do.) ; Skr. han, strike, slay. 
gonan, grass roots ; cf. cona. 
gdrach, silly, Ir. gorach ; Gr. yavpos, exulting, skittish, haughty ; 

root gnu, be free, Lat. gaudium, Eng. joy. 
gorm, blue, green, Ir., E. Ir. gorm, blue, W. gwrm, dusky : gorsmo-, 

root gor, warm (" warm colour"), as in G. gar (Stokes). 
gdrsaid, a cuirass, gorget ; from Eng. gorget. 
t gort, a field, standing corn, Ir. gort ; see gart, goirtean. 
gort, goirt, famine, Ir. gorta, 0. Ir. gorte ; I. E. gher, desire, 

want ; Gr. Xpkos, necessity, xprtC 10 , wish ; Eng. yearn. 
goth, toss the head contemptuously or giddily (M'A.); gdth, airy 

gait (Arm., gothadb, Sh., O'R.) : possibly from Eng. go. Cf. 

W. goth, pride, 
gothlam, prating noise, M. Ir. gothach, noisy ; from guth. 
grab, interrupt, grabadh, hindrance, Ir. grabadh ; apparently 

from Eng. grab. Cf. W. crap, prehensio, Romance graffo. 
grabh, abhorrence : 

grabh, grabhail, engrave, Ir. grabhdil ; from Eng. grave, engrave, 
grachdan, querulous noise of hens, Ir. gragoill, clucking of a hen, 

crow's crowing. See grag. 
grad, sudden, Ir. grad, grod : *groddo-, root grod, gred, as in 

greas, q.v. 
grada, ugly ; usual form of granda, q.v. 
gradan, snuff, corn kilned by burning its straw, the meal derived 

from the foresaid corn, Ir. graddn. Cf. greadan. 


gradh, love, Ir. grddh, E. Ir. grdd : *grddo-, *grd-dho-, root grd J 

Lat. grdtus, Eng. grateful ; Skr. gUrdhdya, praise ; Gr. yepas, 

gradran, complaining noise of hens ; onomatopoetic. See grog. 
grag, croaking of crows, Ir. grdg ; Eng. croak, crake. Onomato- 
poetic words. Cf. I. E. grag, Lat. graculus, gracillare, hen's 

cry, M. H. G. kragelen, cackle. 
gragair, glutton (Sh., O'B., etc.), Ir. gragaire (O'B.), grdgaire 

graigh, stud, flock of horses ; see greigh. 
grain, abhorrence, disgust, Ir. grain, E. Ir. grain, W. graen, grief, 

rough : *gragni- (Strachan, Stokes). Ch. SI. groga, horrible, 
graineag, a hedgehog, Ir. grdinebg : the "horrent one"; from 

grain, above. 
graing, disdain, a frown, Ir. grainc. Cf. sgraing. 
grainne, a grain, small quantity, Ir. grain tie, 0. Ir. grdinne, 

granulum, grdn, granum, W. grawn, Cor. gronen, Br. greun, 

(pi.) : *grdno- ; Lat. granum (*gfno-) ; Eng. corn (Stokes). 

Some hold that the Celtic is borrowed from the Latin, 
grainnseach, a grange, Ir. grdinseack ; from the Eng. 
grainnseag, a cracknel (M'F.), bear berry (H.S.D. for N.H.) : 
grais, prosperity, blessing (N.H.) ; from gras. 
graisg, a rabble, Ir. grdisg, gramhaisg, gramaisg : 
gramaich, hold, keep fast, lr. gramuighim ; see greim. 
gramur, refuse of grain (H.S.D.) : 

gran, kiln-dried grain, Ir. grdn, corn, 0. Ir. grdn ; see grdinne. 
granda, grada, ugly, Ir. granda, ,granna, E. Ir. grdnde, grdnna, 

teter, dirus ; from grain, q.v. 
grapa, a graip, dung fork, lr. grdpa ; from Sc. graip. 
gras, grace, lr., M. lr. gras, W. gras ; from Lat. gratia. 
grath, terror (Dial., H.S.D.) : 

grathuinn, a while ; for Hrdthain, from trdth, influenced by greisl 
gread, wound, whip, burn, Ir. greadaim ; cf. W. greidio, scorch : 

*grvddo- ; root ghredh ; cf. Eng. grind, Lat. frendo, *ghrendko 

(St.). Cf. also Eng. grist, Lat. hordeum. Swedish gradda, 

bake, may be compared, 
greadan, a considerable time with all one's might at anything 

(M'A.) ; from gread. 
greadan, parched corn ; from gread. Cf. gradan. Ir. greadbg 

means "griddle." Eng. griddle, W. greidell, are allied. Cf. 

grist, hordeum, KpiOr). 
greadhan, greadhuinn, a convivial party, happy band. Ir. 

greadhanach, drolling, G. greadhnach, joyful ; root gred, go, 

as in greas, q.v. % M. Ir. gredan, exulting shouts. Root \ a P 1 


grealach, greallach, entrails : *gre-lach, root or, I. E. ghr, gut ; 
Gr. x°P^Vi g ut > Eng. cord; Lat. haru-spex, diviner, "entrails- 
inspector," hernia, rupture. Shaw has greathlach. Hence 
greallach, dirty, Ir. greallach, clay, dirty. Cf. Eng. gore. 

greallag, a swingle-tree : 

greann, hair, bristling of hair, surly look, also " cloth," " rough 
piled clothing," Ir. greann, beard, fair hair, E. Ir. grend, 
beard, W., Br. grann, eyelid, cilium : *grendd ; Ger. granne, 
beard of corn or cat, Norse gr'dn, moustache, Span, grena, 
tangled hair, Prov. Fr. gren, 0. Fr. grenon, beard of cheek and 
lip ; Albanian krande. greanndag, rag, tatter. Hence 

greas, hasten, urge, Ir. greasuighim, M. Ir. gressim : *gred-to- ; 
I. E. ghredh, step out, go ; Lat. gradior, gradus, step ; Got. 
grids, a step ; Ch. SI. gr§da, stride, come ; Skr. grdhyati, step 
out. The E. Ir. grisaim, I incite, is a different word, coming 
from gris, fire. 

greidil, a gridiron, Ir. greidil, greideal, M. Ir. in t-slissin gretli, 
Sean. Mor. gretel, W. greidel, gradell, 0. W. gratell ; from 
Late Lat. graticula, from cratis, wicker-work, Eng. crate, 
grate, grill, hurdle. Eng. griddle, M. Eng gredel, are the 
same as the Celtic words. Skeat has suggested gread above 
as the origin of the Celtic forms ; cf. Ir. greadog, a griddle. 
Hence greidlean, an instrument for turning the bannocks on 
the griddle. 

gr^idh, prepare, dress, Ir. greasaim ; see greis. Greidhear, gre'ar, 
grieve (N. Gael.). 

greigh, a stud of horses, Ir., M. Ir. groigh, E. Ir. graig, W. gre : 
*gragi- ; Lat. grex, flock ; Gr. yapyapa, heaps ; 0. H. G. 
quarter, herd. 

greim, a hold, a morsel, so Ir., 0. Ir. greim, greimm, a hold, 
strength, W. grym, force, strength : *gredsmen- ; root gher, 
hold, Gr. x ei /°i hand, Skr. haras, grip. Stokes separates 
greim, morsel, from greim, hold, strength. Greim, morsel, he 
refers to *gresmen, a bite, Skr. grdsati, devour, Gr. y/)ao>, 
eat, Norse krds, a dainty. 

greis, prowess, onset, slaughter, a champion, E. Ir. gress, gress, 
attack ; from the root of greas above (Stokes). 

greis, a while, Ir. do glireas, always, 0. Ir. do gres, do gress, 
semper, M. Ir. do-gres : *grend-to-, going on, root grend, gred, 
I. E. ghredh as in greas. Strachan gives *grencs-, and com- 
pares Norse kringr, round, Ger. kring. See treis. 

gr&S, greus, embroidery, needle-work, Ir. obair-ghreis, from greas, 
E. Ir. gress, any work of art or trade ; see greusaich. 


gredd, a crowd (Arg.) ; from Eng. crowd. 

greds, expansion of the thighs, gredsgach, grinning (H.S.D.) : 

*grencs- ; Norse kringr, round, Ger. kring. 
greusaich, griasaich, shoemaker, any worker in embroidery or 

furniture, Ir. greasaidhe, shoemaker : *greid-to- ; Gadelic 

greid, dress, broider, I. E. ghrei, rub ; Gr. XP 0L( *i XP^I xa ) hide, 

skin, colour, X/° l0> > anoint (Christus). 
grian, sun, Ir., 0. Ir. grian : *greind, ghr-eind, root gher, warm, 

as in gar. Cf. Skr. ghrnis, sunshine, ghramsa, heat ; W. 

greian, what gives heat, sun. See further under grios. Hence 

grianan, sunny place, summer house, solarium of Lat., from 

sol, sun. 
griasaich, a species of aculeated fish : " cobbler " fish ; from 

griasaich, shoemaker, 
grid, substance, quality ; from Sc. grit, grain of stones, grit, grain, 

Eng. grit. Hence grideil, industrious (M'A.). 
grigirean, the constellation of Charles' wain, grigleachan, a 

constellation ; see grioglachan. 
grileag, a grain of salt, any small matter : *gris-il-, root greis, 

gravel, as in grinneal. 
grimeach, grim, surly ; from Eng. grim, Norse grimmr. 
grimeil, warlike (H.S.D.), Ir. grimeamhuil (Lh., O'B.), grim, war ; 

from the Norse grimmr, fierce, wroth 1 
grinn, pretty, Ir. grinn, E. Ir. grind : *grnni-, " bright " ; root 

gher, as in grian, grios. Cf. glinn. 
grinneal, bottom of the sea, gravel, Ir. grinnioll, channel, bed of 

a river, sand of the sea, sea bottom, M. Ir. grinnell : *gris-ni-, 

root, greis, gris, gravel, E. Ir. grian, gravel (*greisano-), W. 

graian, gravel, greienyn, a grain of gravel. Rhys (Hib. Lect., 

571) refers these words to the root of grian, sun, the particle of 

gravel being supposed to be "a shining thing," This view is 

supported by grioglachan and griogag, q.v. 
griob, nibble (Heb.) ; from Sc. gnip, gnaw, eat, Eng. nip, nibble. 
griobh, a pimple (M'A.) : 
griobhag, hurry : 
grioch, a decaying or lean young deer, griochan, consumption 

(Dial., H.S.D.) : 
griogag, griogag (Glen-Urquhart), a pebble, bead : *grizgu-, root 

gris, greis, gravel, as in grinneal. 
grioglachan, Pleiades, grigleachan, a constellation, Ir. griogchdn, 

constellation. For root, see griogag. 
griomacach, thin-haired, griomagach, shrivelled grass (H.S.D.) : 
grioman, a certain species of lichen, malt bud (H.S.D.) : 
grios, entreat, pray, Ir. griosaim, encourage, incite, rake up a fire ; 

from earlier gri->s, heat, which see in griosach. 


griosach, burning embers, Ir. griosach, coals of fire, burning 

embers, M. Ir. giissach, E. Ir. gris, fire, embers, Br. groez, 

heat : *grens, *grns, heat ; Skr. ghromsa, sun, heat, sunshine ; 

root gher of gar, q.v. Hence gris, inflammation ; Ir. gris, 

v gris, horror ; from Sc. grise, to shudder, M. Eng. gris-, horror, 

griseful, grise, horrible, Eng. grisly. 
grisionn, brindled, gris-fhionn, "gray-white," gris (Sh. gris), 

gray ; from M. Eng. gris, gray fur. 
gritirach, the measles, griuthach (do.), griobhach (M'A.), 

griuragan, indefinitely small particle, pustules on the skin ; 

root ghru, as in grothlach ; grulach (Skye) = griobhlach. 
grdb, join by indentation, serrate ; cf. M. Eng. grbpin, to groove, 

also groupe and grave. A borrowed G. word. 
gr6bag, a poor shrivelled woman ; from grdb. 
groban, top or point of a rock, hillock : 
groban, mugwort (N.H.) : 
y grdc, croak, frown on ; from Eng. croak. 

grod, rotten, E. Ir. grot, gruiten, stale butter, small curds in 

whey ; a metathesis of goirt % 
groganach, wrinkled (as heather), Ir grug, a wrinkle ; cf. gruig. 
grdig, awkwardness, perverseness, grbigean, awkward man ; see 

groiseid, a gooseberry ; from the Sc. groset, from 0. Fr. *grose, 

grosele, goose-berry, whence Eng. gooseberry for grooseberry. 
gromhan, a groaning, growling ; the same as gnbmhan. 
gros, snout ; correct spelling of gnos, q.v. 
£ gr6ta, a groat ; from the Eng. 

grothlach, a gravel pit, abounding in gravel (O'B., Sh., etc.), Ir. 

grothlach, W. gro, pebbles, Cor. grow, gravel, Br. grouan. 

From these come Eng. gravel, 0. Fr. gravele. Cf. Norse 

grjot, stones, Ag. S. gredt, Eng. grit, root grut, Lit. grusti, 

pound, bray, Gr. xp va ~°s gold ( = XpvS-o-6<s). 
grotonach, corpulent (O'B., Sh., etc.), so Ir. : " heavy-breeched " 

(Arms. ) — *grod- tonach. 
gruag, hair of the head, a wig, Ir. gruag : *grunkd, root gru, 

Eng. crumple ? Hence gruagach, a maiden, brownie, 
gruaidh, cheek, brow, Ir. gruaidh, cheek, E. Ir. gruad, W. grudd, 

Cor. grud, maxilla : *groudos. Bez. suggests the root ghrud, 

ghreud, as in grothlach, above, the idea being "pounding, 

mashing" (Lit. grusti, bray, pound), and the original force 

"jaw": cf. Lat. maxilla and macero, macerate. Stokes 

queries if it is from the root of Eng. great. Eng. proud ? 
gruaigean, a species of sea-weed (H.S.D. for Heb.), birses (M'A.); 

" little hairy one" (Carm.), from gruag. Miorcan in Lewis. 


gruaim, gloom, surly look, Tr. gruaim : *grousmen- ; root greut, 

grut, Lat. brutus, dull, Eng. brute, Lettic gruts, heavy, 

Stokes cfs. only Ch. SI. su-grustiti s§, grieve over, 
grudair, a brewer, Ir. grudaire, grtiid, malt : ^grUddi- ; Ang. Sax. 

grut, coarse meal, Ger. griltze, groats, Dan. grbd ; Lit. grudas, 

corn. Eng. grit, groats are allied Hence grtiid, lees, 
gruig, a drooping attitude, churlishness, churlish, Ir. grtig, a 

grudge, anger, gruig, churlishness (O'B.), gruc, sulky (O'Cl.) J 

cf. Eng. grudge, M. Eng. grucchen, 0. Fr. grouchier, groucier. 

Also grugach, wrinkled, 
gruilleamach, prancing, leaping suddenly (H.S.D.) : 
grunnaich, sound, fathom ; see grunnd. 
grunn, grunnan, a handful, lot, crowd (Dial, grainnean), 0. Ir. 

grinne, fascis, fasciculum, Br. gronn, a heap : *grendio-, 

*gro?ido- ; Gr. ypdvdos, closed fist, Skr. grantha, bind, etc. 

(Stokes for 0. Ir.). Cf. for root breid. 
grunnasg, groundsel ; formed on the Eng. 
grunnd, bottom, ground, thrift ; from Sc. grund, bottom or 

channel in water, Norse grunnr, bottom of sea or river, Eng. 

ground. Hence grunndail, steadfast, solid, sensible, 
grunsgul, a grunting ; from % grunn, grunt, Lat. yrunnire, Eng. 

gruth, curds, Ir., M. Ir. gruth : *grutu- ; Eng. curds, M. Eng. 

crud, Sc. crowdie, croods ; Gr. ypvcret, will melt, ypvrrj (v long), 

frippery ; I.E. gru, Eng. crumb, Ger. kraum, Gr. ypv, morsel. 

Hence gruitheam, curds and butter : gruth + \m. 
gruthan, gruan, liver, Ir. aev. gruan (Lh. Comp. Voc. sub "jecur"): 

*grt2so- : root ghru, gritty, of grothlach. 
gu, to, ad, Ir. go, gu, 0. Ir. co, cu, W. bw in bwy gilydd, to its 

fellow : *qos ; Ch. SI. kit, to ; cf. Lat. usque for *quos-que ? 

(Bez.). Used adverbially in gu math, gu h-olc. Cf. Gr. kols, 

kcll, Skr. -gas. 
guag, a giddy, whimsical fellow, Ir. gtiag, guaigin, folly, silly one ; 

from M. Eng. gowhe, goki, a fool, Sc. gowk, Eng. gawky. 
guag, a splay-foot ; see cuag. 

guaigean, thick, little and round : *goug-go-, root gu, bend, 
guailisg, false, falsity (Carm.) : 
guaillean, a coal of fire ; see gual. Cf. caoirean, a peat, cinder, 

guaillich, go hand in hand : " shoulder to shoulder ;" see guala. 
guaimeas, quietness ; see guamach. 
guaineas, briskness, liveliness ; see guanach. 
guairdean, vertigo ; cf. Ir. guairdedn, whirlwind ; from cuairt ? 
guairsgeach curled, crinitus, Ir, guaire, hair of the head; from 

I.E. gu, bend, as in guala. 


f guais, danger, guaiseach, dangerous, Ir. guais, 0. Ir. guassacht : 
guait, leave (" Gabh no guait e" — Take or leave it) ; from Eng. 

quit 1 g-uait % 
gual, coal, Ir. gual : *goulo-, *geulo- ; root geul, gul ; Teutonic 

*kola-, Norse hoi, coals, Ger. kohle, Eng. coal. W. glo, Br. 

glaou, *glovo- (Stokes), is allied to the Eng. glow. 
guala, gualanD, shoulder, Ir. guala, g. gualann, E. Ir. gualu, g. 

*gualand : *goulon-, root geu, gu, gu, bend ; Gr. yvlov, limb, 

yvakov, a hollow, ymjs, ploughtree (Lat. bura) ; Old Bactrian 
= Zend, gao, hand. Strachan and Stokes give the root gub, 

bend, stem *gublon-, I.E. gheubh, bend, Gr. kv<j>6<s (v long), 

bent, stooping ; Lettic gubt, stoop, 
guamach, neat, snug, smirking; also "plentiful" (Sh., O'R.), 

careful, managing (Arran) : 
guanach, light, giddy, Ir. guanach, guamnach, M. Ir. guamnacha, 

active (O'Cl.) ; root guam of guamach above, 
gucag, a bubble, bell, globule, bud : *gukko-, Ger. kugel, ball, 
guda, a gudgeon, Ir. guda ; formed on Eng. gudgeon, M. Eng. gojon. 
gudaleum, gudarleum, a bound, wild leap (Arg.) : 
guga, the solan goose, a fat, silly fellow, Ir. guga. See next word 

for root, 
gugail, clucking of poultry, Ir. gugailim : an onomatopoetic word. 

Cf. Eng. chuck. See also gogail. 
gugairneach, a fledgling : 
guidh, pray, guidhe, a prayer, wish, Ir. guidhim, guidhe, 0. Ir. 

guidiu, gude, guide : *godio-, root ged, god, I.E. ghedh, ask ; 

Gr. 7r60€a>, desire, Oeo-o-axrdau, pray for ; Got. bidjan, ask, 

Ag. S. biddan, Eng. bid. 
guil, weep, Ir., E. Ir. guilim ; see gal. 
guilbneach, the curlew : " beaked one," E. Ir. gulbnech, beaked, 

0. Ir. gulban, beak, 0. W. gilbin, acumine, W. gylf, bill, beak, 

gylfant, Cor. gilb, foratorium, geluin, rostrum : *gulbano- ; 

Ger. kolben, piston, knob, gun-stock. Bez. compares only 

N. Slovenic golbati, gnaw. Cf. Lit. gulbe, swan. 
guileag, the swan's note, warbling (Sh. has guillag, chattering of 

birds, O'R. guilleog) ; root gal, cry, call, Lat. gallus, cock, 

Eng. calll 
guileagan, custom of boiling eggs outside on Easter Sunday = latha 

guileagan (M'D.) : 
guim, cuim, conspiracy (Carm.) : 
guin, a wound, 0. Ir. guin : *goni- ; see gon. 
guir, hatch, lie on eggs, gur, hatching, Ir. gur, W. gori, to brood ; 

from the root gor, gar, warm. See gar. 


guirean, a pimple, gur, a festering, Jr., M. Ir. guirin, pustule, 
E. Ir. gur, pus, W. gor, pus, goryn, pustula : *goru-, fester, 
" heat " ; root gor, gar, warm, as in gar. 
a guisead, a gusset ; from the Eng. 

guit, a corn-fan, imperforated sieve : gottid : 
> guitear, a gutter, kennel ; from Eng. gutter. 
f gulm, a gloom, forbidding look ; from the Eng. 1 

gulmag, sea-lark (H.S.D.) : 

gun, without, Ir. gan, 0. Ir. cen ; Gr. kcvcos, empty ; root, Kevo-. 
So O.H.G. hina, hinweg, Ag. S. kin-. 

gu'n, gu'm, that, Gr. on, Ir. go, 0. Ir. co, con. Windisch con- 
siders this the prep, con, with, and co, to ; Zim. and Thur. 
regard it as from co, to (see gu). The latter explains the n 
as the relative : *co-sn, a view supported by the verbal 
accent being on the first syllable and by the occasional form 
conn (?) See cha'n. 

gun, gown, Ir. guna ; from the Eng. gown, from W. gwn (*gwun). 
from Celtic *vo-ouno-, root in Lat. ex-uo, doff, ind-uo, don, 
Lit. aunii, put on shoes, duti. 

gunna, a gun, Ir., M. Ir. gunna ; from M. Eng. gunne, Eng. gun. 

gur, that, Ir. gur : *co-ro ; see gu'n for co. Uses are : Gur 
cruaidh e = 0. Ir. arron rruaid e : corrop is now Ir. gurab, 
that is co-ro-hi (ba, verb "to be"). Gur = gunro, con ro- 

guraiceach, a blockhead (Sh., H.S.D.) : 

guraiceach, unfeathered bird, lump (Arg.), from gur. 

gurpan, crupper ; from Sc. curpon, Eng., 0. Fr. croupon. 

gurracag, a blot (Arg.) : 

gurrach, gurraban, crouching, crouching on the hunkers : *gur- 
tha-, from gur, brooding as in guir 1 Cf. Sc. curr, to "hunker," 
currie, a stool, Eng. cower. The Perthshire curraidh, 
hunkering, is from Scotch. 

gurrach, fledgling, gurach (Arg.) : 

gurt, fierceness, sternness of look ; also gart, q.v. 

gus, to, Ir. gus, 0. Ir. cossin, to the, to which ; prep, gu, co, and 
the article or relative. The s of the article is preserved after 
the consonant of co ( = qos). 

gus, anything (Arg.) : 

gusair, sharp, keen, strong, Ir. gusmhar, strong ; from gus, force, 
smartness : *gustu-, " choice," root gu, Eng. choose. 

gusgan, a hearty draught : 

gusgul, refuse, dirt, idle words, roaring : 

guth, voice, Ir., 0. Ir. guth : *gutu- ; I.E. gu ; Gr. 7005, groan ; 
Skr. hu, call, cry, havate, calls ; Ch. SI. zova, to call. This is 

. 25 


different from I.E. gu, Gr. /?o?j, shout, Lat. bovare, cry 
(Prellwitz, Osthoff). 

i, she, Ir. i, si, 0. Ir. i, hi, si, W., Br. hi : *si ; Got. si, ea, Ger. 
sie, they ; Skr. sy<f : I. E. sjo-, sja- (Brug.). See sa, so, sin. 

iach, a yell, cry, Ir. iachdadh, 0. Ir. iachtaim : *eicto-, *eig-to-, 
from ez<7 of eigh. 

t iach, a salmon, E. Ir. eb, g. zacA, W., Br. eog, W. ehawc, Cor. 
eAo# : *esa# ; Lat. esox : Basque izo&m (borrowed from Celtic). 

iad, they, Ir. iad, E. Ir. iat, 0. Ir. only in olseat-som, say they, W. 
hwynt : confusion of roots ei, sjo with the 3rd plur. in nt. Of 
E. Ir. iat, siat, Brugmann says :— " These have the ending of 
the 3rd plur. of the verb ; later on iat, siat were detached, 
and began an independent existence." Stokes similarly says 
they are se and hwy wtfn the nt of the verbal 3rd pi. added. 

iadach, jealousy, Ir. ead; see eud. 

iadh, encompass, Ir. iadhaim, join, shut, surround, E. Ir. iadaim : 
*eiddd, *ei-dho- > root'ei, go 1 ? Stokes analyses it into *ei- 
ddmo, for *epi-ddmo, Skr. api-ddna, a lock : for epi, see Gr. 
hri under iar ; and ddmd is from dho, dhe, place, Gr. TiOy]\x.i, 
Lat. facio. It has also been correlated to Gr. 7riefo/zcu, press, 
Skr. pidayti, press (*pisdd), from pise, stamp, press, Lat. 
pistor, etc. 

ial, moment, season, gleam of sunshine ; a poetic word, seemingly 
a metaphoric use of iall. Galway Ir. iall, moment, iall 
deireannach dd shaoghal. 

iall, a thong, Ir. iall, E. Ir. iall : *peisla ; cf. pileus, felt, etc. 

f iall, a flock of birds, Ir. iall, a flock of birds, E. Ir. iall, grex ; 
*eisla, Gr. lXtj. Hence eallach (St.). Cf. Ir. eilinsicini, brood 
or clutch of chickens. 

iallach, jaunty, lithe ; cf. uallach. 

ialtag, a bat, Ir. ialtdg, E. Ir. iathlu (iatlu, O'Cl.), W. ystlum : 
*isatal- (Ascoli). Dial, dealtag anmoch ; Lat. vesper-tilio. 

ian, a bird ; see eun. 

iar, after, Ir. iar, 0. Ir. iar n-, post : *e(p)eron ; Skr. aparam, 
afterwards ; Got. afar, post ; further Gr. oiridev, behind, ktri, 
to, on, Skr. dpi, Lit. ape, to, on, Lat. ob. See air(c). 

iar, ail iar, siar, west, Ir. iar, siar, 0. Ir. iar, occidens, aniar : a 
special use of the prep, iar above. See ear for force. 

iarbhail, anger, ferocity ; from air and boilel 

iarbhail, a consequence, remains of a disease : 

iargainn, pain, Ir. iargan, groans of a dying man (O'B.) ; from air 
and gon. 


iargail, the west, evening twilight, Ir. iargul, remote district, 

iargcul (Con.) ; from iar and cul, back : " behind," west. 

iargalta, churlish, inhospitable, surly, turbulent (M'A.), Ir. 

iarculta, churlish, backward, 
iargall, battle, contest, so Ir., 0. Ir. irgal : air + gal, the air being 

a?V(a). See gal. 
iarghuil, sound, noise ; see uirghioll. 
iarla, an earl, Ir. iarla, M Ir. iarla ; from Norse jarl, Eng. earl. 

W. has zarll. 
iarmad, offspring, remnant, Ir. iarmat, offspring (O'B.), iarmart, 

consequences of anything, iarmhar, remnant; root mar, 

remain. See mar. 
iarmailt, the firmament, for *fiarmaint, Ir. fiormaimeint, M .Ir. 

firmeint, E. Ir. firmimenti (g.) ; from Lat. firmamentum. Cf. 

Tormailt, Norman. 
iarna, a hank of yarn, Ir. iarna, a chain or hank of yarn j from 

Eng. yarn. 
iarnaich, smooth with an iron ; from iarunn. 
iarogha, great grandson, 0. Ir. iarmui, abnepotes ; from iar and 

ogha : " post-nepos." 
iarr ask, Ir., E. Ir. iarraim, I seek, ask, tarrair, a seeking, iarair : 

*iarn-ari- ) "after-go," root (pjar, per, go, seek, bring, through, 

Gr. irdpa, experience, Lat. ex-perior, try, Eng. experience, etc. 

(Stokes). See aire further for root, 
iarunn, iron, Ir. iarann, M. Ir. iarund, 0. Ir. iarn, W. haiarn, 

hearn, Corn, hoern, 0. Br. hoiarn, Br. houarn, Gaul, isarno- 

dori, ferrei ostii : *eisarno- ; Got. eisarn, 0. H. G. isarn, Ger. 

eisen, Kng. iron (all borrowed from Celtic according to Brug- 

mann, Stokes, etc.). Shrader regards the eis or is of eisarno- 

as only a different vowel-scale form of 1. E. ayos, ayes-, metal, 

whence Lat. aes, Eng. ore. 
iasachd, iasad, a loan, Ir. iasachd, E. Ir. iasacht : 
iasg, fish, Ir. iasg, 0. Ir. iasc, cesc, g. eisc ; *eisko-, *peisko- ; Lat. 

piscis, fish ; Got. fisks, Eng. fish. 
fibh, drink, M. G. ibh (M'V), Ir. ibhim (Con. ibhim), 0. Ir. ibim, 

0. W. iben, bibimus, Cor. evaf, Br. eva : *ibo, *pibo ; Lat. 

bibo ; Skr. pibami. 
ic, cure, heal, so Ir. ; see ioc. 

ic, an addition, eke, frame put under a beehive (Carm.) ; Sc. eik. 
idir, at all, Ir. idir, 0. Ir. itir, etir : *enteri, a locative case of 

enter, the stem of the prep, eadar, q.v. 
ifrinn, hell, Ir. ifrionn, E. Ir. ifern(d), 0. Ir. ifurnn ; from Lat. 

infernum, adj. in f emus, Eng. infernal. 
igh, tallow (Sh.), fat (H.S.D., which marks it as obsolete), M. Ir. 

Ith, g. itha, Manx eeh : root pi, pel, Gr. 7riW, Skr. pinas, fat. 


iffh, i, a burn, a small stream with green banks (Suth.). This is 

the Suth. pronunciation of iiidh, a ford, etc. 
ilbhinn, a craggy mountain (" Mar ilbhinn ailbhein craige," Oss. 

Ballad) ; if not mere jingle, it means " many peaked " : 

iol + beann. 
ileach, variegated, Ir. ile i diversity ; see iol-. 
im, butter, Ir. im (g. ime, Coneys), E. Ir. imb, W. ymenyn. Cor. 

amenen, Br. amann, amanen : "emben- or *mben- ; Lat. unguen, 

Eng. unguent, vb. unguo, I smear : Ger. anke, butter ; Skr. 

diijas, a salve, ointment, 
im-, about, also with intensive force, Ir. im-, 0. Ir. im-, imm- ; it 

is the prefixive form of prep, m.u, q.v. Also iom-. 
imcheist, anxiety, doubt, 0. Ir. imchesti, contentiones ; from im- 

and ceist. 
imeachd, journeying, imich, go, Ir. imtheachd, imthighim, 0. Ir. 

imthecht ; from im- and teackd, tighinn : imich, is for im- 

thigh, root tig, teig of tighinn, q.v. 
imisg, a sarcasm, scandal : *im-isc ; for isc, see inisg. 
imleag, navel, Ir. imleacan, imlinn, E. Ir. imbliu, ace. imbliud, 

imlec, imtecdn : *embilidn-, *embilenko- ; Lat. umbilicus ; Or. 

6[x<fia\6s ; Eng. navel ; Skr. ndbhi, ndbhila ; I. E. onbhelo-, 

imlich, lick, Ir. imlighim, lighim ; im-lighim. " about-lick." With 

lighim is cognate 0. Ir. ligim, I lick, W. llyaw, llyad, licking, 

Br. leat (do.) : *leigo, *ligo ; Lat. lingo ; Gr, \eiyu ; Eng. 

lick ; Oh. SI. lizati (to lick) ; Skr. lihati. 
imnidh, care, diligence, Ir. imnidhe, 0. Ir. imned, tribulatio : *mbi- 

men-eto-, root men of menmna. Ascoli analyses the 0. Ir. as 

*imb-an-eth, root an, breathe, 
impidh, a prayer ; see iompaidh. 
impis, imis, imminence, an impis, about to, almost, M. Ir. imese 

catha, imminence of battle, root ved of tbiseach (Stokes). 
imreasaD, controversy, Ir. imreasdn, 0. Ir. imbresan, altercatio, 

imbresnaim, I strive, W. ymryson, contention, dispute : *imbi- 

bres-, root bres of M. Ir. bressa, contentions, battles, Br., Cor. 

bresel (from bris, break) ? Windisch suggests for Gadelic 

*imm-fres-sennim (prep, imm or im and fris, frith), from 0. Ir. 

sennim, I drive, *svem-no-, allied to Eng. swim. 
imrich, remove, flit, Ir. imircim, E. Ir. immirge, journey, expedi- 
tion : *>mbi-reg-, root reg, go, stretch (as in rack). Windisch 

suggests imm-eirge, from eirigh. 
in-, ion-, ionn-, a prefix of like force as Lat. in-, used especially 

before medials, liquids, and s {ionn- only before s), Ir. in-, ion-, 

inn-, ionn- (before *), 0. Ir. in- ; it is the Gadelic prep, in, 

ind, now an, ann, in (q.v.), used as a prefix. 


inbhe, quality, dignity, rank, Ir. inmhe, patrimony, estate, M. Ir. 
indme, rank : *ind-med-, prep, ind (ann) and root me, med of 
measl Ir. inme, wealth, better indme or indbe (St.). 

inbhir, a confluence of waters, Ir. innbhear, inbhear, E. Ir. indber, 
inbir, inber, W. ynfer, influxus : *eni-bero-s (Stokes), from eni 
or modern an, in, and bero-, stem of beir, Lat. fero. The 
combination is the same as Lat. infer o, Eng. inference. 

inghean, a daughter, Ir. inghean, 0. Ir. ingen, Ogam inigena : 
*eni-gena ; root gen, beget (see #m) and prep, an; Lat. 
indigena, native ; Gr. kyyovt), a grand-daughter. Also 
nighean, q.v. Lat. ingenuusl 

inich, neat, tidy, lively : 

inid, Shrove-tide, Ir. inid, E. Ir. init, W. ynyd, Br. ened ; from 
Lat. initium [jejunii], beginning of Lent. 

inisg, a reproach ; cf. M. Ir. indsce, 0. Ir. insce, speech : *eni-sqid, 
root se</, say, as in sgeul, q.v. Gr. evunrt, Lat. inseque, say, 
are exactly the same as Ir. in root and prefix. 

inn-, ionn-, (innt- before s), prep, prefix of like force with frith, ri, 
against, to, Ir. inn-, ionn-, 0. Ir. ind- (int- before 6"), inn-, in- : 
*?ide, Gaul, ande- : *ande, from ndh, Goth, und, for, until, 
0. H. G. unt-as, until ; Skr. ddhi, up to (ndhi). 

inndrich, originate, incite : 

inne, a bowel, entrail, gutter, sewer, kennel (M'A.), Ir. inne, 
innighe, M. Ir. inne, inde, a bowel, viscera (pi.), E. Ir. inne, 
inde, 0. lr. inna, d. pi. innib, viscus, viscera : prep, in + 1 
Cf. Gr. IvTtpov, a bowel, Ger. innere, Skr. antaram ; also 
Dial. Eng. innards (for inwards). 

inneach, woof, so Ir., E. Ir. innech : *(j>)u-niko-, root pan, thread, 
Lat. pannus, cloth, Gr. 7rr/vds, woof thread on the bobbin? 
See further under anart. A compound with in or ind is 
possible : in-neg-. Lat. in-necto 1 

inneadh, want (M'F.) : 

in^eal, an instrument, arrangement, Ir. inneat, arrangement, dress, 
E. Ir. indell, yoke, arrangement ; G. innil, prepare, ready, Ir. 
inniollaim, arrange, E. Ir. indlim, get ready : *ind-el-, root 
pel, join, fold, as in nit, q.v. Ascoli joins 0. Ir. intle, insidia), 
mtledaigim, insidior, and G. innleachd, q.v. ; but gives no 

innean, an anvil, Ir. innedin, E. Ir. indedin, 0. Ir. inde'in, W. 
einion [engion 1], Cor. ennian, Br. anneffn : *ande-bnis, "on- 
hit," from inn- and bend, hit, as in bean, q.v. Osthoff gives 
the stem *endivani-, " on-hit," Zd. vaniti, hit. 

innear, dung, M. Ir. indebar : *ind-ebar ; cf. E. Ir. cann-ebor 
( = cac, O'C.1.), on the analogy of which Stokes suggests that 


ind- of indebar is for find, white, but G. is against this. 

O'Dav. has fiud-ebor, dung ; so Meyer, but not O'Dav. ! 
innil, prepare, ready ; see inneal. 
innis, an island, Ir. inis, 0. Ir. inis, W. ynys, Cor. enys, Br. enez, 

pi. inisi : *inissi, from nss, Lat. *inssa, insula, Gr. vrjcros 

(Dor. vao-os). The connection of the Celtic, Lat., and Gr. 

is almost certain, though the phonetics are not clear. 

Strachan suggests for Celtic *eni-sti, " in-standing," that is, 

" standing or being in the sea." 
innis, tell, Ir. inrusim, E. Ir. innisim, indium : *ind-fiss-, from 

fiss, now fios, knowledge ; root vid. Cf. adfiadim, narro 

(*veido), infiadim. vet (St.) % 
innleachd, device, mechanism, Ir. inntleachd, device, ingenuity : 

*ind-slig-tu~, root dig of slighe, way 1 Ascoli joins 0. Ir. 

intle, insidise, intledaigim, insidior, and W. annel, a gin, Cor. 

antell, ruse, Br. antell, stretch a snare or bow, and Ir. innil, a 

gin, snare. The 0. Ir. intliucht, intellectus (with sliucht, 

cognitio), is considered by Zimmer to be a grammatical word 

from Lat. intellectus. Stokes disagrees. Hence innlich, aim, 

innlinn, provender, forage : " preparation," from innil, prepare, 
innsgin, mind, courage (H.S.D. from MSS.), also in A. M'D.'s 

song, "Am breacan uillach" ; innsgineach, sprightly (Sh., 

O'R.) : 
inntinn, mind, Ir. inntinn : *ind-seni- ; root sen or senn, as in 

Ger. sinn, sense? Kluge, however, gives *sentno- as the 

earliest form of the Ger. Possibly it may be a plural from 

0. Ir. inne, sensus, meaning the " senses " originally. The 

Gadelic words can scarcely be from a depraved pronunciation 

of Lat. ingenium. 
inntreadh, iantreachduinn, a beginning, entering ; from Eng. 

iob, a raw cake, lump of dough (H.S.D. for N.H.) ; also uibe, 

ioba, pi. iobaiinan, tricks, incantations (Arg.) ; see ubag. 
iobairt, an offering, sacrifice, Ir. iodhbuirt, M. Ir. edpart, 0. Ir. 

edpart, idpart : * aith-od-bart-, root btrt, ber of beir, q.v. Cf. 

W. aberth ( = ad-bert), a sacrifice, 
ioblag, a victimised or depised female, a trollop (Glenmoriston) : 
ioc, pay, remedy, io33hlaint, a cure, salve, remedy, Ir. iocaim, 

pay, remedy, i >cshldinte, a cure, remedy, E. Ir. icaim, heal, 

pay, 0. Ir. iccaim, heal, W. iachdu, to cure, iach, sound, Cor. 

iack, sanus, Br. iac'h, healthy, 0. Br. iac : *jakko-, sound ; 

Gr. a/cos, a cure ; Skr. ya^as, grandeur. The long vowel of 


the Gadelic forms is puzzling, and these have been referred 
to *isacco-, from, iso-, eiso-, Gr. iao/xai, heal, Skr. iskayati, 

iochd, clemency, humanity, Ir. iocM, clemency, confidence, M. Ir. 
icht, protection, E. Ir. icht, progeny, children : *peklus, root 
pek, pah, Lat. pectus, breast, paciscor, paction ; allied to uchd. 
For iochd, progeny, cf. Norse dtt, family (Rhys). See aicme. 

iochdar, the lower part, bottom, Ir. iochdar, 0. Ir. ichtar. It is 
formed from ios, U, down, on the analogy of uachdar. See 

iod, alas ! Cf. Eng. tut. Also ud, oh dear ! 

iodhal, au image, Ir. iodhal, 0. Ir. idal ; from Lat. idolum, Eng. 

iodhlann, a cornyard, Ir. iothlann, granary, 0. Ir. ithla, g. ithland, 
area, W. yd Ian, 0. W. itlann, area : *(pjitu-landd, " corn- 
land " ; 0. Ir. ith (g. etho), corn, W., Cor. yd, Br. ed, it ; Skr. 
pitu, nourishment, eating, Zend pitu, food. For further con- 
nections, see ith, eat. For -lann, see lann. 

iodhnadh, pangs of child-birth, Ir. iodhana, pangs, E. Ir. idu, pi. 
idain : *(p)idSn-; Got. fitan, travail in birth. 

iogan, deceit, fraud : 

ioghar, ioghnadh ; see iongar, ioagnadh. 

iul-, prefix denoting "many," Ir. iot-, 0. Ir. il, multus: *elu-, *pelu-, 
many ; Got., 0. H. G. filu, Ger. viel, many ; Gr. 7ro\vs, many ; 
Skr. puru. The root is pel, pld, plS, as in G. Ictn, lion, Eng. 
fall, etc. 

iola, a fishing station, fishing rock, fishing bank (Heb. and 
N.H.) ; Shet. tela. 

iolach, a shout, psean, Ir. iolach, merriment, 0. Ir. Hack, psean ; 
W. elwch, a shout. *elu/cko, root pel, roar ; ireXayos *? (St). 
Cf. Ag. S. eald, oh, alas. 

iolair, eagle, Ir iolar, M. Ir. ilur, for irur, *eruro-s, W. eryr, Cor., 
Br. er ; Got. ara, 0. H. G. aro, Ger. aar, Ag. S. earn ; Lit. 
ere'lis, Prus. a.relie ; also Gr. opvis, a bird. 

iolar, down (Perthshire), also urlar : a degraded adverbial form 
of urlar 1 Or for *ior-ar, * air-air, " on-by " 1 

iolla, view, glance; gabh iolla ris, just look at it; cf. ealla. 

iollagach, frolicsome ; see iullagach. 

iollain, expert (H.S.D. ; Sh., O'R. iollan); from ealaidh. 

iom-, the broad-vowel form of the prefix im-, q.v. 

ioma, iomadh, many, many a, Ir. ioma, iomdha, E. Ir. immad, 
multitudo, 0. Ir. imbed, copia, immde, multus (*imbde), 
immdugud, exuberantia : *imbeto-, from the prep, imbi, embi, 
now im-, mu, about (Z. 2 64). Bez. queries if allied to Lat. 


pinguis, thick, Gr. -n-axvs, but gh, ghv gives in Gadelic a 

simple g (Ost. Ind. For. 4 ). Also G. iomad, many, iomaididh, 

superabundance, Ir. iomad, a multitude, much, For d cf. 

iomadan, concurrence of disasters, a mourning : 
iomagaill, iomaguin, anxiety : *imb-ad-goni-, root gon of iargain 1 
iomain, a driving (of cattle, etc.), Ir. iomdin, tossing, driving, 

E. Ir. immdin, a driving {*embi-agni-), inf. to immagim, 

circumago ; Lit. ambages, going round, windings ; root dg, ag i 

drive ; Lat. ago, Gr. ayo>, etc. 
iomair, a ridge of land, Ir. iomaire, E. Ir. immaire, imbaire : 

*embi-ario-, root ar, plough ; see ar . 
iomair, need, behove : " serve " ; Ir. timthire, servant, 0. Ir. 

timmthirim, I serve. For force, cf. feum. The root is tlr, 

iomair, employ, exercise, play, noun iomairt, Ir. imirt, a game, 

E. Ir. imbert, 0. Ir. vb. imbrim, infero, etc. : for imb-berim, 

root ber of beir, q.v. 
iomall, a border, limit, Ir. imiol, E. Ir. imbel, W. ymyl : *imb-el, 

"circuit," root el, go, Lat. amb-ulare, walk, which reproduces 

both roots. See further under tadhal. Hence iomallach, 

iomarbhaidh, a struggle, Ir. iomarbhaidh, E. Ir. immarbdg : 

*imm-ar-bdg- ; root bag, strive, Norse bdgr, strife, 0. H. G. 

bdga, vb. pagan. See arabtiaig. M'A. gives iomarbhuidh, 

hesitation, confusion, 
iomarcach, very numerous, superfluous (Carswell's imarcach), Ir. 

iomarcach, M. Ir. imarcraid, superfluity (also " carrying," 

from immarchor, cor, place, as in iomarchur). M'A. gives 

the meaning as "in many distresses, distressed," and the 

root as arc of aire. 
fiomarchur, a rowing, tumbling, straying, Ir. iomarchur (O'B.), 

E. Ir immarchor ( = imm-ar-cor, from cor or cuir, put), carry- 
ing, errand, 
iomchan, carriage, behaviour : 
iomchar, carriage, behaviour, Ir. iomchar, E. Ir. immchor ; from 

imm- and cuir, q.v. 
iomchoire, blame, a reflection ; from iom- and coire. 
iomchorc, regards, salutation, petition, also G., Ir. iomchomharc, 

0. Ir. imchomarc, interrogatio, salutatio : *imm-com-arc-, 

from arc, ask, W. archaff, I ask, erchim, Cor. argkaf, M, Br. 

archas, will command : *{jo)ar~kd, ask, root perk, prek, prk ; 

Lat. precor, Eng. pray, posco (=porcsco), demand; Ger. f rage, 

forschung, question, inquiry ; Lit. pr<isnjti t beg ; Skr. pranias, 



iomchuidh, proper, Ir. iomchubhaidh, M. Tr. immchubaid ; from 
iom- and cubhaidh, q.v. 

lomhaigk, an image, Ir. iomhaigh, M. Ir. iomdig, imagin, Cor. 
auain ; from Lat. imago. 

iomlag, the navel ; see imleag. 

iomlaid, an exchange, Ir. iomlut ; possibly from the G. root lud y 
go (see dol). 

iomlan, whole, E. Ir. imshldn, quite whole. 

iompaidh, a turning, conversion, Ir. iompogh, 0. Ir. impud, 
imputh, W. ymod, a turn : *imb-shouth, 0. Ir. soim, averto : 
*sovio, root su, sou, Lat. sucula, windlass. It has also been 
referred to the root sup, Lat. dissipo, Lit, supu, swing. 

iomradh, fame, report, Ir. iomrddh, 0. Ir. immrddud, tractatio, 
cogitatio ; from iom- and rddh, say. 

iomrall, an error, wandering, Ir. iomrolladh, iomrulladh, E. Ir. 
imroll, mistake : *ambi-air-al, root al, el, go, as in iomall. 

iomram, iomramh, rowing, Ir. iomramh, iomrdmh (O'B.), E, Ir. 
immram, vb. immrdim ; from iom- and rdmh. 

ion, fit, ion-, prefix denoting fitness, Ir. ion-, prefixed to passive 
participles, denotes fitness (O'D., who quotes inleighis, curable, 
inmheasta, believable) : a particular use of in-, in-, which see. 
ion is iomlan, almost perfect (Hend.). 

ion-, negative prefix an before b, d, g, Ir. ion-, 0. Ir. in- ; see an 
for derivation. The primitive n before b, d, g, becomes in in 

ionad, a place, Ir. ionad, ionnad ; the E. Ir. has inad only, point- 
ing to modern ionadh : 

iona(dh), in c'iona, c'ionadh, whether : co and ionadh or iona, 
E. Ir. inad, place. See above. The Modern Ir. is ca Monad. 

ionaltair, a pasturing, pasture ; from in- and *altair, a shorter 
form of altrum. Cf. for form Ir. ingilim, I pasture, from in- 
and gelim, I eat (root gel, as in G. goile). , iomair ionailt, 
browsing rig (Carm.). 

ionann, alike, Ir. ionnan, 0. Ir. inonn, innon, inon. Possibly for 
*sin-6n, *sin-son, " this-that ;" see sin, and s6n of 0. Ir. is for 
*sou-n, *sou, hoc, Gr. ov-tos (for root, see sa). Cf. for form 
Lat. idem = is-dem, Gr. 6 avros. 

ionbhruich, broth ; see eanraich. 

iong'a, g. ingne, pi. ingnean, inean, a nail, Ir. ionga, g. iongan, 
0. Ir. inga, g. ingen, W. ewin, Cor. euuin, Br. ivin : *engind 
(Stokes) ; Lat, unguis ; Gr. 6vv£, g. oV^xos ; Got. nagljan, 
Eng. nail ; Skr. nakhd. Fick gives the I. E. root as nogh, 
ngh, with stems noghlo-, nghlo-. 



iongantach, wonderful, so Ir., ingantach ; formed from the noun 

iongnadh, wonder, 
iongar, ioghar, pus : *in-gor, root gov of guirean, q.v. Dr Cam. 

compared Gr. tx«J/), blood of the gods (Gael, No. 548). 

*ping-aro-, pi, swell 1 
iongnadh, wonder, so Ir., 0. Ir. ingndd, ingndth (adj. and n.) ; for 

in-gndth, " not wont " ; see ion- (neg. prefix) and gnath. 
ionmhas, treasure, Ir. ionmkas, ionnmhus, E. Ir. indmass ; from 

in- and -mass of tomhas, measure, q.v. Ascoli connects it 

with 0. Ir. indeb, lucrum, M. Ir. indbas, wealth, 
ionmhuinn, dear, Ir. ionmhuin, 0. Ir. inmain : *eni-moni-, root 

mon, men, mind, remember, for which see cuimhne. See 

ionn-, prefix of the same force as fri, ri ; see inn- further, 
ionnairidh, a watching at night ; from ionn- and aire. 
ionnaltoir, a bath, Ir. ionnaltoir (O'R.), bather (Con.) ; see 

f iounas, condition, status, ionnas gu, insomuch that, so that, 

cionnas, how, Ir. ionnus, so that, 0. Ir. indas, status : *ind- 

astu-, "in adstatu," from ad-sta, root sta, stand. Zeuss 2 

derives it from ind and the abstract termination -assu (-astu-), 

seemingly giving it the idea of " to-ness." 
ionndruinn, missing: *ind-reth-in, "wandering"; seefaondra. 
ionnlad, washing, Ir. ionnlat, 0. Ir. indlat, Ir. vb. innuilim, M. Ir. 

indalim. There is also an E. Ir. indmat, washing of the 

hands. From *ind-lutto-, *lutto from lu, lov, bathe, Lat. 

lavo, etc. % 
ionnsaich, learn, E. Ir. insaigim, seek out, investigate, noun 

saigidj seeking out, saigim : in- and sag, root sag, seek ; Lat. 

sagio, am keen, sagax, acute ; Gr. ^yeo/xcu, lead ; Got. sdkjan, 

seek, Eng. seek; I. E. sag, sag. The G. connsaich is from 

co-in-saigim, sagim, say, dispute ; Got. sakan, dispute, Eng. 

forsake, sake. 
ionnsuidh, attempt, approach, Ir. ionnsuigh, E. Ir. insaigid, a visit; 

from in- and saigid, seeking out, visiting. See ionnsaich. 

Hence the prep, dh? ionnsuidh. 
ionntag, a nettle ; see deanntag. 
ionntlas, delight (H.S.D.) ; from in- and tlathl 
ionntraich, miss (Dial.) ; see ionndruinn. 
ionraic, righteous, Ir. ionnruic, 0. Ir. inricc, dignus : *ind-rucci- 

(Ascoli) ; possibly *rucci- is for *rog-ki, root rog, reg of 

ioraltan, harmless tricks : *air + alt. 
ioras, down ; from air and \os. Dial, uireas. 
iorbhail, infection, taint: * air -{-bail, " on-issue." 


iorcallach, a robust man : " Herculean " ; from Iorcall, Hercules, 
a Gaelic word formed from the Latin one. 

iorghuil, fray, strife, so Ir., 0. Ir. irgal ; from air and gal, q.v. 
Also iorgull. 

iorrach, quiet, undisturbed : 

iorram, a boat song : *air-rdm, " at oar " song. Cf. iomram for 

f ios, down, Ir. f ios, in phrases a nios, from below, sios, to below, 
so Ir. ; 0. Ir. is, iss, infra, W. is, comp isel, sup. isaf, Br. is, 
iz, isel, comp. iseloch : *enso or *endso, from en, now an, in ; 
Lat. Imus, lowest, from *ins-mus, from in. Stokes cfs. rather 
Skr. adhcis, under (ndhas), Eng. under, giving the prehistoric 
form as *ins6 ; and there is much in favour of this view for 
the meaning's sake, though most philologists are on the side 
of en or end, now an, being root. Lat. imus or infimus would 
then follow the Celtic. 

iosal, low, Ir. iosal, 0. Ir. isel : *endslo-s ; see Ios above. 

iosgaid, hough, poples, Ir. ioscaid, M. Ir. iscait, E. Ir. escait : 

iosop, hyssop, Ir. iosdip ; from Lat. hyssopum, whence Eng. 

iotadh, thirst, Ir. iota, 0. Ir. itu, g. itad : *isottdt-, root is, desire, 
seek ; Gr. Iottjs, wish, ifxepos, desire ; Ch. SI. iskati, seek ; 
Skr. ish, seek, Zend, ish, wish. 

iothlann, cornyard ; see iodhlann. 

ire, progress, state, degree of growth, 0. Ir. hire, ire {ire), ulterior^ 
*(p)ereio-, from per, through, over ; Gr. rrcpalos, on the other 
side. Stokes makes the proportional comparison of these 
forms thus : — (p)ereios : TrepaLos = (p)arei (now air) : TrapaL 

ir iosal, humble : *air-iosal, q.v. 

iris, hen-roost, basket or shield handle, M. Ir. iris, pi. irsi, sus- 
pender, shield handle, ssttchel strap : *are-sti-, from air and 
sta, stand. See ros, seas. 

is, is, Ir., 0. Ir. is, 0. Ir. iss, 0. W. iss, is = Gr. icrrl ; Lat. est, is ; 
Eng. is, etc. 

is, and, lr., E. Ir. is ; seemingly an idiomatic use of is, is. Con- 
sider the idiom ; " Ni e sin is mise an so " — " He will do it 
and I here"; literally: "He will do it, I am here." It is 
usually regarded as a curtailment of agus, and hence spelt 
variously as a's, 'us. 

isbean, a sausage ; from Norse ispen, a sausage of lard and suet 

( = i-spen, from speni, a teat), 
isean, a chicken, young of any bird, Ir. isean, E. Ir. essine, 0. Ir. 
isseniu, pullo : *ex(p)et-nio- 1 Root pet, fly ; that is, *ex-en-, 
en being eun, bird, 
isneach, a rifle gun ; from oisinn, corner 1 Meyer suggests from 
isean, young of birds, comparing " fowling-piece." 


ist ! whist ! Eng. whist ! hist ! Lat. st ! Onomatopoetic. 

ite, a feather, Ir. itedg, 0. Ir. ette : *ettid, *pet-tid, root pet, fly ; 
Gr. 7r€T0fxaL, I fly ; Lat. penna, a wing (*pet-na), Eng, pen ; 
Eng. feather, Ger. jittich ; etc. See eun. W. ad en, wing, is 
near related, iteachan, a spool, weaver's bobbin. 

iteodha, hemlock. Cameron (29) suggests a derivation from ite, 
the idea being "feather-foliaged." 

ith, eat, Ir., 0. Ir. ithim : *ito, *pito, I eat; Ch. SI. pltati, feed : 
Skr. pitu, nourishment, Zend pitu, food ; further Gr. irirvs, 
pine. Also fitb, fioth, corn, as in iodhlann, q.v. 

iubhar, yew, Ir. iubhar, E. Ir. ibar, Gaul. Eburos ; Ger. tberesche, 
service-tree (*ebarisc). So Schrader. It does not seem that 
Ir. eo, W. yw, Br. ivin, *ivo-, Eng. ye>i\ can be allied to 
iubhar. Hence iubrach, a yew wood, stately woman, the 
mythic boat of Fergus M c Ro in the Deirdre story. 
Eboracum ? 

iuc, corner, slit. See niiic. 

iuchair, a key, Ir. eochair, E. Ir. eochuir, Manx ogher, W. egoriacf, 
key, egor, agor, opening : *ekuri- ; root stem pecu-, fastening, 
whence Lat. pecu, cattle, Eng. fee. Cf. W. ebill, key, auger. 

iuchair, the roe, spawn, Ir., M. Ir. iuchair : *jekvw i-, Lat. jecur, 
liver 1 

iuchar, the dog-days : 

iugh, a particular posture in which the dead are placed : 

iul, guidance, Ir. iul ; cf. eolas. 

iullag", a sprightly female, iullagach, sprightly : 

iunais, want, E. Ir. ingudis, 0. Ir. ingnais, absence : *in-gndth, 
from gndth, known, custom ; see gnath. Also aonais. 

iunnrais, stormy sky : 

iunntas, wealth : 

iurpais, fidgeting, wrestling j cf. farpuis. 

f iursach, suspensory (Oss. Ballads), applied to the mail-coat. 
From iris. H.S.D. gives the meaning as " black, dark." 

iuthaidh, fiuthaidh, iuthaidh, arrow, gun, etc. : 

iutharn, hell ; for *ifhern, a side-form of ifrinn. 

la, latha, day, Ir. Id, g. laoi, 0. Ir. lathe, laithe, lae, g. lathi, d. 

lau, lou, 16: *lasio-, root las, shine; Skr. Idsati, shines; Gr. 

Aaw, behold. 
laban, lapail, mire, dirt, Ir. Idbdn ; also laib. Cf. for root 

lathach (* lath-bo-). 
labanach, a day-labourer, plebeian, Ir. labdnach (O'B., etc. ; Sh.) ; 

from Lat. labor ? 


labhair, speak, Ir. labkraim, E. Ir. labraim, 0. Ir. labrur, labrathar, 
loquitur, W. llafar, vocalis, lleferydd, voice, Corn, lauar, 
sermo, Br. lavar, Gaul, river Labarus : *labro-, speak ; Gr. 
\df3pos, furious, Xappevofiou, talk rashly. Bez. prefers the 
root of Eng. flap. Others have compared Lat. labrum, lip, 
which may be allied to both Celtic and Gr. (Aa/fyeuopxi). 
Hence G. and Ir. labhar, loud, 0. Ir. labar, eloquens, W. 
llafar, loud, Gr. \df3pos. 

la-bhallan, water shrew (Suth.), la-mhalan (Forbes) : 

lach, a wild duck, Ir., E. Ir. lacha ; cf. the Lit. root lak, fly. 

lach, reokoning, contribution per head ; from the Sc. lauch, tavern 
reckoning, /awing (do.), from the root of Eng. law. 

lachan, a laugh ; from the So., Eng. laugh. 

lachduinn, dun, grey, tawny, Ir., M. Ir. lachtna, grey, dun ; cf. 
Skr. rakta, coloured, reddened, ranj, dye, whence Eng. lake, 

lad, I6d, a load, Ir. lad ; from the M. Eng. laden, to lade. 

lad, a mill lead ; from the Eng. lead, lade. For the N.H. meaning 
of " puddle," see lod. 

ladar, a ladle ; from the Eng. ladle by dissimilation of the liquids. 

ladarna, bold, so Ir., M. Ir. latrand, robber, W. pi. lladron, 
thieves ; from Lat. latro, latronis, a thief. 

ladhar, a hoof, fork, so Ir., E. Ir. ladar, toes, fork, branch : 
*pla&ro-n, root pla, extend. 

lag, a hollow, Ir. log, a pit, hollow : *luggo-, root lug, bend ; Gr. 
Avyifw, bend ; Lit. lugnas, pliant. Stokes gives the basis as 
*lonko-, root lek, lenk, bend, Lit. Idnkas, a curve, lanka, a 
mead, Ch. SI. laku, bent ; but this would give a in G. ; Ger. 
lilcke, gap, blank. 

lag, weak, Ir. lag, E. Ir. lac, M. Ir. luice (pi.), W. Hag, sluggish : 
*laggo-s, root lag ; Lat. langueo, Eng. languid ; Gr. Aayya£<o, 
slacken, kayapos, thin ; Eng. slack, also lag, from Celtic. Cf. 


lagan, sowens : *latag-ko- 1 Root lat, be wet, Gr. Aara£, drop, 

Lat. latex. See Ictthacfi. 
lagh, law, Ir. lagh (obsolete, says Con.) ; from the Eng. The 

phrase air lagh, set in readiness for shooting (as of a bow) is 

hence also, 
laghach, pretty, Ir. Idghach, laghach (Donegal) ; cf. M. Ir. lig t 

beauty, root leg, Lat. lectus, chosen, Eng. election 1 Cf. 0. VV. 

lin, gratia. Kluge says Eng. like. 
laidir, strong, Ir., E. Ir. Ididir : 
laigh, luigh, lie, Ir. luigh, E. Ir. laigim, 0. Ir. lige, bed, W. gwe-ly, 

bed (Cor. gueli, Br. guele), Gaul, legasit ( = posuit 1) : *logo, 


lego, to lie, Hegos, bed, I. E. root legh, lie ; Gr. Acxos, bed, 
\.€x*Tai, sleeps (Hes.) ; Got. ligan, Ger. liegan, Eng. lie, etc. 

laimhrig", landing place, harbour : from N. hlaft-hamarr, pier or 
loading rock, Shet. Laamar. Also lamraig. 

laimhsich, handle, Ir. laimhsighim : *ldm-ast-ico-, from *lamas, 
handling, from lamh, q.v. 

lainiiir, brightness, polish, E. Ir. lainderda, glittering, glancing ; 
also loinnear, bright, q.v. • 

lainnir, a falcon (Carm.) : 

laipheid, an instrument for making horn-spoons : 

lair, a mare, Ir. 0. Ir. lair, g. Idrach : *ldrex. Stokes suggests 
connection with Alban. pele, pele, mare. 

lairceach, stout, short-legged, fat, lairceag, a short, fat woman : 

lairig, a moor, sloping hill, a pass ; cf. M. Ir. laarg, fork, leg and 
thigh, 0. Ir. loarcc, furca. Often in place names : 

laisde, easy, in good circumstances ; cf. Ir. laisti, a heavy, stupid 
person ; from las, loose 1 

laisgeailta, fiery, fierce ; from las, q.v. 

laithilt, a weighing as with scales, Ir. laithe, scales : *platio-, root 
plat, plet, as in leathan. 

lamban, milk curdled by rennet (Dial.) ; see slaman. 

lamh, able, dare, Ir. lamhaim, E. Ir. lamaim, 0. Ir. -laimur, audeo, 
W. llafasu, audere, Cor. lavasy, Br. lafuaez : *plamo, a short- 
vowel form of the root of lamh, hand, the idea being " manage 
to, dare to V Stokes says it is probably from *tlam, dare, 
Gr. roA/xa, daring, Sc. thole ; see tldth. Windisch has com- 
pared Lit. lemiii, lemti, fix, appoint. 

lamh, hand, Ir. ldmh t 0. Ir. lam, W. Haw, Cor. lof, 0. Br. lau ; 
*ldmd, *pldmd ; Lat. palma, Eng. palm ; Gr. TraXdfXT] ; Ag. S. 
folm, 0. H. G. folma. Hence lamhainn, glove, E. Ir. Idmind. 
lamh, axe (Ross), lamhaidh (Suth.) ; lamhag, a small hatchet 
(Arg.), M. Ir. laime, axe; 01. Slav, lomifi, break, *lam, Eng. 
lame (St.). 

lamhrag, a slut, awkward woman, lamhragan, awkward handling ; 
from lamh : " underhand." 

Ian, full, Ir., 0. Ir. Idn, W. llawn, 0. W. laun, Cor. leun, len, Br. 
leun : Htino-, *pldno-, or pl-no- (Brug.), root pi, pld, pel ; 
Skr. purnds, full ; further Lat. plenus ; Gr. 7rA>j/o7/s, iroXvs, 
many ; Eng. full, etc. See also iol, lion, linn. 

lanain, a married couple, Ir. lanamhain, E. Ir. lanamain, 0. Ir. 
Idnamnas, conjugium : * lag-no-, root log, leg, lie, as in laighl 
Stokes divides the word thus : Idn-shamain. For samhain, 
assembly, see samhainn. 

lanan, rafter beam, from lanain. 

langa, a ling ; from Norse langa, Sc. laing, Eng. ling. 


langadar, seaware with long leaves (Lewis) : 

langaid, a fetter, fetters (especially for horses), langar, Ir. lang- 

fethir (O'B. j Lh. has f langphetir), E. Ir. langfiter (Corm. Gl., 

" English word this"), W. Hyfethar, M. W. lawhethyr ; from 

Eng. lang (long) and fatter. The Sc. has langet, langelt, 

which is the origin of G. lang aid. 
langaid, the guillemote (Heb.) ; from Sc. (Shetland) longie, Dan. 

langivie (Edmonston). 
langaiseachadh, pulling a boat along by a rope from the bank : 
langan, lowing of the deer ; from the Sc, Eng. lowing 1 
langasaid, a couch, settee ; from Sc. langseat, lang-settle, " long 

lann, a blade, sword, Ir. lann, also " a scale, scale of a fish, disc " 

(Arg., M'A.) : *lag-s-na ? Root lag, as in E. Ir. laigen, lance, 

W. llain, blade, Lat. lanceo, Gr. Aoyx 7 ?? lance-point. Thur. 

(Zeit. 28) suggests *plad-s-na, "broad thing"; Gr. irXadavrj, 

Ger. Jladen, flat cake, further G. leathann, broad, etc. 0. Ir. 

lann, squama, is referred by Stokes to *lamna, allied to Lat. 

lamina, lamna ; which would produce rather 0. Ir. *lamn, 

Modern lamhan. Ir. lann, gridiron, is doubtless allied to 

0. Ir. lann. 
lann, an inclosure, land, Ir. lann, E. Ir. land, W. llan, 0. W. lann, 

area, ecclesia, Br. lann : Handd ; Teut. land, Eng. land. 

See iodhlann. 
lannsa, a lance, Ir. lannsa ; from the Eng. 
lanntair, a lantern, Ir. laindear ; from the Eng. 
laoch, a hero, Ir. laoch, a soldier, hero, E. Ir. Idech, a hero, 

champion : * laicus, soldier, " non-cleric," E. Ir. Idech, laicus, 

W. lleyg ; all from Lat. laicus, a layman, non-cleric, 
laogh, a calf, so Ir., E. Ir. Ideg, W. llo, Cor. lock, Br. leue, M. Br. 

lue: *loigo-s, calf, "jumper," root leig, skip Got. laikan, 

spring, Lit. laigyti, skip, Skr. rejati, skip (see leum further). 

It is possible to refer it to root leigh, lick : "the licker." 
laodhan, pith of wood, heart of a tree, Ir. laodhan, laoidhean ; 

also G. glaodhan, q.v. 
laoighcionn, lao'cionn, tulchan calf, calf-skin ; from laogh and 

jcionn, skin, which see under hoicionn. Crann-laoicionn, 

wooden block covered with calf-skin (Wh.). 
laoidh, a lay, so Ir., E. Ir. laed, laid, 0. Ir. loid : *lHdi-% Alliance 

with Teutonic Hup, Eng. lay, Fr. lai, Ger. lied, is possible if 

the stem is ludi- ; cf. for phonetics draoidh and ancient 

drUis, drUidos, Druid, Gaul. Lat. druidae (Stokes). 
laoineach, handsome ; cf. loinn. 
laoir, drub lustily (M'A.), laoireadh, rolling in the dust (H.S.D.). 

Cf. leir. 


laoiscionn, thin membrane inside of sheep and cattle (Lewis) ; 

N. lauss-skin, loose skin 1 
laoisg, a group, crowd (disparagingly) (Skye) : 
laom, a crowd, lodge (as corn), Jr. laomdha, bent, M. Ir. hem, 

crowd, heap : 
laom, a blaze, Ir. laom ; from Norse Ijdmi, ray, Ag. S. leoma, Sc. 

leme, to blaze, 
laom, go to shaw (as potatoes) (Skye) : 
laom-chrann, main beam of a house (Wh.) : 
laosboc, a castrated goat : 
laoran, a person too fond of the fire-side : 
lapach, benumbed, faltering ; cf. lath. Lapanaich, bedraggle 

(Perth). • 

lar, the ground, Ir., 0. Ir. Idr, W. llawr, 0. Cor. lor, 0. Br. laur, 

solum, Br. leur : *ldro-, *pldro ; Eng. floor, Ag. S. Jlor, Norse 

jlor, Ger. flur ; root pld, broad, broaden, Lat. pldnus, Eng. 

plain, etc. 
larach, a site, Ir. Idithreach, 0. Ir. Idthrach ; from lathair, q.v. 
las, loose, slack, W. llaes ; from Lat. laxus, Eng. lax. 
las, kindle, lasair, flame, so Ir., E. Ir. lassaim, lassair, W. llachar, 

gleaming : *laksar- • Skr. lakshati, see, show, 0. H. G. iuogen 

(do.). Also by some referred to *lapsar-, Gr. Aa/x7rw, shine, 

Eng. lamp, Pruss. lopis, flame. See losgadh. Windisch has 

compared Skr. arc, re, shine. Hence lasgaire, a youth, 

young " spark " ; lastan, pride, etc. 
lasgar, sudden noise : 

lath, benumb, get benumbed. Cf. W. Had. 
lathach, mire, clay, Ir., E. Ir. lathach, coenum, W. llaid, mire, Br. 

leiz, moist : *latdkd, *latjo-, root lat, be moist ; Gr. Aara£, 

Aarayes, drops ; Lat. latex, liquid. 
lathailt, a method, a mould (Wh.) : 
lathair, presence, Ir. lathair, 0. Ir. Idthar, lathair : *latri-, *ldtro-, 

root pldt, pld, broad ; Lettic plat, extend thinly ; further in 

G. Idr above. Asc. refers it to the root of 0. Ir. Idaim, I 

send, which is allied to Gr. «Aaww, I drive, etc. Hence 

le, by, with, Ir. le, 0. Ir. la, rarer le : *let ; from leth, side, 
leabag, a flounder ; see lebb. Also ledbag. 
leabaidh, a bed, leabadh, Ir. leaba, leabuidh, E. Ir. lepaid, lepad, 

g. leptha : *lebboti-, *leg-buto- " lying-abode," from root leg, 

Xex> lie, as in laigh ? W. bedd. 
leabhar, a book, so Ir., 0. Ir. lebor, W. llyfr ; from Lat. liber. 
leabhar, long, clumsy, M. Ir. lebur, 0. Ir. lebor, long : *lebro-, 

root leg, hanging, Gr. Ao/3o?, a lobe ; Eng. lajvpet ; also Lat. 

liber, book. 


leac, a flag, flag-stone, so Ir., E. Ir. lecc, W. llech : Hiccd, Hp-kd, 

root lep, a shale ; Gr. A^ras, bare rock ; Lat. lapis, stone. 

Stokes and Strachan refer it to the root plk, flat, Lat. planca, 

Eng. plank, Gr. 7rAa£, plain, 
leac, a cheek, leacainn, a hill side, Ir. leaca, cheek, g. leacan, 

E. Ir. lecco, g. leccan : *lekkon- ; 0. Pruss. laygnan, Ch. SI. 

lice, vnltus. Root liq, lig, appearance, like, Gr. -Aikos, Eng. 

like, tyke-wake, Ger. leichnam body, 
leadair, mangle, so Ir., E. Ir. letraim, inf. letrad, hacking : 

*leddro- : 
leadan, flowing hair, a lock, teasel, Ir., leaddn, M. Ir. leddn, teasel. 

Root li, stick ; see liosta. 
leadan, notes in music, Ir. leaddn, musical notes, litany ; from 

Lat. litania, litany, 
leag, throw down, Ir. leagaim, inf. leagadh : *leggo, from leg, root 

of laigh, lie (cf. Eng. lay)% The preserved g may be from 

the analogy of leig, let ; and Ascoli refers the word to the 

0. Ir. root leg, lig, destruere, sternere : foralaig, straverat, 

dolega, qui destruit. 
leagarra, self-satisfied, smug (Arg.) : 
leagh, melt, so Ir., 0. Ir. legaim, legad, W. llaith, moist, dad 

leithio, melt, Br. leiz : *lego ; Eng. leak, Norse leka, drip, 

Ger. lechzen. 
leamh, foolish, insipid, importunate, Ir. leamh ; cf. E. Ir. lem, 

everything warm (?) and soft (Corm. sub lemlacht, new milk, 

W. llefrith, sweet milk, Corn, leverid, liuriz ; 0. Ir. lemnact, 

sweet milk) ; consider root lem, break, as in Eng. lame, etc. 
leamhan, elm, Ir. leamhann, leamh, M. Ir. lem : *lmo- ; Lat. ulmus, 

Eng. elm : *elmo-. W. llwyf (*leimd) is different, with which 

is allied (by borrowing *?) Eng. lime in lime-tree. 
leamnacht, tormentil, Ir. neamhain : 
leamhnad, leamhragan, stye in the eye, W. llefrithen, llyfelyn : 

Himo-, "ooze'"? Cf. Lat. llmus, mud, lino, smear, Eng. loam. 
lean, leana, a lea, swampy plain, Ir. Uana (do.) : Hekno-% Cf. 

Lit. le'kns, lekna, depression, wet meadow (cf. Stokes on lag 

above) j this is Mr Strachan's derivation. The spelling 

seems against referring it, as Stokes does, to the root lei, Gr. 

keifxiov, meadow, Lit. leija, a valley ; though W. llwyn, grove, 

favours this. Cf. W. lleyn, low strip of land, 
lean, follow, Ir. leanaim, 0. Ir. lenim, W. can-lyn, dy-lyn, sequi : 

Hinami, I cling to ; Skr. lindmi, cling to ; Lat. lino, smear ; 

Gr. aAtVto (do.) ; Hipndmi, Lit. lipti, cleave to ; root li, li, 

adhere. Inf. is leanmhuinn. 



leanabh, a child, Ir. leanbh, E. Ir. lenab : Henvo- ; from lean % 

Corm. gives also lelap, which, as to termination, agrees with 

G. leanaban. Cf. aXo<j>vpiioai. 
leann, ale, see lionn. 
leannan, a sweetheart, Ir. leanndn, a concubine, E. Ir. lennan, 

lendan, concubine, favourite : lex-no-, root leg, lie, as in laigh 1 

From lionn ; cf. black 1 
lear, the sea (poetical word), Ir. lear, E. Ir. ler, W. llyr : *liro-, 

root li, flow, as in lighe, flood. Stokes gives the Celtic as 

lero-s, but offers no further derivation, 
learag, larch ; from Sc. larick, Eng. larch, from Lat. larix (*darix, 

as in darach, q.v.). 
learg, leirg, plain, hillside, Ir. learg, E. Ir. lerg, a plain ; cf. Lat. 

largus, Eng. large. 
learg, diver bird (Carm.) : 
leas, advantage, Ir. leas, 0. Ir. less, W. lies, Cor. les, Br. laz : 

*lesso-, root pled, fruit; Slav, plodu, fruit (Stokes, Bez.). 
leas-, nick-, step-, Ir. leas-, 0. Ir. less-, W. llys- (W. llysenw = G. 

leas-ainm), Br. £es- ; same as leas above : " additional." Cf. 

Fr. use of bean, belle for step-. Stokes suggests *lisso-, blame, 

root leid, Gr. AoiSopew, revile (Lat. ludere 1) ; others compare 

leas- to Ger. laster, vice (see lochd) ; Bez. queries connection 

with Ag. S. lesve, false, Norse lasinn, half-broken, 
leasg, leisg, lazy, Ir. leasg, 0. Ir. lesc, W. llesg : *lesko-s ; Norse 

loskr, weak, idle, 0. H. G. lescan, become extinguished, Ger. 

erloschen (Stokes). Brugmann and others give stem as Hed- 

sco-, comparing Got. latz, lazy, Eng. late, to which Norse 

loskr may be referred (*latkwa-z) ; root led, lad. eAtvww, 

rest (Zeit. 34 , 531). 
leasraidh, loins, Ir. leasruigh, pi. of leasrach ; see leis. 
leathad, declivity, hillside ; cf. Ir. leathad, breadth. See lend. 
leathan, broad, so Ir., 0. Ir. lethan, W. llydan, 0. W. litan, Br. 

ledan, Gaul, litano-s : *ltano-s, Gr. 7rAaTus, broad ; Skr. 

prdthas, breadth ; Lat. planta, sole of the foot, sprout : root 

plet, plat, extend, 
leathar, leather, so Ir., E. Ir. lethar, W. lledr, M. Br. lezr, Br. ler : 

*letro- ; Eng. leather, Ger. leder, Norse leb"r. To prove 

that the Teutons borrowed this word from the Celts, it is 

asserted that the original Celtic is *(p)letro-, root pel of 

Gr. TreAAa, hide, Eng. fell. 
leatrom, burden, weight, leatromach, pregnant, Ir. leathtrom, 

burden, pregnancy ; from Uth and trom. 
leibhidh,|race, generation (M c Ithich, 1685) ; from Eng. levyl 
leibhidh,*amount of stock (Carm.) : 
leibid, a* trifle, dirt, leibideach, trifling, Ir. libideach, dirty, 

awkward : 


l^ideach, strong, shaggy, Ir. leidmheach, strong (O'B.), 0. Tr. 

letenach, audax : 
leig, let, Ir. leigim, 0. Ir. le'iccim, le'cim : *leinqio ; Lat. linquo ; 

Gr. AeiVco : Got. leihvan, Eng. loan. 
leigh, a physician, leigheas, a cure, Ir. leigheas, M. Ir. leges ; see 

l^ine, a shirt, so Ir., E. Ir. lene, g. lenith, pi. lenti : *leinet-, from 

lein, lin ; Lat. linum, flax, Eng. linen, Sc. Under ; Gr. Atra, 

cloth, Xlvov, flax. See Aow. Strachan refers it, on the 

analogy of deur = dakro-, to laknet-, root /a&, of Lat. lacerna, 

cloak, lacinia, lappet. 
16ir, sight, Ir. leir, sight, clear, 0. Ir. leir, conspicuous. If 

Strachan's phonetics are right, this may be for *lakri-, root 

lak, see, show, W. llygat, eye, Cor. lagat, Br. lagad, eye, Skr. 

lakshati, see, show, 0. H. G. luogen (do.), as in ^, q.v. 
16ir, gu leir, altogether, Ir. leir, M. Ir. A&'r, complete, W. llwyr, 

total, altogether : Heiri-s : 
16ir, torment, to pain : *lakro-, root M, as in Lat. lacero, lacerate ? 
leirg", a plain ; see learg. 

leirist, a foolish, senseless person, slut (leithrist) : 
leis, thigh, Ir. leas, leis, hip, 0. Ir. less, clunis ; *lexa, root lek \ 

Eng. leg, Gr. Aa^, kicking (St.). Nigra connects it with 

leth, side. See slios. 
leisdear, arrow-maker ; from the Eng. Jietcher, from Fr. flecke, 

arrow. Seejleasg. 
leisg, laziness, lazy, Ir. leisg (n.) ; see leasg. 
leisgeul, excuse ; from leth and sgeul, " half-story." 
leithid, the like, so. Ir., E. Ir. lethet ; from leth, half, side, 
leithleag, leileag, print for frocks : 
leitir, a hillside, slope, E. Ir. lettir, g. lettrach, W. llethr, slope : 

*lettrek-. It may be from *leth-tir, " country-side," or from 

let of leathan ; cf. W. lleth, flattened, " broadened." 
leob, a piece, shred, Ir. leab, a piece, leadhb, a patch of old leather, 

M. Ir. ledb : *led-bo- ; for root led, cf. leathar 1 Hence ledb, 

a hanging lip, ledbag, leabag, a flounder. Cf. Norse leppr, 

a rag (Craigie). 
leobhar, long, clumsy ; see leabhar. 
leocach, sneaking, low : 
leddag, a slut, prude, flirt : 
leog, a slap in the head (M'D.) : 
leogach, hanging loosely, slovenly : 
leoir, enough, Ir., E. Ir. lebr, I6r, 0. Ir. lour, W. llawer, many : 

Havero-, root lav, lau, gain, Lat. lucrum, gain, Laverna, Skr. 

I6ta, booty, Eng. loot, etc. Stokes refers W. llawer to the 

comparative stem of pie, full ; see liuth. 


leom, conceit, ledmais, dilly-dallying ; cf. Ir. leoghaim, I flatter, 
leom, prudery. 

leomann, moth, Ir. leomhan, Uamhann, E. Ir. legam. 

leomkann, leoghann, lion, Ir. leomhan, 0. Ir. leoman ; from Lat. 
leo, leonem. 

Ie6n, wound, Ir. lednaim, E. Ir. lenaim, wound, len, hurt; this 
Strachan refers to Hakno-, root, lak, tear, as in Lat. lacero, 
lacerate, Gr. Aa/a's, a rent. But cf. leadradh, E. Ir. leod, 
cutting, killing, Hedu, root led, ledh, fell, Lat. labi, Eng. 

leth, side, half, Ir., 0. Ir. leth, W. lied, 0. Br. let : Hetos ; Lat. 
latus. Brugmann refers it to the root plet, broad, of leathan. 

leth-aon, twin, leth-uan : E. Ir. emuin, twins, *jemnos : 

lethbhreac, a correlative, equal, match ; from leth and breac (1). 

lethcheann (pron. lei'chean), the side of the head, cheek ; from 
leth and ceann, with possibly a leaning on the practically lost 
leac, leacann, cheek. 

leud, lead, breadth, Ir. leithead, 0. Ir. lethet ; see leathan. 

leug, a precious stone, Ir. Hag, a stone, M. Ir. leg, Ug-lbgmar, 
0. Ir. lia, g. liacc : *levink- ; Gr. Aaiy£ , g. Xduyyos, a small 
stone, Aaas, stone ; Ger. lei, stone, rock, Ital. lavagna, slate, 

leug, laziness, lazy, slow ; see sUig. 

leugh, leagh, read, Ir. Uaghaim, M. Ir. legim, 0. Ir. legim, roleg, 
legit, legend, reading ; from Lat. lego, I read, Eng. lecture, etc. 

leum, a jump, Ir., 0. Ir. leim, le'imm, W. Ham, Br. B,m, 0. Br. 
lammam, salio : *lengmen-, 0. Ir. vb. lingim, I spring, root 
leg, leng ; Skr. langhati, leap, spring ; M. H. G. lingen, go 
forward, Eng. light, etc. The 0. Ir. perfect tense leblaing 
has made some give the root as vleng, vleg, Skr. valg, spring, 
Lat. valgus, awry, Eng. walk; and some give the root as 
svleng, from svelg. It is difficult to see how the v or sv before 
I was lost before I in leum. 

leus, lias, a torch, light, Ir. leus, E. Ir. les, less, 0. Ir., lesboire, 
lightbearer : *plent-to-, from plend, splend, Lat. splendeo, Eng. 
splendid (Strachan). Cf. W. llwys, clear, pure. 

li, colour, 0. Ir. li, Hi, W. lliw, Cor. liu, color, Br. lion, 0. Br. 
liou, liu : *livos- ; Lat. livor, lividus, Eng. livid. 

f lia, a stone, 0. Ir. lia, g. liacc ; see leug. 

liagh, a ladle, Ir., M. Ir. liach, 0. Ir. Hag, trulla, scoop, W. llwy, 
spoon, spattle, Cor. loe, Br. loa : leigd, ladle, root leigh, ligh, 
lick (as in tmlich, q.v.) ; Lat. ligula, spoon, ladle. 

liath, gray, so Ir., E. Ir. Hath, W. llwyd, canus, 0. Br. loit, M. Br. 
loet : *leito-, *pleito-, for *peleito- ; Gr. ireXirvos, livid ; Skr. 
palitd, gray ; Lat. pallidus ; Eng. fallow, Ag. S. fealo, yellow. 
Cf. 0. Fr. Hart, dark grey, Sc. lyart (*ltucardus ?). 


liathroid, a ball (M'D., liaroid) : 

liatrus, blue-mould, liathlas, liatas : Hath + 1 

lid, Hod, a syllable, lisp, lideach, liotach, lisping, Ir. liotadh, a 

lisp (Fol.) ; cf. Gr. Am), prayer, Lat. lito, placate. 
lidh, steep grassy slope : N. hli?5% 

ligeach, sly ; from the Sc. sleekie, sleekit, sly, smooth, Eng. sleek. 
lighe, a flood, overflow, Ir., E. Ir. lia, 0. Ir. lie, eluvio, W. Hi, 

flood, stream, lliant, fluctus, fluentum, Br. livad, inundation ; 

root li, leja, flow ; Skr. riyati, let run ; Lit. leti, gush ; Gr. 

Xifivrj, lake, Aeios, smooth, Lat. levis, level, limus, mud ; etc. 

Stokes hesitates between root li and roots pleu (Eng. flow) 

and lev, lav, Lat. lavo, luo. 
lighiche, a physician, Ir. liaigh, g. leagha, E. Ir. liaig, 0. Ir. legib, 

medicis : Got. leikeis, Eng. leech. 
linig, lining ; from the Eng. 
linn, an age, century, offspring, Ir. linn, 0. Ir. linn, lin, pars, 

numerus : *lenu-, from plen, as in linn, fill (Brug.), q.v. 
linne, a pool, linn, Ir. linn, E. Ir. lind, W. llyn, M. W. linn, Cor. 

lin, Br. lenn : *linnos, root li, li, flow ; Gr. XtfMvrj, lake, etc. ; 

see lighe. 
linnean, shoemaker's thread ; from Sc. lingan, lingel, from Fr. 

ligneul, Lat. *lineolum, linea, Eng. line. 
linnseag 1 , shroud, penance shirt ; founded on the Eng. linsey. 
liobarnach, slovenly, awkward, so Ir. ; founded on Eng. slippery % 
liobasda, slovenly, awkward, so Ir. ; see slibist. 
liobh, lote (Carm.) : 
liod, lide, syllable ; see lid. 
liomh, polish, Ir. liomhaim, liomhaim, M. Ir. limtha, polished, 

sharpened, W. llifo, grind, whet, saw ; Lat. limo, polish, 

whet, limatus, polished, root, li, lei, smooth, flow. 
lion, flax, lint, Ir. lion, E. Ir. lin, W. llin, Cor., Br. lin : *linu- ; 

Lat. linum, flax ; Gr. Xtvov, flax, Atra, cloth ; Got. lein, 

0. H. G. tin ; Ch. SI. Unit ; root lei, li, smooth, flow. 
lion, a net, Ir. lion, 0. Ir. lin ; from the above word, 
lion, fill, Ir. lionaim, 0. Ir. linaim : *leno, *pleno ; Lat. plenus, 

full ; Gr. TrXrjprjs, full ; root pie, pld, as in Ian, q.v. Hence 

llonar, lionmhor, numerous, 
lion, cia lion, how many ; same as linn, 0. Ir. lin. 
lionn, leann, ale, so Ir., 0. Ir. lind, M. Ir. lind dub, W. llyn\ 

Hennu- ; same root and form (so far) as linne, q.v. This is 

proved by its secondary use in G. and Ir. for "humours, 

melancholy." Stokes suggests for both connection with Gr. 

7r\a8apds, moist, 
lionradh, gravy, juice; from lion, " fullness "1 


lios, a garden, Ir. lios, a fort, habitation, E. Ir. liss, less, enclosure, 
habitation, W. llys. aula, palatium, Br. les, court, 0. Br. lis : 
*lsso-s, a dwelling enclosed by an earthen wall, root plet, 
broad, Eng. place, Gr. -rrkarvs, broad ; 0. H. G. jlezzi, house 
floor, Norse flet, a flat. For root, see leathan. 

liosda, slow, tedious, importunate, so Ir., M. Ir. liosta, lisdacht, 
importunity, E. Ir. lista, slow : *li-sso-, root li, smooth, Gr. 
Awrcros, smooth, Aeios, as in lighe. 

liosraig, smooth, press (as cloth after weaving), dress, sliosraig 
(Badenoch) ; compare the above word for root and stem. 

liotach, stammering, lisping. See lid. 

lip, Hop, Hob, a lip, Ir. Hob ; from Eng. lip. 

lipinn, lipinn, a lippie, fourth of a peck ; from Sc. lippie. 

lirean, a species of marine fungus (H.S.D.) : 

lit, porridge, M. Ir. lite, E. Ir. littiu, g. litten, W. llith, mash : 
*Httion- (Stokes), *plt-tio, from pelt, polt, Gr. 7toAtos, porridge, 
Lat. puis, pultis, pottage. 

litir, a letter, so Ir., E. Ir. liter, W. llythyr, Br. lizer ; from Lat. 

liubhar (H.S.D. liubhar), deliver ; from the Lat. libero, Eng. 

Hug, a lame hand or foot, sneaking look, Ir. Hug, a sneaking or 
lame gait, liugaire, cajoler, G. liugair (do.) : 

liuth, liutha, liuthad, many, many a, so many, Ir., 0. Ir. lia, 
more, 0. VV. liaus, Br. liez : *(p)lejos, from pie, full, Gr. 
7rAeiW ; Lat. plus, plilres, older pleores ; Norse fleiri, more. 

liuth, a lythe ; from the Sc. 

liuthail, liuil, bathing, from liu, li. water (Carm.) ; M. Ir. lia, 
flood (Stokes, 249). 

loban, 16ban, ldpan, a creel for drying corn, basket, wooden frame 
put inside corn-stacks to keep them dry, basket peat-cart, 
peat-creel ; from N. laupr, basket, timber frame of a build- 
ing, Shet. loopie, Ag. S. leap. 

lobanach, draggled, lobair, draggle ; from lob, puddle (Arm- 
strong) : *loth-bo-, loth of Ion, q.v. % 

lobh, putrefy, Ir. lobhaim, 0. Ir. lobat, putrescant, inf. lobad, root 
lob, wither, waste ; Lat. Idbi, to fall, Idbes, ruin, Eng. lapse. 

lobhar, a leper, so Ir., 0. Ir. lobur, infirmus, W. llwfr, feeble, 
0. W. lobar, debile, M. Br. loffr, leprous, Br. laour, low, lor, 
leper. For root see above word. 

lobht, a loft, Manx lout, Ir. lota (Connaught) ; from Norse lopt, 
Eng. loft. 

locair, plane (carpenter's), Ir. locar ; from Norse lokar, Ag. S. 


loch, a lake, loch, Ir., E. Ir. loch : *loku- ; Lat. lacus ; Gr. 

Acikkos, pit. 
lochd, a fault, so Ir., 0. Ir. locht, crimen : *loktu-, root lok, lak, 

Gr. AaK-, Xdo-KO), cry j 0. H. G. lahan, blame, Ag. S. leahan, 

Ger laster, a fault, vice, Norse lostr. Eng. lack, leak, *lak % 
lochdan, a little amount (of sleep), Ir. lochdain, a nap, wink of 

sleep (Arran and Eigg, lochd) : 
ldchran, a torch, light, Ir. lochrann, 0. Ir. locharn, Macham, W. 

llugorn, Cor. lugarn : */oukarnd, root louq, leuq, light ; Lat. 

lucerna, lamp, lux, light; Gr. Xzvkos, white, 
lod, lodan, a puddle, Ir. lodan : Husdo-, *lut-s, root lut, la, Lat. 

lutum, mud, Gr. Xvfxa, filth. 
lod, a load, Ir. We? ; from the Eng. 

lodhainn, a pack (of dogs), a number : "a leash ;" see lomhainn. 
lodragan, a clumsy old man, plump boy : 
logais, logaist, awkward, unwieldy person, loose slipper or old 

shoe (Arg.) ; from Eng. log. Cf. Sc. loggs. Eng. luggage 1 
logar, sea swash (Lewis) : 
logh, pardon, Ir. loghadh (n.), E. Ir. logaim, 0. Ir. doluigim. 

Stokes refers it to the root of leagh, melt. 
I6ghar, excellent : 

loguid, a varlet, rascal, soft fellow, M. Ir. locaim, I flinch from : 
loibean, one who works in all weathers and places ; cf. laib, under 

loiceil, foolishly fond, doting, Ir. loiceamhldchd, loiceamhlachd 

(O'B.), dotage : 
loigear, an untidy person, ragged one : 
loine, a lock of fine wool, tuft of snow : Cf. Aax^; 
loinid, churn staff, Ir., M. Ir. loinid. Stokes takes from N. 

hlunnr. O'R has lunn, churn-dasher. / 
16inidh, rheumatism, greim-ldinidh : 
loinn, good condition, charm, comeliness, joy, Ir. loinn, joy, M. Ir. 

lainv, bright ; from plend, Lat. splendeo, Eng. splendid. 

Hence loinnear, bright. So Stokes, 
loinn, glade, area ; oblique form of lann, the locative case in 

place names, 
loinn, a badge ; a corruption of sloinn % 
loinnear, bright, elegant, E. Ir. lainderda, glittering : *lasno-, 

from las flame, q.v. % Cf. lonnrach. See loinn. 
loinneas, a wavering : 
loirc, wallow, loir (Perth) : 

loirc, a deformed foot, lorcach, lame ; cf. lure, lore. 
loireag, a beautiful, hairy cow ; a plump girl, pan-cake, water- 
nymph (Carm.) ; cf. lur, lurach. 


loireanach, male child just able to walk ; cf. luran. 

lbiseam, pomp, show : 

loisneach, cunning : " foxy ; " Ir. loisi, los, a fox : *luxo- ; Gr. 
Avy£, lynx, 0. H. G. luhs, Ang. S. lox, lynx. 
V loistean, a lodging, tent, Ir. Idistin ; from the Eng lodging. 

loithreach, ragged (Hend.) : 

lom, bare, Ir. lom, 0. Ir. lomm, W. llwm : Hummo-, *lups-mo-, 
root lup, peel, break off; Lit. htpti, peel, Ch. SI. lupiti, 
detrahere; Skr. lumpami, cut off. Hes. has Gr. Av/xv6s = 
yvfivos, which Stokes suggests alternately. Hence lomradh, 
fleecing, 0. Ir. lommraim, tondeo, abrado, lommar, bared, 
stripped ; which last Stokes compares rather to Lat. lamberat, 
scindit ac laniat. 

lombair, bare ; cf. 0. Ir. lommar, bared (see lom). Possibly the b 
is intrusive, as in Eng. number, slumber. 

lomchar, bare place ; from lom and cuir, cor. 

lomhainn, a leash, Ir. lomna, a cord (O'Cl.), 0. Ir. loman, funis, 
lorum, W. lli/fan, Cor. louan, Br. louffan, tether : *lomand. 

lomhair, brilliant : 

lomnochd, naked, so Ir., E. Ir. lomnocht ; from lom and nochd, 

lompair, a bare plain ; see lombair, which is another spelling of 
this word. 

lompais, niggardliness, Ir. lompais ; from Hommas, from lom. 

ldn, food, Ir., M. Ir. Idn, 0. Ir. loon, adeps, commeatus, 0. Br. Ion, 
adeps : *louno-. Strachan and Stokes cf. 0. SI. pluti, caro, 
Lit. pluta, a crust, Lettic pluta, a bowel. Bez. queries if it is 
allied to L. Ger.^m, raw suet, 0. H. G.Jloum. It was usual 
to refer it to the same root as Gr. 7tAoi>tos, wealth ; and 
Ernault has suggested connection with blonag (*vlon), which 
is unlikely. 

ldn, marsh, mud, meadow (Arg.), water (Skye) : *lut-no-, root lut, 
muddy, 0. Ir. loth, mud, Lat. lutum ; further root lu, lou, as 
in lod. It may be from Houno-, with the same root ; cf. 
M. Ir. conhian, hounds' excrement. 

Ion, lon-dubh, the blackbird, Ir., M. Ir., 0. Ir. Ion. Stokes refers 
it to * lux-no- (root leuq, light, Lat. lux, etc.), but this in the 
G. would give lonn. 

Ion, elk, M. G. Ion (D. of L.), Ir. Ion : Hono- ; cf. 0. Slav, lani, 
hind, and, further, Celtic *elani, roe (see eilid). 

Ion, a rope of raw hides (St Kilda) : possibly a condensation of 

Ion, lon-chraois, gluttony, M. Ir. Ion crdis. Kuno Meyer, ( Vision 
of M l Conglinne) translates Ion separately as " demon." For 
craois see craos. Ion, water (Carm.) 4- craos 1 


Ion, prattle, forwardness, Ir. lonaigh, a scoff, jest, W. Hon, cheer- 
ful : *luno-, root, lu, lav, enjoy, win, W. llawen, merry ; Gr. 
<x7ro\avio, enjoy ; Got. laun, reward. See further under luach. 
Um-aighear, boisterous mirth (Wh.) 1 

long, a ship, Ir. long, E. Ir, long, vessel (vas), ship, W. Hong, ship : 
*longd ; Norse lung, ship (Bez.) ; cf. Lat. lagena, flagon 
(Stokes). Usually supposed to he borrowed from Lat. (navis) 
longa, war ship. Cf. Ptolemy's River Aoyyos, the Norse 
Skipafjbrftr, now Loch Long. *plugnd 1 Eng. fly % 

longadh, a diet, so Ir., E. Ir. longad, eating ; a side form of slug, 
which see for root. 

longphort, harbour, camp, palace, Ir. longphort (do.) ; from long + 
port. Hence luchairt, palace ; longart, lunkart, in place- 

lonn, timber put under a boat for launching it ; from Norse 
hlunnr, a roller for launching ships. 

lonn, anger, fierce, strong, Ir. lonn, 0. Ir. lond, wild. Stokes 
(Zeit. B0 , 557) doubtfully suggests connection with Skr. 
randhayati, destroy, torment. 

lonnrach, glittering, so Ir. ; cf. loinnir. Idnrach, well fed (Hend.). 

ldpan, soft, muddy place (Suth.) : see laban. 

lore, shank (Carm.) : 

lorg, a staff, Ir., E. Ir. lorg, Cor. lorc'h, baculus, Br. lorelien, 
temo : Horgo-, Norse lurkr, a cudgel (Bez., Cam.). 

lorg, track, footstep, Ir., E. Ir. lorg, 0. Ir. lore, trames, lorgarecht, 
indago, W. llyr, course, duct, Cor. lergh, lerch, Br. lerc'h, 
track : Horgo-. Bez. compares L. Ger. lurken, creep. Rhys 
adds W. llwrw, direction (Manx Pray. 2 , 127). 

los, purpose, sake, Ir., E. Ir. los, sake, behalf, part, M. Ir. los, 
growth ; a los, " about to " ( Wh.) ; in dobhran losleathan, 
beaver (otter of broad tail), Ir. los, tail, end (O'Cl.), W. Host, 
Br. lost, *losto-, lostd : 

losaid, a kneading trough, Ir. losad, E. Ir. lossat : *lossantd, 
Holes-, root lok, lek ; Gr. Ackos, a dish, pot ; Lit. lekmene, a 
puddle ; Lat. lanx, dish. 

losgadh. a burning, Ir. loscadh, E. Ir. loscud, W. llosg, urere, Cor. 
lose (n.), Br. losh : *losko, I burn, *lopsko, root, lop, lap ; Gr. 
Xdfnro), shine ; 0. Pruss. lopis, flame, Lett, lapa, pine-torch 
(Stokes). See lasair, to whose root it is usually referred. 

losgann, a toad, Ir. loscain, E. Ir. loscann ; from losg above, so 
named from the acrid secretions of its skin. 

lot, wound, so Ir., E. Ir. lot, damage, loitim, laedo : * lotto, Hut-to-, 
root lut, lu, cut ; Skr. lu-, cut ; Gr. Avo>, loose ; Eng. loss, 
lose ; Pruss. au-laut, die. Stokes refers it to a stem Hud-n6-, 



root lud, Teut. root, lut, Eng. lout, little, Norse luta, to lout, 

bow, Ag. S. lot, dolus, etc. 
lot, share, etc., one's croft (Lewis) : 
loth, a colt, Manx, Ihiy, W. llvjdn, young of deer, sheep, swine, 

hens, etc., Cor. lodn (do.), M. Br. lozn, beast, Br. loen, animal : 

*pluto-, *plutno- ; cf. Lat. pullus, foal, Eng. filly. 
loth, marsh (Suth.) 0. Ir loth, mud ; see further under Ion. 

Hence Loth parish, 
lothail, the plant brook-lime, Ir. lothal (O'B.), lochal : 
luach, worth, value, Ir. luach, 0. Ir. I6g, luach : Hougos, root lou, 

IH, gain ; Lat. Mcrum, gain, Laverna, the thieves' goddess ; 

Got. laun, a reward, Ag. S. lean (do.) ; 0. Slav, lovu, catching, 
luachair, rushes, Ir., E. Ir. luachair : " light-maker," from louk, 

light (Lat. lux, etc.), M. W. lieu babir, rush-light. 
luadh, fulling cloth ; cf. Ir. luadh, motion, moving, root ploud 

(Lit. plaudzu, wash, Eng. fleet), a side-form of the root of 

luath. But compare dol. 
luaidh, mention, speaking, Ir. luadh, 0. Ir. luad : Haudo- ; Lat. 

laus, laudis, praise. Hence luaidh, beloved one: "spoken 

or thought of one." 
luaidh, lead, Ir., M. Ir. luaidhe : *loudid ; Eng. lead, Ag. S. lead 

{Hauda-), Ger. loth. 
luaimear, a prattler, Ir. luaimearachd, volubility ; see next word, 
luaineach, restless, Ir. luaimneach, E. Ir. luamnech, volatile (as 

birds), luamain, flying; root ploug, fly; Eng.jtfy, Ger. Jliegen, 

Norse fljuga. 
luaireagan, a grovelling person, a fire-fond child ; from luaith, 

ashes : " one in sackcloth and ashes " ? 
luaisg, move, wave, luasgadh (n.), Ir. luasgaim, M. Ir. luascad, 

0. Br. luscou, oscilla, Br. luskella, to rock: *lousko, *ploud-sko-, 

root ploud or plout, plou, go, flow, move, as in luath, q.v. 

Bez. queries connection with Lit. pltiskdt, plukt, pluck, tear, 
luan, moon, Monday, so Ir. ; M. Ir., 0. Ir. luan, moon, Monday : 

*loukno-, Lat. lux, luceo, lUna, moon. The Gadelic is possibly 

borrowed from Lat. Ir. go Id an Luain, till doomsday. 
luaran, a dizziness, faint : 
luath, ashes, Ir. luaith, E. Ir. luaith, W. lludw, Cor. lusu, Br. ludu : 

*loutvi-. Bez. queries if it is allied to Ger. lodern, to flame, 
luath, swift, Ir. luath, 0. Ir. luath : *louto-, root plout, plou, go, 

flow, be swift ; J&ng. fleet, Norse fljdtr, swift (root pleud) ; Gr. 

7rA€w, 1 sail ; Lat. pluit, it rains ; Skr. plavate, swim, fly. 
lub, bend, Ir., M. Ir. lubaim, E. Ir. Itipaim (rolupstair, they bent, 

L. Leinster) : lubbo, root leub, lub ; Eng. loop, M. Eng. loupe, 

noose ; \vyi(jn, see lag. Skeat regards the Eng. as borrowed 

from the Celtic. Hence luib, a fold, creek, angle. 


luch, a mouse, Ir., 0. Ir. luck, g. lochat, W. llyg, llygoden, Corn. 
logoden, Br. logodenn, pi. logod : Hukot-, *pluko-, "gray one"; 
Lit. pilkas, gray, pele, mouse ; root pel, pol, gray, as under 
liath. Stokes refers it to the Gadelic root luko-, dark (read 
lauko- or louko-), whence E. Ir. loch (read I6ch), which he takes 
from I. E. leuq, shine (Lat. lux, etc.), comparing W. llwg, 
livid, blotchy, to which add W. Hug, blotch, dawning. From 
this obsolete G. word Idch, dark, comes the name of the rivers 
Lbchaid/i, Adamnan's Nigra Dea or Loch-dae, which we may 
take as the G. form of it from another of his references. 

luchairt, a palace, castle ; see longphort. 

luchd, people, Ir. luchd, 0. Ir. lucht, W. llivyth, tribe : *lukto-, 
from plug, pulg, Eng. folk, Ger. volk, whence 0. Slov. pluku, 
a troop. 

luchd, a burden, Ir. luchd, E. Ir. lucht, W. llyvtli, a load : lukto-. 
The 0. W. tluith (or maur-dluithruim, multo vecte) has 
suggested *tlukto-, allied to Lat. tollo, raise (Stokes). Eng. 
flock 1 

ludag, the little finger, Ir. lughaddg, 0. Ir. luta, d it. lutain : 
*liidddn-, root lud, lud, Eng. little, Ag. S. lytel, 0. H. G. luzil ; 
root lu, lil, Eng. loss, -less, Gr. At'co, etc. 

ludag, ludan, ludnan, a hinge, ludanan, hinges, Ir. ludrach (Fol.), 
ludach, ludann (O'R.) : 

ludair, a slovenly person, ludraig, bespatter with mud, luidir, 
wallow, Ir. ludar (n), ludair (vb.) ; two words from lod, mud, 
and luid, rag. 

ludhaig, permit, allow : from the Eng. 'lowing, allowing, lughaic, 
stipulate for (Hend.). 

lugach, having crooked legs, lugan, a deformed person, luigean, 
a weakling : Huggo-, root leug, lug, bend, Gr. \vyit\o, bend, 
Lit. lugnas, pliant. 

lugh, swear, blaspheme, 0. Ir. luige, oath, W. llw, Br. le : *lugio-n, 
oath, " binding " ; Got. liugan, wed, 0. H. G. urliugi, lawless 
condition, Ag. S. orlege, war. 

lugh, a joint (MA..), luighean, a tendon, ankle, Ir. luthach, joints, 
luighean, a nave, M. Ir. luithech, sinew. 

lugha, less, Ir. lugha, 0. Ir. lugu, laigiu, positive, lau, lu, little, 
W. llai, less, from llei, Br. lei, from lau : *legios, from *legu-s, 
little : Lat. levis ; Gr. iXaxv<s, little ; Skr. laghd-s, light, Eng. 

luibh, an herb, Ir. luibh, 0. Ir. luib, lubgort, herb-garden, garden, 
W. lluarth, garden, Cor. luvorth, Br. liorz, garden : *lubi-, 
herb ; Norse lyf, herb, Got. lubja-leisei, witchcraft, " herb- 
lore," 0. H. G. luppi, poison, magic, Ag. S. lyb (do.). 


luid, luideag, a rag, a slut, Ir. luid : *luddi, root lu, cut, lose, as 
under lot. 

luidhear, a vent, chimney, louvre, W. llwfer ; from M. Eng. 
louere, lover, smoke-hole, 0. Fr. lover. The Norse Ijbri, a 
louvre or roof-opening, is from lj6s, light. 

luidse, a clumsy fellow ; from the Sc. lotch, lout, touching, louting. 

luigean, a weak person ; see lugach. 

luigh, lie ; see laigh. 

luighean, an ankle : cf. E. Ir. lua, foot, kick, 0. Ir. lue, heel : 

luighe-siubhladh (laighe-siubhladh), child-bed, lr. luidhsiubhail 
(Fol.), M. Ir. ben siuil, parturient woman, luige seola, child- 
bed. Stokes refers siuil to M. Ir. siul, bed, and compares the 
Eng. phrase to be brought a-bed. The G. and Ir. seem against 
this, for the idea of luighe-siubhladh would then be " bed- 
lying " ; still worse is it when leabaidh-shiuladh is used. 
Consider siubhal, bearing. 

luigheachd, requital, reward : *lugi-, root lug, loug, as in luach. 

luim, a shift, contrivance : 

luimneach, active (Smith's S. D.); cf. luaineach. 

luinneag", a ditty, Ir. luinnioc, chorus, glee, M. Ir. luindiuc, 
luindig, music-making ; *lundo-, root lud, as in laoidh, Eng. 

luinneanach, tossing, floundering, paddling about ; see lunn, a 
heaving billow. 

luinnse, luinnsear, a sluggard, lazy vagrant, Ir. lunnsaire, idler, 
watcher ; from Eng. lungis (obsolete), lounger. 

luir, torture, drub (M'A) ; see laoir. 

luireach, a coat of mail, Ir. luireach, E. Ir. Idirech, W. llurig ; 
from Lat. lorica, from lorum, a thong. Hence ldireach, a 
patched garment, an untidy female. 

luirist, an untidy person, tall and pithless : 

lum, part of the oar between the handle and blade ; from N. 
hlumr, handle of an oar. 

luma-lan, choke-full, also lom-lan and lumha-lan (Hend.) ; from 
lorn + Ian. 

luman, a covering, great-coat, Ir. lumain, E. Ir. lumman (g. lumne, 
M'Con.). In some dialects it also means a "beating," that is 
a u dressing." 

lunasd, lunasdal, lunasdainn, Lammas, first August, Ir. lughnas, 
August, E. Ir. luguasad, Lammas-dajr : " festival of Lug " ; 
from Lug, the sun-god of the Gael, whose name Stokes con- 
nects with Ger. locken, allure, Norse lokka (do.), and also 
Loki (?). E. Ir. nassad, festival (*?), is referred by Rhys to the 
same origin as Lat. nexus, and he translates Idgnasad as 
"Lug's wedding" (Hib. Led., 416). 


lunn, a staff, oar-handle, lever ; from Norse hlunnr, launching 

roller. See lonn. Dial. lund. 
lunn, a heaving billow (not broken) ; also lonn. See lonn, anger, 
lunndair, a sluggard; cf. Fr. lendore, an idle fellow, from M.K.G. 

lenUrn, go slow, Du. lentern. Br. landar, idle, is borrowed 

from the Fr. 
lunndan, a smooth grassy plot (possibly " marshy spot," Rob.). 

Hence place-name An Lunndan. 
lunndraig, thump, beat ; from the Sc. founder, beat, foundering, a 

lur, delight, lurach, lovely, luran, darling, a male child ; *luru-, 

root lu, lau, enjoy, as in Ion. 
lure, a crease in cloth ; from Sc, lirk, a crease, M. Eng. lerke, 

lurcach, lame in the feet ; see loirc. 
lurdan, cunning, a sly fellow ; from Sc. lurdane, worthless person, 

M. Eng. lourdaine, lazy rascal, from 0. Fr. lourdein (n.), fourd, 

dirty, sottish, from Lat. luridum. 
lurg, lurgann, a shank, Ir., E. Ir. lurgu, g. lurgan ; W. llorp, 

llorf, shank, shaft, 
lus, an herb, plant, Ir. lus, E. Ir. luss, pi. lossa, W. llysiau, herbs, 

Cor. les, Br. louzaouen : *lussu-, from *lubsu-, root hub of luibh. 
luspardan, a pigmy, sprite, Martin's Lusbirdan ; from lugh, little 

(see lugha), and spiorad. 
luth, strength, pith, Ir. luth, E. Ir. luth ; cf. 0. Ir. luth, velocity, 

motion, from the root pleu, plu of luath. Or tluth, from tel 1 


ma, if, Ir. md, 0. Ir. md, ma, Cor., Br. ma (also mar) ; cf. Skr. 
sma, smd, an emphatic enclitic ( = " indeed ") used after 
pronouns, etc., the -sm- which appears in the I. E. pronoun 
forms (Gr. dfi/xe = ns-sme, us). 

mab, a tassel; a side-form of pab, q.v. 

mab, abuse, vilify : 

mabach, lisping, stammering ; cf. M. Eng. majien, Du. maffelen, to 

mac, a son, Ir. mac, 0. Ir. mace, W. mab, 0, W. map, Cor. mab, 
Br. map, mab, Ogam gen. maqvi : *makko-s, *?nakvo-s, son, 
root mak, rear, nutrire, W. magu, rear, nurse, Br. magnet : 
I. E. mak, ability, production ; Gr. /xaKpos, long, fidnap, 
blessed ; Zend macanh, greatness ; Lettic mdzv, can, be 
able. Kluge compares Got. magaths, maid, Ag. S. mag}>, 
Eng. maid, further Got. magus, boy, Norse m'Ogr, which, 


however, is allied to 0. Ir. mug (pi. mogi), slave. The Teut. 
words also originally come from a root denoting "might, 
increase," Gr. pjx os > means, Skr. mahas, great. Hence 
macanta, mild : " filial." 

macamh, a youth, generous man, Tr. macamh, macaomh, a youth, 
E. Ir. maccoem : from mac and caomh. 

mach, a mach, outside (motion to "out"), Ir. amach, E. Ir. 
immach ; from in and magh, a field, mach being its accusative 
after the prep, in, into : " into the field." Again a muigh, 
outside (rest), is for E. Ir. immaig, in with the dat. of magh : 
" in the field." See an, ann and magh. 

machair, a plain, level, arable land, Manx magher, Ir., M. Ir. 
machaire, macha ; *makarjo-, a field ; Lat. mdceria, an 
enclosure (whence W. magwyr, enclosure, Br. moger, wall). 
So Stokes. Usually referred to *magh-thir, " plain-land," 
from magh and tir. 

machlag, matrix, uterus, Ir. machldg (O'B., etc.), M. Ir. macloc ; 
cf. Ger. ma gen, Eng. maw. 

macnas, sport, wantonness, Ir. macnas (do.), macras, sport, 
festivity ; from mac. 

mactalla, macalla, echo, Ir., M. Ir. macalla ; from mac and 
obsolete all, a cliff, g. aille (*allos), allied to Gr. 7reAAa, 
stone (Hes.), Norse fjall, hill, Eng. fell. See also fail, 
which is allied. 

madadh, a dog, mastiff, so Ir., M. Ir. madrad : E. Ir. matad 
(McCon.), maddad (Fel.), W. madog, fox (cf. W. madryn, 
reynard) : *maddo-, * mas-do-, the mas possibly being for mats, 
the mat of which is then the same as math- of mathghamhuin, 
q.v. Connection with Eng. mastiff, Fr. matin, 0. F. mestiff, 
from *mansatinus, "house-dog," would mean borrowing. 

madadh, mussel: 

madog, madog, a mattock, W matog ; from M. Eng. mattoh, now 
mattock, Ag. S. mattuc. 

madar, madder, Ir. madar the plat madder ; from the Eng. 

madhanta, valiant, dexterous in arms, Ir. madhanta : " over- 
throwing," from the E. Ir. verb maidim, overthrow, break, 
from *mato, Ch. SI. motyka, ligo, Polish motyka, hoe (Bez.). 

maduinn, morning, Ir. maidin, 0. I. matin, mane, maten ; from 
Lat. matutina, early (day), Eng. matin. 

mag, a paw, hand, lazy bed, ridge of arable land, E. Ir. mdc, : 
*mankd, root man, hand, Lat. manus, Gr. papi], Norse mund, 
hand. Sc. maig is from Gaelic. 

magadh, mocking, Ir. magadh, W. mocio ; from the Eng. mock. 

magaid, a whim ; from Sc. maggat, magget. 


magairle(an), testicle(s), Tr. magairle, magarla, E. Ir. macraille 

(pi.) : *magar-aille, " magar stones ; " magar, and all of 

maclalla : magar = *maggaro-, root mag, meg, great, powerful, 

increase *? Cf., however, mogul. 
magan, toad ; properly mial-mhagain, " squat beast ;" from mag 

magh, a plain, a field, Ir. magh, 0. Ir. mag, W. ma, maes 

(*magestu-), Cor. mes, Br. maes, Gaul, magos : *magos, * mages-, 

field, plain, " expanse," from root magh, great, Skr. mahi, the 

earth, mahas, great ; G. pjx os > means, Lat. machina, machine ; 

Got. magan, be able, Eng. may. 
maghan, stomach : N. magi. 

maghar, bait for fish, so Ir., E. Ir. magar (Corm.), small fry or fish : 
maibean, a cluster, bunch ; see mab. 
maide, a stick, wood, Ir., E. Ir., matan, a club : *maddio-, 

*mas-do-; Lat. malus ( = *mddus), mast ; Eng. mast 
maidhean, delay, slowness : 
maidse, a shapeless mass : 
maidsear, a major ; from the Eng. 
Maigh, May, E. Ir. Mai ; from Lat. Mains, Eng. May. 
maigean, a child beginning to walk, a fat, little man : from mag. 
maighdeag, concha veneris, the shell of the escallop fish ; from 

maighdean 1 Cf. madadh, mussel, 
maighdean, a maiden, so Ir., late M. Ir. maighden (F. M.) ; from 

M. Eng. magden, maiden, Ag. S. moegden, now maiden. 
maigheach, a hare, Ir. miol bhuidhe (for miol mhuighe), E. Ir. mil 

maige, "plain beast"; from mial and m-igli. The G. is an 

adj. from magh: *mageco-, " campestris." 
maighistir, maighstir, master, Ir. maighisdir, \I. Ir. magisder, 

W. meistyr, Cor. maister ; from Lat. magister, Eng. master. 
maileid, a bag, wallet, knapsack, Ir. mdileid, mdilin ; see mala. 
maille ri, with, Ir. maille re, 0. Ir. immalle, malle ; for imb-an- 

leth, "by the side," mu an letk now. 
maille, mail armour ; from the Eng. mail. 
mainisdir, a monastery, so Ir., E. Ir. manister ; from Lat. monas- 

mainne, delay, Ir. mainneachdna ; cf. 0. Ir. mendat, residence, 

0. G. maindaidib (dat. pi.), Skr. mandiram, lodging, habita- 
tion ; Lat. mandra, a pen, Gr. fidvSpa (do.), 
mainnir, a fold, pen, goat pen, booth, Ir. mainreach, mainneir, 

M. Ir. maindir, ; Lat. mandra, Gr. fidvSpa, pen, as under 

mainne. K. Meyer takes it from early Fr. maneir, dwelling, 

Eng. manor. 
mair, last, live, Ir. mairim, 0. Ir. maraim : *maro ; Lat. mora, 

delay (%r-). 


maireach, to-morrow, Ir. mdrach, E. Ir. imbdrack, to-morrow, 

iarnabdrach, day after to-morrow, W. bore, boreu, morning, 

y for?/, to-morrow, M. W. avory, Br. beure, morning, *bdrego- 

(Stokes, Zimmer) : *m.f-ego-, root mfgh, mrgh (mrg *?) ; Got. 

maurgins, morning, da maurgina, to-morrow, Eng. morrow, 

Ger. morgen, etc. 
mairg, pity ! Ir. mairg, E. Ir. mairg, vae : *margi- ; Gr. /xapyos, 

mad, Lat. morbus (?). Usually referred to *mo-oirc, *mo 

oirg, " my destruction," from org, destroy, (See tuargan). 
mairiste, a marriage ; from the Eng. 

mairneal, a delay, Ir. mairneulachd, tediousness, a sailing : 
mairtir, a martyr, so Ir., E. Ir. martir, W. merthyr ; from Lat. 

martyr, from Gr. fidprvs, fidprvpos, a witness, 
maise, beauty, so Ir., E. Ir. maisse, from mass, comely ; root mad, 

med, measure, Eng. meet, Ger. mdssig, moderate ; further 

Eng. mete, etc. 
maistir, urine, so Ir. ; *mad$tri, root mad, Lat. madeo. 
maistreatih, churning, so Ir. ; root mag : Gr. /myis, /xao-<rw, Ch, 

SI. masla, butter, 
maith, math, good, Ir., 0. Ir. maith, W. mad, Cor. mas, M. Br. 

mat : *mati-s, root mat, met, measure, I. E. me, measure, as 

in meas, q.v. 1 Bez. suggests as an alternative Skr. iipa-mdti, 

affabilis, Gr. /xarts (=fxeyas, lies.), 
maith, math, pardon, Ir. maitheam (n.), E. Ir. matlum, a forgiving, 

W. madden, ignoscere, root mad, " be quiet about/' Skr. 

mddati, linger, mandas, lingering, Got. ga-motan, room ; see 

mainnir. Rhys regards the W. as borrowed from Ir. ; if so, 

G. is same as maith, good, 
mal, rent, tax, M. Ir. mdl, W. mdl, bounty; from Ag. S. mdl, 

tribute, M. Eng. mdl, now mail (black-wiai/), Sc. mail. 
mala, a bag, budget, Ir. mala ; from the M. Eng. male, wallet, 

bag (now mail), from 0. Fr. male, from 0. H. G. malha. 
mala, pi., malaicheail (mailghean in Arg., cf. duilich, duilgke), 

eyebrow, Ir. mala, 0. Ir. mala, g. malack, M. Br. malvenn, 

eyelash : * malax ; Lit. blakstenai, eyelashes, blakstini, wink, 

Lettic mala, border, Alban. maV, hill, border, 
malairt, an exchange, so Ir., M. Ir. malartaigim, I exchange, also 

" destroy " : in E. Ir. and 0. Ir. malairt means "destruction," 

which may be compared to Lat. matus, bad. 
male, putrefy : *malqo ; Lit. nu-smelkiii, decay, Servian mlak t 

lukewarm (Strachan), 0. H. G. mola(h)wen, tabere (Bez.). It 

has also been referred to the root met, grind, 
malda, gentle, Ir. mdlta ; Gr. fxaXdaKos, soft (see meall). 
mall, slow, Ir., 0. Ir. mall ( W. mall, want of energy, softness V) ; 

Gr. /ieAAw, linger (*melno-) ; Lat. pro-mello, litem promovere. 


It has also been referred to the root of Gr. fxaXOaKos, soft 

(see meall), and to that of Lat. mollis, soft, Eng. mellow. 
mallachd, a curse, so Ir., 0. Ir. maldacht, W. mellith, Br. malloc'h; 

from Lat. maledictio, Eng. malediction. 
mam, large round hill, Ir. mam, mountain, M. Ir. mamm, breast, 

pap (O'Cl.) : " breast, pap," Lat. mamma, mother, breast, 

Eng. mamma, etc. Hence mam, an ulcerous swelling of the 

mam, a handful, two handfuls, Ir., M. Ir. mam, handful, W. 

mawaid, two handfuls : *mdtnm& (Stokes), from *manmd, 

allied to Lat. manus, hand 1 Cf., however, mag. 
man, a mole on the skin, arm-pit ulcer ; side form mam. 
manach, a monk, Ir., E. Ir. manach, M. Ir. mainchine, monkship, 

monk's duties (cf. abdaine), W. mynach, Br. manac'h ; from 

Lat. monachus, Eng. monk. Hence manachainn, a monastery. 
manach, the angel fish : 
manachan, the groin : 
manadh, an omen, luck, E. Ir. mana, omen ; Lat. moneo, warn, 

advise ; Ag. S. manian, warn, exhort, 
manas, the portion of an estate farmed by the owner, a large or 

level farm ; from the Sc. mains, Eng. manor. 
man drag, mandrake, Ir. mandrdc ; from the Eng. W. mandragor 

is from M. Eng. mandragores, Ag. S. mandragora. 
mang, a fawn, M. Ir. mang, E. Ir. mang (Corm.) : Celtic root mag 

(mang), increase, Eng. maiden, Got. magus, boy (see mac). 
mangan, a bear ; see mathghamhain. 
mannda, manntach, lisping, stammering, Ir. manntach, toothless, 

stammering, E. Ir. mant, gum, 0. Ir. mend, dumb, etc., Ir. 

meann, dumb (O'Br.), W. mant, jaw, mantach, toothless jaw : 

*mandsto-, jaw ; Lat. mandere, eat, mandibula, a jaw ; further 

is Eng. meat, Gr. /xacrao/xou, chew, eat, root mad. 
manran, a tuneful sound, a cooing, humming, Ir. manrdn : 
maodail, a paunch, stomach, ruminant's pouch, Ir. meadait, 

maodal, meadhail (Lh.), M. Ir. medhal (Ir. Gl., 235), metail : 

*mand-to- 1 Root mad, mand, eat, as under mannda % 
maoidh, grudge, reproach, Ir. maoidhim, grudge, upbraid, brag, 

E. Ir. mdidim, threaten, boast, 0. Ir. moidem, gloriatio : 

*moido- ; root moid, meid ; M. H. G. gemeit, grand, 0. H. G. 

hameit, jactans, stolidus, 0. Sax. gemed, stupid, Got. gamaids, 

bruised. See miadh. 
maoidhean, personal influence, interest ; from Sc. moyen (do.), Fr. 

moyen, a mean, means, Eng. means, from Lat. medianus, 

median, middle. 



maoile, brow of a hill ; see maol. 

maoim, terror, onset, eruption, surprise, Ir. maidhm, a sally, 
eruption, defeat, E. Ir. maidm, a breach or breaking, defeat : 
*matesmen- (Stokes), *mato, break ; Ch. SI., Pol. motyka, a 
hoe. Some give the root as allied to Skr. math, stir, twirl, 
Lit. menturis, whorl. 

maoin, wealth, Ir. maoin, 0. Ir. mdin : *moini- ; Lat. munus, 
service, duty, gift (Eng. munificence), communis, common ; 
Got. ga-mains, common, Eng. mean ; Lit. mainas, exchange. 

maoineas, slowness ; see mctidhean. 

maoirne, a bait for a fishing hook (N.H.), maoirnean, the least 
quantity of anything j cf. maghar, root mag, grow. 

maois, a large basket, hamper, maois-eisg, five hundred fish, Ir. 
maois, W. mwys, hamper, five score herring, Cor. muis, moys ; 
Sc. mese, five hundred herring, Norse meiss, box, wicker 
basket, meiss slid, barrel-herrings, 0. H. G. meisa, a basket 
for the back ; Lit. maiszas, sack, Ch. SI. mechu. The relation- 
ship, whether of affinity or borrowing, between Celtic and 
Teutonic, is doubtful. The Brittonic might come from Lat. 
mensa, a table, and the Gadelic from the Norse. 

maoiseach, maoisleach, a doe, heifer : maol-sech (maol, hornless) ; 
see mis. 

maol, bald, Ir. maol, 0. Ir. mdel, mdil, W. moel, Br. maol : *mailo-s ; 
Lit. mailus, something small, smallness, Ch. SI. m'eluku, small ; 
further root mei, lessen (see maoth). The Ir. mug, servant, 
has been suggested as the basis : *mag(u)lo-, servile, " short- 
haired, bald " ; but this, though suitable to the W., would 
give in G. mdl. Cf. Ir. mdl, prince, from *maglo-. Hence 
maol, brow of a hill or rock, W. moel, a conical hill 1 

maolchair, the space between the eyebrows ; from maol. 

maol-sneimheil, lazy, careless, indifferent (H.S.D.), maol-sne(imh\ 
maol-sniomh (Rob.), a lazy one : 

maor, an officer of justice or of estates, Ir. maor, an officer, 0. G. 
mcer, mdir (B. of Deer), W. maer, steward ; from Lat. major, 
whence Eng. mayor. 

maorach, shell-fish, Ir. maorach ; cf. Gr. fxvpaiva (v long), lamprey, 
crfivpos, eel. 

maoth, soft, Ir. maoth, E. Ir. mdeth, 0. Ir. mdith : *moiti-s ; Lat. 
mitis, mild ; further root mei, lessen (see mm). 

mar, as, Ir., M. Ir. mar, E. Ir., 0. Ir. immar, quasi : *ambi-are, 
the prepositions imm (now mu) and air 1 W. mor, as, Corn., 
Br. mar, is explained by Ernault as unaccented Br. meur, G. 
mor, big. 

mar ri, M. G. far ri (D. of L.) : from mar and ri. 


marach, a big, ungainly woman (Arg.) ; from mor, with neuter 

termination ach. Also maraisg. 
marag, a pudding, M. Ir. maroc, hilla, E. Ir. mar, sausage ; from 

the Norse morr, dat. morvi, suet, bldft-morr, black pudding, 
marasgal, a master, regulator, Ir., M. Ir. marascal, regulator, 

marshal ; from M. Eng. and 0. Fr. marescal, now marshal. 
marbh, dead, Ir. marbh, 0. Ir. marb, W. marw, Cor. marow, Br. 

maro, M. Br. marv ; *marvo-s, root mr ; Lat. morior, die ; 

Lit. mirti, die ; Gr. fxapaiva), destroy ; Skr. mar, die. 
marc, a horse, G. and Ir. marcach, a horseman, E. Ir. marc, horse, 

W., Cor., Br. march, Gaul. fxapKa-v (ace.) : *marko-s, *marka ; 

0. H. G. marah, mare, meriha, horse, Norse marr, mare, 

Ag. S. mearh, Eng. mare and marshal. 
marg, a merk : from the Eng. mark, Sc. merk, Norse mork, g. 

margadh, a market, so Ir., M. Ir. margad, marcad, E. Ir. marggad 

from M. Eng. market, from Lat. mercatus. 
marla, marl, Ir. mdrla, W. marl ; from Eng. marl. The G. has 

the sense of " marble " also, where it confuses this word and 

Eng. marble together. 
marmor, marble, Ir. marmur ; from Lat. marmor. A playing 

marble is in the G. dialects marbul, a marble. 
marrach, enchanted castle which kept one spell-bound, labyrinth. 

thicket to catch cattle (M'A.). Root mar, mer, deceive, as in 

mear, brath. 
marrum, marruin, cream, milk, and their products (Carm.). 

Cf. maraq. 
marsadh, marching, Ir. marsdil ; from the Eng. 
mart, a cow, Ir. mart, a cow, a beef, E. Ir. mart, a beef ; hence 

Sc. mart, a cow killed for family (winter) use and salted, 

which Jamieson derives from Martinmas, the time at which 

the killing took place. The idea of mart is a cow for killing : 

*martd, from root mar, die, of marbh 1 
Mart, March, Ir. Mart, E. Ir. mairt, g. marta, W. Mawrth ; from 

Lat. Martins, Eng. March. 
martradh, maiming, laming, Ir. mairtrighim, murder, maim, 

martyrise, 0. Ir. martre, martyrdom ; from Lat. martyr, a 

martyr, whence Eng 
mas, the buttock, lr. mas, E. Ir. mass : *mdsto- ; Gr. p}8ea, 

genitals, fiao-ros, /xa£os, breast, cod, /xaSaw, lose hair ; Lat. 

madeo, be wet ; root mad, mad. 
mas, before, ere : see mus. 
masan, delay, Ir. masdn (O'B., etc.) : 
masg, mix, infuse ; from the Sc. mask, Swed. mdske, to mash, 

Fries, mask, draff, grains, Eng. mash. 


masgul, flattery : 

masladh, disgrace, Ir. masla, masladh, despite, shame, disgrace : 

math, good, Ir. math ; see maith. This is the commonest form in 

G., the only Northern Dialect form, 
math, forgive : see maith. 
mathaich, manure land ; from math 1 
mathair, mother, Ir. mdthair, 0. Ir. mdthir, W. modryb, dame, 

aunt, Br. motrep, aunt : *mdter ; Lat mater ; Gr. fArjrrjp, 

Dor. fiaT7]p (a long) ; Norse, moftir, Eng. mother ; Skr. mdtdr. 
mathghamhuin, a bear, Ir. mathghamhuin, E. Ir. mathgaman, 

from math- and gamhainn ; with math, bear (?), cf. W. 

madawg, fox, and possibly the Gaul, names Matu-genos, 

Matuus, Teuto-matus, etc. 
meacan, a root, bulb, Ir. meacan, any top-rooted plant, 0. Ir. 

meccun, mecon, Gr. [AyJKwv, poppy ; 0. H. G. magi, Ger. mohn ; 

Ch. SI. maku : *mekkon-, root mek, mak of mac % 
meachainn, mercy, an abatement, meachair, soft, tender, 

meachran, hospitable person, Ir. meach, hospitality : 
meadar, a wooden pail or vessel, Ir. meadar, a hollowed-out 

drinking vessel, churn, M. Ir. metur ; from Lat. metrun, 

measure, metre, meter. 
meadar, verse, metre ; for root, etc., see above word, 
meadhail, joy ; see meadhrach. 
meadh-bhlath, luke-warm : " mid-warm f 0. Ir. mid-, mid-, root 

med, medh, as in next, 
meadhon, the middle, so Ir., 0. Ir. medon, im-medon, M. W. ymeun, 

W. mewn, within, Br. y meton, amidst ; cf. for form and root 

Lat. medidnum, the middle, Eng. mean, further Lat. medius, 

middle ; Gr. /xeo-os ; Eng. middle ; etc. 
meadhrach, glad, joyous, Ir. meadhair, mirth, meadhrach, joyous, 

E. Ir. medrach : *medro- ; Skr. mad, rejoice, be joyful, mdda, 

hilarity. But medu, ale % 
meag, whey, Ir. meadhg, E. Ir. medg, W. maidd (*me$jo-), Cor. 

maith, 0. Br. meid, Gallo-Lat. mesga, whey, whence Fr. megue : 

*mezgd, whey ; 0. Slav, mozgu, succus, marrow (Thurneysen), 

to which Brugmann adds 0. H. G. marg, marrow (Eng. 

marrow), Lit. mazgoti, wash, Lat. mergo, merge, 
meaghal, barking, mewing, alarm ; see miamhail. 
meal, possess, enjoy, Ir. mealadh (n.), M. Ir. melaim, I. enjoy : 

possibly from the root met, mal, soft, as in mealbhag. Cf. 

0. Ir, ineldach, pleasant, Eng. 'mild. 
mealasg, flattery, fawning, great rejoicing ; see miolasg. 
mealbhag, corn poppy ; cf. Lat. malva, mallow, whence Eng. 

mallow ; Gr. /xaAax^, root mal, mel, soft, " emollient," Gr. 

fiakaKos. soft, Lat. mulcere. 


mealbhan, sea bent (Suth.), sand dunes with bent (W. Ross) : 

mealg, milt of fish ; for *fealg = sealg 1 

meall, a lump, hill, Ir. meall, lump, knob, heap, E. Ir. mell, Br. 
mell, joint, knot, knuckle, Gaul. Mello-dunum (1), now Melun : 
*mello-, from *melno- ; 0. Slav, iz-moleti, just out, protuberate 
(Bez. with query) ; *mlso ; cf. Gr. [xeXos, limb, part. 

meall, deceive, entice, lr. meallaim, M. Ir. mellaim, deceive, E. Ir. 
mell, error : melso (Stokes), root mel, mal, bad ; Lat. malus ; 
Lit. milyti, mistake, melas, lie ; Gr. /xeXeos, useless ; Armen. 
meX, peccatum. 0. Ir. meld, pleasant (I), Gr. ct/xaAos, root 
mela, grind. 

meallan, clach-mheallain, hail, Ir. meallan (Fob, O'R.; ; from 
meall, lump 1 ? 

meambrana, parchments, Ir. meamrum, 0. Ir. membrum ; from 
Lat, membrana, skin, membrane, from membrum. 

meamhair, meomhair, memory, Ir. meamhair, 0. Ir. mebwir, W. 
myfyr ; from Lat. memoria, Eng. memory. 

meamna, meanmna, spirit, will, Ir. meanma (n.), meanmnach (adj.), 
0. Ir. menme, g. menman, mens ; *menmes, g. menmenos, root 
men, mind, think ; Skr. mdnman, mind, thought, manye, 
think ; Lat. memini, remember, mens, \ Gr. [itfiova, think, 
fxvrjixa, monument ; Eng. mean, mind ; etc. 

mean, meanbh, small, E. Ir. menbach, small particle : *mino-, 
*minvo-, root min ; Lat. minus, Eng. diminish, Lat. minor, 
minutus, minute ; Gr. fitvvdio, lessen ; Got. mins, less : root 
mi, mei. See mi-. Stokes gives also an alternate root men, 
Skr, mandk, a little, Lat. mancus, maimed, Lit. menkas, little. 

meanachair, small cattle, sheep or goats (Dial.) ; for meanbh- 

meanan, a yawn, Ir. meanfach, E. Ir. men-scailim, I yawn, 
" mouth-spread," men, mouth, menogud, hiatus ; cf. W. min, 
lip, edge, Cor. min, meen, Br. min, snout. Strachan and 
Stokes suggest the stem *maknd, *mekno-, root mah ; Ag. S. 
maga, stomach, Ger. magen, Eng. maw. 

meang, guile, Ir. meang, E. Ir. meng : *mengd ; Gr. fxdyyavov, 
engine (Eng. mangle), fxayyavevu, juggle ; Lat. mango, a 
dealer who imposes. Cf. N. mang, traffic, monger. 

meang, whey ; Dial, for meag. 

meangan, meanglan, a twig, Ir. meangdn, beangdn : *mengo-, 
Celtic root meg, mag, increase ; see under maighdean, mac. 
Cf. M. Ir. maethain, sprouts. 

meann, a kid, Ir. meanndn, meann, W. myn, Cor. min, Br. menn : 
*mendo-, kid, " suckling " ; Alban. ment, suck ; 0. H. G. 
manzon, ubera ; perhaps Gr. /xa£os, breast (Stokes, Strachan) 


It may be from the root mm, small (*minno-), a form which 

suits the W. best. 
meannd, mint ; from the Eng. 

meantairig, venture ; from Eng. venturing. W. mentra. 
mear, merry, Ir. mear \ cf. Eng. merry, Ag. S. merge, myrige, 

0. H. G. murg, murgi (root mrgh). The E. Ir. mer, mad, is 

allied to mearachd. 0. Ir. meraigim, prurio. Lat. meretrix. 
mearachd, error, Ir. mearaighim, I err, mearughadh, a mistaking, 

erring, M. Ir. merugud, wandering, root mer, mr ; Gr. 

afiapTavo), miss (see brath) ; Eng. mar, Got. marzian, cause to 

stumble. Cf. E. Ir. mer, mad, merackt, mad act, 0. Ir. 

meraige, a fool, 0. Br. mergidhaam, I am silly, which Loth 

joins to Gr. iiapyos, mad. 
mearcach, rash j from the root of mear. 
mearganta, brisk, lively, meargadaich, be impatient (Suth), Ir. 

mearganta, brisk ; from mear. 
mearsadh, marching ; see marsadh. 
mearsuinn, vigour, strength ; cf. marsainn, abiding, from mar, 

meas, fruit, Ir. meas, fruit, especially acorns, measog, acorn, E. Ir. 

mess, fruit, W. mes, acorns, Cor. mesen, glans, Br. mesenn, 

acorn : *messu-, root, med, mad, eat (see manntach), and, for 

force, cf. Eng. mast, fruit of forest trees, Ag. S. maest, fruit 

of oak or beech, Ger. mast. 
meas, judgment, opinion, respect, Ir. meas, 0. Ir. mess, *messu-, 

root med ; Lat. meditari, think, modus, method ; Gr. /xeSo/xcu, 

think of ; Got. mitan, measure, Eng. mete : further root vie, 

measure, Eng. metre, meter, etc. 
measan, a lapdog, Ir. measdn, E. Ir. mesan, meschu : 
measair, a tub, measure ; see miosar. 
measarra, temperate, modest, Ir. measarrdha, 0. Ir. mesurda : 

" measured " ; probably borrowed from the Lat. mensuratus, 

mensura (Stokes). But it may be from meas, judgment, 
measg, am meaS2', among, Ir. measg, a measg, among, W. ym mysg, 

M. Br. e mesg : *med-sho-, root med, medh, as in meadhon, 

measg, measgach, mix, Ir. measgaim, E. Ir. mescaim, W. mysgu : 

*misko, *mig-sko, root, mig, mik ; Gr. /xiy vojxl, /xtcryw ; Lat. 

misceo ; Eng. mix, Ger. mischen ; Lit. maiszyti : Skr. miksh. 
measgan, a dish to hold butter, Ir. miosgan ; see miosgan. But 

cf. E. Ir. mescan, a lump of butter, M. Ir. mesgan, massa ; 

from measg, mix 1 
meat, meata, feeble, soft, cowardly, Ir. meata, E. Ir. meta, cowardly : 

*mit-tavo- ; see meath. W. has meth, failure. *mettaios (St.) 


meath, fail, fade, become weak, dishearten, Ir. meatkaim, fail, 
droop, soften, E. Ir. meth, failure, decay : *mito, root mit, the 
short form of root meit, moit (see maoth). 

meidh, a balance, Ir. meadh, 0. Ir. med, d. meid, W. medd, centre 
of motion : *medd, root med, mete ; Lat. modius, a peck : 
Gr. jxeSi/Avos, a measure (6 modii) ; Eng. m,ete. See mean 
further. Hence meidhis, a measure, instalment (Arg., M'A). 

meidhinnean, meigean, hip-joints : 

meigead, the bleating of a goat or kid, Ir. meigiodaigh ; Gr. 
[xrjKdoixat, bleat, pj/<as, she-goat, " bleater " ; Ger. meckern, 
bleat; Skr. makakas, bleating; root mek, mek, mak, an 
onomatopoetic syllable. 

meil, bleat, Ir. meidhlighim, M. Ir. meglim, I bleat, megill, bleating ; 
Ger. meckern : see meigead. G. is for *megli- or *mekli. 

meil, beil, grind, Ir. meilim, 0. Ir. melim, W. malu, Br. malaff: 
*melo ; Lat. molo ; Gr. fMvXXta ; 0. H. G. malan, grind, Eng. 
meal, mill ; Lit. mdlti, molo. Hence meildreach, meiltir, a 
quantity of corn sent to grind, meiltear, miller. 

meilcheart, chilblain (Arg.), Ir. miolchedrd (Kerry), miolchartach, 
miolcartdn, milchearta (Tirconnell) ; root in meilich. 

meile, the thick stick by which the quern is turned, a quern, Ir. 
meile, hand-mill : " grinder " ; from meil 1 

meilearach, long sea-side grass ; from Norse melr, bent. 

meilich, become chill with cold, be benumbed ; from the root me/, 
crush, grind. See meil. 

meiligeag, pea-pod, husk of peas, etc. : 

meill, the cheek, Ir. meill ; G. m6ill, blubber-lip (M'L., M'E.), 
m^illeach, beilleach, blnbber-lipped (meilleach, H.S.D.) ; 
see beilleach. 

m&lleag, beilleag, outer rind of bark : 

mein, mMnn, ore, mine, Ir. me'in, mianach, E. Ir. mianach, W. 
mwyn : *meini-, meinni-, root mei, smei, smi ; 0. SI. medi, 
aes; 0. H. G. smida, metal, Eng. smith (Schrader). 

mein, meinn, disposition, Ir. me'in, M. Ir. mein, mind, disposition : 
" metal, mettle " ; seemingly a metaphoric use of the fore- 
going word. A root mein, mind, mean, appears to exist in 
Eng. mean, Ger. meinen; cf. W. myn, mind. Thurneysen 
compares Eng. mien. 

meineil, flexible, sappy, substantial ; from mein, ore : " gritty" 1 

meirbh, spiritless, delicate, so Ir., E. Ir. meirb, W. merw : *mervi- ; 
0. H. G. maro, soft, mellow, Ger. murbe, Ag. S. mearo, Norse 
merja, crush ; Gr. [xapawa), destroy, fxapvafxat, fight ; Lat. 
martus, hammer, " crusher ;" etc. See marbh from the same 
root ultimately (mer, mar). Hence meirbh, digest. 


meirean nam magh, agrimony, Ir. meirin na magh (O'B., mdirin 
(Con.) : 

meirg, rust, Ir. meirg, 0. Ir. meirg, meirc, Br. mergl : *mergi-, 
"red, dark;" Eng. mink, Ag. S. mirce, Norse myrkr (cf. G. 
dearg and Eng. dark). Ernault compares Gr. p,dpyo<s, sense- 
less ; and it has been joined to 0. W. mergid, debilitas, 0. Br. 
mergidhehan, evanesco, root mar, mer, fade, die. 

meirghe, a banner, Ir. meirge, E. Ir. mergge ; from the Norse 
merki, a banner, mark, Eng. mark (Zimmer). 

meirle, theft, meirleach, thief, Ir. meirleach, E. Ir. merle, theft, 
merlech, thief ; root mer, mra (as in bradach) ; see mearachd. 
Stokes compares G. dpetpot, deprive ; but this is likely 
n-fxepja), privative n or a and root mer (pepos, share). 
?c meirneal, a kind of hawk ; from the Eng. merlin. 
< meiteal, metal, Ir. miotal ; from the Eng. metal, Lat. metallum. 

meith, fat, sappy, Ir. meith, meath, 0. Ir. meth, W. mwydo, soften : 
*meito- ; the e grade of the root seen in *moiti- (in maoth, 
q.v.), the root being mit, meit, moit (meath, meith, maoth). 

medg, whey ; better than meag. 

meoraich, meditate, remember, Ir. meamhruighim, M. Ir. mebrugud, 
rehearsing, remembering ; from Lat. memoria. See 
meamhair, also spelt meomhair, with the verb meomhairich 
= medraich. 

meuchd, mixture (Dial.) : *meik-tu, root meik, mih, as in measg. 

meud, miad, size, Ir. meid, mead, W. maint, Cor. myns, Br. meilt : 
*mnti-, ment, " measure," a nasalised form of the root met, 
measure, Lat. mensus, having measured, metior (vb.), Gr. 
p.€Tpov, measure ; etc. Bez. queries its alliance only with 
Norse munr, importance. Usually referred to the root mag, 
meg (*maganti-), great, or to that of minig, q.v. 

meur, miar, a finger, Ir. meur, 0. Ir. mer. Strachan suggests the 
stem *makro-, root mak, great, mighty, Gr. //,ctK/>os, long, 
Lat. macer, lean, made, good luck, Zend, mac, great. Brug- 
mann has compared it to Gr. pLOKpwva (Hes.), sharp (Lat. 

mhain, a mhain, only, Ir. amhdin, E. Ir. amain. It has been 
divided into a prefix and root form : a-rndin, the latter being 
parallel to Dor. Gr. p.&vo<s, Gr. pAvos, alone. Cf. 0. Ir. nammd, 
tan turn, " ut non sit magis" (na-n-md, Zeuss). 

mi, I, Ir., 0. Ir. m6, W. mi, Cor. my, me, Br. me : *me, *me ; Lat. 
me ; Gr. pe ; Eng. me ; Skr. md. 

mi-, un-, mis-, Ir., 0. Ir. mi-, root mi, mei, mi, lessen ; Gr. p.€ioiv, 
less ; Lat. minus, less ; Eng. mis-, Got. missa- (*miJ>to-). See 
maoth, min. Stokes makes mi- a comparative like pdmv, 
and rejects the Teutonic words. 


miadan, miadar, miad, a meadow, mead ; from the Eng. meadow. 
miadh, respect, esteem, so Ir., 0. Ir. miad, fastus, dignity, 0. Br. 

muoet, fastu : *meido-, fame : 0. H. G. kameit, jactans, 

stolidus, M. H. G. gemeit, bold, 0. Sax. gemed, haughty (Bez.) ; 

allied to Eng. meed, Gr. fxurdos, pay, Lat. miles, soldier. Cf. 

Gr. Tt/x>), fame, price, 
mial, louse, animal, Ir. miol, animal, whale, louse, E. Ir. mil, W. 

mil, beast, Cor., Br. mil : *melo-7i, animal : Gr. p)Aoi>, sheep ; 

Norse, smali, sheep, Eng. small. Hence G. mial-chu, grey- 
hound, W. milgi, Cor. mylgy. 
mialladh, bad fortune (N. H.) : 
mialta, pleasant (H.S.D.), 0. Ir. meld, melltach, pleasant; Eng. 

mild ; G. /xaXdaKos, soft. See malda. 
miamhail, mewing (of cat), Ir. miamhaoil ; Eng. mewl, from 

0. Fr M Fr. miauler : an onomatopoetic word, 
miann, desire, Ir. mian, 0. Ir. mian : *meino- ; Eng. mean, Ger. 

meinen, to mean ; 0. Slov. menja (do.). Cf. W. myn, desire, 

Br. menna, to wish, which may be from the short form min 

beside mein. (Otherwise Loth in Voc. Vieux-Br., 145). 
mias, a dish, Ir. mias, a dish, mess, platter, E. Ir. mias ; from 

L. Lat. meta, mensa, a table, whence Ag. S. myse, table, Got. 

mes, table, dish, 
mil, honey, Ir. mil, 0. Ir. mil, g. mela, W. mel, Cor,, Br. mil : 

*meli- ; Lat. mel ; Gr. juiAt, ; Got. mili}> ; Arm. me\r. 
mile, meirc, sweet, sweetness (Carm.) : 
milcean, solid warm white whey (Carm.) : 
mile, a thousand, a mile, Ir. mile, 0. Ir. mile, a thousand, W., 

Br. mil, Cor. myl, myll ; Lat. mile (whence Eng. mile), mille. 

The Celtic words are borrowed doubtless. 
mileag, a melon ; from the Eng. 
mileart, honey dew (N. H.) : 
mllidh, a champion, Ir. mileadh, milidh (O'B.), E. Ir. milid ; from 

Lat. miles, militis, soldier, 
milis, sweet, Ir., 0. Ir. milis, W. melys : *melissi- ; from mil. 
mill, destroy, Ir., 0. Ir. millim : *mel-ni-, root mele, fail, miss ; 

Lit. mhlyti, fail ; Gr. fxZXeos, useless, wretched, a/x^Atb-KO), 

cause miscarriage. The root of Eng. melt (*meld, Gr. 

dfiaXSvvo), destroy) has been suggested, the mel of which is 

the same as above. It may be root mel, crush, mill, 
millteach, mountain grass, good grass ; Norse melr, bent grass. 
min, meal, Ir. min, g. mine, 0. Ir. men : *min&, root min, lessen. 

Strachan suggests two derivations; either allied to (1) Lit. 

mlnti, tread, Ch. Slav. m§ti, crush, Gr. /za-rcw, tread on, from 

root men, tread, or from (2) *mecsn, root mea, menq, grind, 



Ch. Slav, maka, meal, Gr. fxaxro-o), knead. But mexn- would 

give G. menn. 
min, soft, delicate, Ir., E. Ir. min, W. mwyn, gentle, Cor. muin, 

gracilis, Br. moan, fine : *mino-, meino-, root mei, lessen ; Gr. 

fx€i(Dv, less, (JuvvOo), lessen ; Lat. minor, less, minister. Hence 

minich, explain. Stokes has apparently two derivations for 

mm — the one above and *meno-, allied to Gr. /xavos (a long), 

minidh, an awl, Ir. meanadh, E. Ir menad, W. mynawyd, Br. 

minaoued, M. Br. menauet : *minaveto- ; Gr. o-jxivvrj, mattock, 

o-fiikr] (t long), chisel, 
minicionn, kid's skin ; from meann and *cionn (see boicionn). 
minig, minic, often, Ir. minic, 0. Ir. menicc, W. mynych, Cor. 

menough : *menekki-s ; Got. manags, many, Ger. manch, Eng. 

minis, degree, portion (M'A.), root of mion. 
ministear, a minister, Ir. ministir ; from Lat. minister, servant, 

whence Eng. minister. 
miobhadh, ill-usage, as by weather j from mibhaidh. 
miobhail, unmannerly (Arg.) ; mi + modhail. 
miodal, flattery, Ir. miodal : 
miodhoir, a churl, niggard one ; see miughair 
miog, miog (H.S.D.), a smile, sly look, Ir. miog : *smincu-, root 

smi, smile, Eng. smile, Gr. /xetSaw, Skr. smayate, laughs, 
miolaran, low barking or whining of a fawning dog : see next 

miolasg, flattery, fawning (as a dog), keen desire ; from the root 

smi, smile % See miog. 
mion, small, so Ir. ; root min, Lat. minor, etc. Also mean, 

meanbh, q.v. 
mionach, bowels, so Ir., E. Ir. menach ; cf. W. monoch. 
mionaid, a minute, Ir. minuit (dat.) ; from the Eng. 
mionn, an oath, Ir. mionn, g. mionna, E. Ir. mind, oath, diadem ; 

the mind was the " swearing reliques" of a saint, 0. Ir. mind, 

a diadem, insignia, 0. W. minn, sertum : *menni- ; cf. 

0. H. G. menni, neck ornament, Ag. S. mene, neck chain, Lat. 

monile. See muineal further. Stokes gives the stem as 

*mindi-, but no etymology. Windisch (Rev. Celt. 5 ) equates 

minn with Lat. mundus, ornament, world, 
miontan, a titmouse, Ir. miontdn ; from mion, small, *minu-, Lat. 

minor, etc., as under min. 
mlorbhuil, a miracle, Ir. miorbhuil y E. Ir. mirbail ; from Lat. 

mirabile, Eng. marvel. 
miortal, myrtal, Ir. miortal (Fol.) ; from the English. W. has 

myrtwydd, myrtle trees. 


mlos, a month, Tr. mi, mios, g. miosa, 0. Ir. mi, g. mis, W. mis, 

Cor. mis, Br. mis, miz : *mens, g. *mensos ; Lat. mensis ; Gr. 

ju^v : Skr. mas ; further Eng. month. 
mios, miosa, worse, Ir. measa, 0. Ir. ??im« : *missds ; Got., 

0. H. G. missa-, mis-, Eng. mis-, miss. See mi-, 
miosach, fairy flax, purging flax, Ir. miosach : " monthly f from 

mios, " from a medicinal virtue it was supposed to possess" 

miosar, a measure (as of meal), Ir. miosur, E. Ir. messar, phiala, 

0. Ir. mesar, modus, W. mesur ; from the Lat. mensura, Eng. 

miosgan, butter kit, Ir. miosgdn ; from mias, a dish, 
miosguirin, envy, malice, Ir. mioscuis (mioscuis, Con.), E. Ir. miscen, 

hate, 0. Ir. miscuis ; Gr. [Micros ( = mitsos) ; Lat. miser, 

wretched ( = mit-s-ro-s) ; root mit, mi. 
miotag, a mitten, Ir. miotog, mitin, mittens ; from Eng. mitten, 

0. Fr. mitaine. 

mlr, a bit, piece, Ir., 0. Ir. mir, pi. mirenn : *mesren-, piece of 
flesh ; Skr. mdmsd, flesh ; Got. mimz (do.) ; Lit. mesa, flesh 
(Stokes, Thur., Brug.). Allied also is Lat. mcmhrum, member ; 

1. E. memso-m, flesh. 

mircean, kind of sea-weed ; cf. N. mdru-kjami, fucus vesiculosus 

mire, pastime, Ir. mire, sport, madness, M. Ir. mire, madness ; see 

mirr, myrrh, Ir. miorr, E. Ir. mirr, W. myr ; from Lat. myrrha, 

Eng. myrrh. 
mis, miseach, maoilseach, goat, doe (Carai.) =maoisleach. 
misd, the worse for, Ir. misde, meisde, M. Ir. meste, E. Ir. mesai- 

die = messa-de, " worse of ;" from mios and de, of. 
misg, drunkenness, Ir. meisge, misge, E. Ir. mesce, 0. Ir. mescc, 

drunk : *mesko-, *meskjd, from *med-sko-, also E. Ir. mid, g. 

meda, mead, W. medd, hydromel, 0. Cor. med, sicera, Br. mez, 

hydromel : *medu- ; Gr. fxWv, wine ; Eng. rrlead ; Ch. Slav. 

medu, honey, wine ; Skr. mddhu, sweet, sweet drink, honey, 
misimean-dearg, bog-mint, Ir. misimin dearg : 
mislean, a mountain grass, sweet meadow grass (Cameron) ; for 

milsean, from mili*, sweet ; cf. Ir. milsean mara, a sort of 

sea-weed ; misleach, sweetness (Hend.). 
misneach, misneachd, courage, Ir. meimeach, M. Ir. mesnech : 

*med-s-, root med of meas : " think, hope." 
mistear, a cunning, designing person ; from misd. 
mith, an obscure- or humble person ; from the root mi, mei as in 

mi-, miosa. 


mithear, weak, crazy, Ir. mithfir, weak ; see mith. 

mithich, proper time, tempestivus, Ir. mithid, 0. Ir. mithich, 
tempestivus : *meti-, Lat. mdturus, Eng. mature. 

mithlean, sport, playfulness : 

miughair, niggardly ; from mi and fiu or jiu-mhor 1 cf . miodhoir. 

mnathan, wives, Ir., E. Ir. mnd, wives : *bnds ; see bean. 

mo, my, 0. Ir. mo, mu, W. fy, M. W. my (from myn), Corn., Br. 
ma (which aspirates) : *mou, *movo : formed on the analogy 
of do, du, from the pronominal root me (see mi). W. myn or 
my n- is allied to Zend mana, Lith. mane (for me-ne), Ch. 
Slav. mene. 

md, greater, Ir. mo, 0. Ir. moa, mdo, mda, moo, mo, W. mwy, 
0. W. mui, Corn, moy, Br. mui : *mdjds ; Lat. major, greater 
(Eng. major) ; Got. mais, more (adv.), maiza, greater, Eng. 
more : root md of mor q.v. 

mobainn, maltreating, handling roughly ; see moibean. 

much, early, lr. moch, early, 0. Ir. mock, mane : *moq- ; also 0. Ir. 
mos, soon, W. moch, early, ready, Corn, meugh : *moqsu ; 
Lat. mox, soon ; Zend, moshu, Skr. makshu, soon : also Gr. 
/xai/', idly, rashly. See mus. Hence mocheirigh, early rising, 
mochthrath, early morning, M. Ir. mochthrath, 0. lr. moch' 
tratae, matutinus 

mochd, move, yield (Oss. Ballads) ; cf. M. Ir. mocht, gentle, weak, 
W. mwytho, soften, pamper, Eng. meek, Norse mjukr, soft, 

mod, a court, trial, meeting ; from the Norse mot, meeting, town- 
meeting, court of law, Ag. S. mdt, gemdt, Eng. moot, meet. 

modh, manner, Ir. modh, 0. Ir. mod, W. modd; from Lat. modus. 
Hence modh, respect, E. Ir. mod ; cf. Eng. manners for sense. 

modhan, the sound of a bagpipe or other musical instrument 
(H.S.D., also moghttn) : 

modhar, soft, gentle (modhar, M'A.) ; from modh. 

mdg", clumsy hand or foot ; see mag, smog. 

mogach, shaggy, hairy : 

mogan, a footless stocking ; from the Sc. moggan, moggans. 

mogan, spirits from oats (Uist) : 

mogul, a husk, mesh (of a net), Ir. mogal, cluster, mesh of a net, 
husk, apple of the eye, E. Ir. mocoll (do.), 0. Ir. mocol, subtel : 
*mozgu-, I. E. mozgho, knot, mesh ; Lit. mdzgas, knot, mesh ; 
O. H. G., mascd, Ger. masche, Eng. mesh ; Gr. /xoo-xos, sprout, 
calf. Lat. macula, a mesh, is not allied. Dialect G. 
mugairle, bunch of nuts (Glenmoriston). 

mogur, bulky, clumsy : 

moibean, moibeal, a mop, broom, Ir. nwipcU ; from Eng. mop. 


moibleadh, a gnawing, half-chewing : " making a mop of '" from 

m6id, a vow, Ir. moid, M. Ir. moit, E. Ir. moit (Corm.) : *monti-, 

W. gofuno, to vow, 0. Br. guomonian, polliceri, which Bugge 

and Stokes connect with W. mun, hand (cf. Ag. S. mund, 

Lat. manus). Bnt see bbid. Stokes now says votum. 
mdid, the greater, Ir. moide, more, M. Ir. mdti : *mb + de. Cf. 

moighre, robust, handsome : 
moil, mattbd hair ; see molach (*ml-). 
moilean, a fat, plump child, a lump ; cf. Ir. moil, molan, a heap. 

To this Lat. mdtes may be compared. 
moin, moine, peat, moss, Ir. mdin, g. mbna, E. Ir. mdin, pi. mointe, 

W. mawn, peat, turf : *mdn- ; Lat. mdno, flow, Eng. emanate. 

Strachan takes it from *mokni-, root mok, mak, Ch. Slav. 

mokru, wet, Lit. makone, puddle ; Stokes agrees, giving Celtic 

as *mdkni-, mokni-. It is doubtful if W. k would disappear 

before n (cf. deur). W. has also a form migen, mign, a bog. 
moineis, false delicacy (M'A.), moinig, vanity, boasting ; from 

root mon, men, mind 1 
moire, a moire, certainly, hercle, Ir. iomorro, indeed, however, 

0. Ir. immurgii, autem. 
moirear, a lord, 0. G. mormcer (Book of Deer), M. G. morbhair 

(M'V.), M. Ir. mormhaer (Muireach Albanach), murmor 

(M'Firbis) ; from mor and maor, "great steward." 
moirneas, great cascade, streams (Oss. Ballads) ; from mor and eas 1 
moit, pride, sulkiness, Ir. moiteamhuil, sulky, nice, pettish (Con., 

O'R., M'F.) ; cf. E. Ir. mochtae, magnified, *mog-tio-s, root 

mog, mag, great. 0. Ir. moidem, boasting, praise, 
mol, praise, advise, Ir. molaim, 0. Ir. molid, laudat, W. moli, 

mawl, laus, Br. vieuli : *mol6, *mdlo, " magnify ;" root mol, 

mel, be strong ; Gr. [xdXa, very ; Lat. melior, better ; Lit. 

?nilns, very many, Ch. Slav, iz-moleti, eminere (Stokes). 

Windisch has compared it to Ch. SI. moliti, ask, Lit. myleti, 

love, Gr. fxeXe, friend, [xclXlxos, gentle, 
mol, mal, a shingly beach ; from Norse mol, g. malar, pebbles, 

bed of pebbles on the beach ; root mel, grind, 
molach, hairy, rough, Ir. mothlach, rough, bushy (O'K.), muthalach, 

shaggy (Fol.). If the Irish form is right, it cannot be allied 

to I. E. mlo-s, wool, Gr. //.aAAos, wool, tuft, Lit. millas, woollen 

moll, chaff, Ir. moll (O'R.), W. mwl : *muldo~ ; Eng. mould, Got. 

mulda, dust, 0. H. G. molt, dust, mould ; root mel, grind. 

Borrowed from Welsh 1 


mollachd, a curse ; the Northern form of mallackd, q.v, 

mdlltair, a mould ; from Eng. moulter, mould. 

molltair, miller's share of the grain or meal (Lewis) = multure : 

monadh, a mountain range, W. mynydd, mons, Cor. menit, meneth, 
0. Br. -monid, M. Br. menez, mountain : *monijo-, *menijo-, 
root men, eminere, Eng eminent. Cf. Welsh Inscription 
Monedorigi, " mountain-king " ; also middle G. name of St 
Andrews — Rig-monatk (Chronicles). The Ir. monadh appears 
only in Lh. ; O'Br. gives monadh. The G. word may have 
been borrowed from the Picts along with the place-names in 
which it appears : it is rare in Argyle topography. 

monaid, heed : 

monais, slowness, negligence ; root men, stay, Gr. /xevw. 

monar, a dimunitive person or thing, monaran, a mote ; see munar. 

monasg, chaff, dross ; from the root of the above. 

monmhur, monaghar, a murmuring noise, Ir. monmhar, monbhar, 
murmuring, monghair, monghar, roaring : *mon-mur ; cf. 
Lat. murmur. 

mbr, great, Ir mor, 0. Ir. mor, mar, W. mawr, 0. W., Cor. maur, 
Br. meur, Gaul, -mdro-s ; Gr. -fi(Dpo<s, great, famed (fyx 60 " 6 ' - 
fitopos, in spear-throw great; Got. -mers, famed, merian 
proclaim, 0. H. G. mdri, famed, -mar in Germanic names 
Ger. marchen, a tale, Norse ma?rr, famous ; Slav, -meru 
(Vladimir, etc.) ; Lat. merus, Eng. mere. A shorter form of 
the stem (*mdro-) appears in mo, greater (md-), q.v. 

morbhach, land liable to sea flooding, Ir. murbhach, M. Ir. 
murmhagh ; from muir and magh. Hence the locative 
A' Mhor'oich, the G. name of Lovat. Aran Ir. muirbheach, 
sandy soil by the seaside. 

morghath, a fishing spear ; " sea-spear," from muir and gath 1 M. 
Ir. murgai (B. of Lis.) 

m6man, a small timber dish, Ir. morndn : 

mort, murder, Ir. mort, M. Ir. martad, slaughtering ; from Lat. 
mort- of mors, mortis, death. 

mortar, mortar, Ir. mortaoil ; from the Eng. 

mosach, nasty, dirty ; see musach. 

mosgail, waken, arouse, Ir. musguilim, musglaim, M. Ir. romuscail, 
he awoke, musclait, they wake : *imm-od-sc-al, root sec of 

mosradh, coarse dalliance, mosraiche, smuttiness ; from mos with 
suffix radh. See musach for root. 

mothaich, perceive, Ir. mothuighim, M. Ir. mothaigim, perceive, 
0. Ir. mothaiqid, stupeat (]) ; root mot, met, Lit. matyti, see, 
Lettic matit, perceive, Ch. Slav, motriti, spectare, Gr. fxarevo), 


mothan, bog violet : 

mdthar, loud noise, swelling of the sea, mothar, noise as from 
a cave (M'A.) : 

mothar, a park, clamp of trees (Arm.), M. Ir. mothar, enclosure, 
a place studded with bushes : 

mu, about, Ir. um, im, 0. Ir. imb, imm-, W. am, Cor., Br. am-, em , 
Gaul, ambi : *ambi, *mbi ; Lat. ambi- ; Gr. aju,</>t ; Ag. S. ymb. 

muc, a pig, Ir. muc, 0. Ir. mucc, W. moch, pigs, Br. moc'h, pigs : 
*?nukku- ; Lat. mucus, muccus, mucus ; Gr. fxv^a, phlegm, 
d7ro/jLv<T(T(0, wipe the nose, [xvktyJp, nose ; Skr. muficdti, let 

mucag, a hip or hep, fruit of the dog-rose, M. Ir. mucora ; from 
muc above. Cf. Gr. /xv/a/s, a mushroom, from the same root. 

much, smother, press down, Ir., 0. Ir. muchaim, also E. Ir. much, 
smoke, W. mwg, smoke, Cor. mok, megi, stifle, Br. mik, suffo- 
cation, miga, be suffocated, moguet, smoke : *mUko-, root 
smuk, smug (smugh, smaugh), Eng. smoke, Gr. crfxvx^, 
smoulder (v long). Stokes suggests old borrowing from the 
Ag. S. Hence muchan, a vent or chimney, Ir. muchan (O'B.). 

mudan, a covering, covering for a gun : 

mugha, destruction, decay, Ir. mugha, a perishing, straying, M. Ir. 
mugud, slaying, mogaim, I slay : 

mugham, ankle, so Ir. ; cf. W. migwrn, ankle, joint, Br. migorn, 
cartilage, which Stokes compares to Lat. mucro, point. 

muidhe, a churn, E. Ir. muide, a vessel, buide, a churn, W. buddai, 
churn. Stokes compares buide and buddai to Gr. iridos, jar, 
Lat. -fidelia, pot, which is related to Eng. body. The form 
muidhe has been compared to Lat. modius, a peck, Fr. muid, 

muidse, a mutch ; from the Sc. mutch, Ger. miltze. 

muig, mug, cloudiness, gloom, surliness, Ir. muig : *munki-, root 
muk, smoke, as in much % Or *muggi-, allied to Eng. muggy % 

muigh, a muigh, outside ; see mach. 

muilceann, fell-wort, Ir. muilcheann : 

muileach, dear, beloved : *molico-, from mol, praise 1 

muileag, a cranberry : 

muileann, a mill, so Ir., 0. Ir. mulenn, muilend, W., Corn., Br. 
melin ; from Lat. molina, a mill, molo, grind (see meil). 
G. muillear, miller, E. Ir. muilledir, is for *7nuilne6ir. 

muileid, a mule, Ir. muille ; from Lat. mulus. 

muillean, a husk, particle of chaff; from moll. 

muillean, a truss (of hay or straw) : cf. Sc. mullio (Orkney), and 
see under mul, heap. 

muillion, a million, Ir. milliun; from the L. Lat. millionem, 
coined from mille, a thousand. 


muilteag, a certain small red berry (Dial. H.S.D.). See muileag. 
muime, a step-mother, nurse, Ir. buime, muime, a nurse, E. Ir. 

mumme, nurse, stepmother : *mud-s-mjd, nurse, " suckler," 

root mud, suck ; Lat. mulier, woman ; Gr. /xv£o>, suck, fxvSos, 

damp ; Lit. mdudyti, bath. It has also been paralleled to 

Lat. mamma, Ger. muhme, mother's sister, stepmother, 
muin, teach, instruct, Ir. muinim, 0. Ir. munim : 
muin, the back, Ir. muin, E. Ir. muin, back, neck, W. mwn, neck : 

*moni-, neck ; Skr. mdnyd, neck ; Lat. monile, necklace ; 

0. H. G. menni, neck ornaments, Ag. S. mene, neck-chain ; 

Ch. Slav, monisto, necklace. See muineal, muing. Gaulish 

had also /xavta/c^s, collar or torque, 
muin, micturate, Ir. mun, urine, E. Ir. mun, root meu, mu, befoul ; 

Skr. mutra, urine ; possibly also Lat. muto, mutto, penis, 

E. Ir. moth, ball ferda. 
muineal, the neck, Ir muineul, E. Ir. muinel, W. mvmwgl : 

*moniklo- ; from *moni- of muin, back, q.v. 
muineasach, depressed (Glenmoriston) : 
muing, a name, Ir. muing, 0. Ir. mong, W. myng (m.), M. Br. mde, 

Br. moue : *mongd, *mongo-, root mon of muin, back, q.v. 

Further is Eng. mane, Norse mon, Ger. mahne ; Swed. and 

Dan. manke is especially close to Gaelic, 
muinichill, muilichinn (Arg.), a sleeve, Ir. muinichille, muinchille, 

E. Ir. munchille ; from Lat. manicula, manica, long sleeve, 

from manus, hand. 
muinighin, confidence, trust, so Ir., E. Ir. muinigin ; from *moni- 

love, desire, Norse munr, love, 0. Sax. munilik, lovable ; root 

men, think (Lat. mens, Eng. mind, etc.). 
muinne, stomach (Arg.). Cf. mionach. 
muinnte, munnda, beauteous ; cf. Lat. mundus. 
muinnteachd, disposition (Dial.) ; for root see muinighin, and cf. 

0. Ir. muiniur, I think, 
muinntir, household, people, Ir. muinntir, 0. Ir. muinter, muntar. 

This is regarded by Stokes, Zimmer, and Giiterbock as an 

early borrowing from the Lat. monasterium, monastery ; the 

word familia is often applied to monasteries by Irish writers, 
muir, the sea, Ir. muir, 0. Ir. muir, gen. mora, W. mor, Cor., 

Br. mor, Gaul, mori- : *mor<i-, sea ; Lat. mare ; Eng. mere t 

Ger. meer ; Ch. Slav, morje. 
muire, leprosy ; from mur, a countless number, q.v. 
muirgheadh, a fishing spear ; see morghath. 
muirichinn, children, family, Ir. muiridhin, a charge, family : 

*mori-, care, charge, root mer, smer, remember; Lat. memoria, 

memory ; Gr. [Meptfxva, care ; Skr. smarati, think, mind, 



muirn, joy, affection, Ir. miiirn, muirnin, darling (Eng. mavourneen, 

my darling), M. Ir. miiirn, muirn : *momi-, root mor, mer, 

smer, as in muirichinn above, 
muiseag, a threat, muiseag (Arm,) ; from mus of musdch. 
muisean, a mean, sordid fellow ; see musach for the root, 
muisean, a primrose, Ir. muisean (O'B.) : 
muiseal, a muzzle, Ir. muisiall ; from the Eng. 
muisginn, an English pint, mutchkin ; from the Sc. mutchkin, 

Dutch mutsje, an eighth part of a bottle, 
mul, a conical heap, mound, Ir. mul, moil, E. Ir. mul-, eminence : 

*mulu- j of. Norse muli, jutting crag, " mull," Ger. maul, 

snout. Cf. Fr. mulon, little heap of dried grass, mul-conain, 

conical suppurating sore, 
mul, axle, Ir mul, mol, E. Ir. mol, shaft ; cf. Gr. fxeXtt], ash, spear, 
mulachag, a cheese, Ir., M. Ir. mulchdn : 
mulad, sadness ; root mu, mutter ? 

mulart, dwarf elder, Ir. mulabhdrd, malabhur, mulart (O'B.) : 
mule, push, butt ; cf. Lat. mulceo, mulco, stroke, beat, 
mule, a shapeless lump, lump ; mulcan, a pustule ; cf. meall : 
mullach, the top, Ir., 0. Ir. mullach : *muldako-, *muldo-, top, 

head ; Ag. S. molda, crown of the head ; Skr. mUrdhdn, top, 

mult, a wedder, Ir., 0. Ir. molt, W. mollt, Cor. mols, vervex, Br. 

maout, a sheep (mas.) : *molto-, root mel, mol, crush, grind, 

" mutilate f Russ. moliti, cut, cut up, 0. H. G. muljan, 

triturate. Hence M. Lat. multo, whence Fr. mouton, a sheep, 

Eng. mutton. 
munar, a trifle, a trifling person, monar, diminutive person or 

thing : 
munganachd, bullying : 

munloch, a puddle, Ir. munloch, gen. munlocha ; from mun and loch. 
mur, unless, Ir. muna (Donegal Ir. mur ; Monaghan has amur = 

acht muna, unless), M. Ir. mun, moni, mona, E. Ir., 0. Ir. 

mani ; from ma, if, and ni, not : "if not." The G. r for n is 

possibly due to the influence of gur and of the verbal particle 

ro- (in robh) ; mun-robh becoming mur-robh. 
mur, a wall, bulwark, palace, Ir., E. Ir. mur, W. mur ; from Lat. 

murus, a wall, 
mur, countless number (as of insects), E. Ir. mur, abundance ; Gr. 

fjivptos (v long), countless, ten thousand ; Skr. bhuri, many. 

Stokes compares rather Gr. -fivpa of 7r\rj[xfjLvpa (v long), 

Tr\7)jxvpL<i (v short or long), flood tide, flood. Mur, leprosy = 

countless number. 



muran, sea-bent, Ir. muraineach, bent grass ; from muir, the sea. 

Norse has mura, goose-grass. 
murcach, sorrowful, Ir. murcach, mUrcach ; cf. M. Br. morchet, 

anxiety, now morc'hed, Cor. moreth, chagrin. Eng. murky, 

Norse myrkr could only be allied by borrowing. Cf. Lat. 

marceo, droop, 
murla, a coat of mail : 
murlach, the king-fisher : 
rourlag, murluinn, a kind of basket, murlach, fishing basket 

(M'A.), Ir. muirleog, a rod basket for sand eels and wilks 

(Donegal). Cf. Sc. murlain, a narrow-mouthed basket of a 

round form, 
murlan, rough head of hair : 
murrach, able, rich, murrtha, successful, M. Ir. muire, muiredach, 

lord, Murdoch ; Ag. S. maere, clarus, Norse maerr, famous 

(Stokes), same root as m6r. 
murt, murder ; see mort. 

murtachd, sultry heat, wearinesss produced by heat : 
mus, before, ere ; cf. 0. Ir. mos, soon, mox, used as a verbal 

particle ; it is allied to moch, being from *moqsu, Lat. mox. 
musach, nasty, Ir. mosach (O'R., Sh.), W. mws, effluvia, stinking, 

Br. mous, muck, mouz, crepitus ventris : *musso-, *mud-so-, 

root mud, be foul or wet ; Gr. fxva-os ( = /xvS-oros), defilement, 

[xvSos, clamminess, decay ; Lit. mudas, dirty sea-grass : root 

mu (mu), soil, befoul, G. muin, Eng. mud, etc. 
musg, a musket, Ir. mtisgaid, L. M. Ir. muscaed (F. M.) ; from the 

musg, rheum about the eyes, gore of the eyes ; from the root mil, 

befoul, be wet, as discussed under musach, muin. 
musgan, dry-rot in wood, Ir. musgan, mustiness, mouldiness ; Lat. 

muscus, moss ; Eng. moss, mushroom ; Lit. musai (pi.), mould. 

This word is not in H.S.D., but it is implied in Arm. and is 

in M'E. ; also in common use. 
musgan, pith of wood, porous part of a bone (H.S.D.). Armstrong 

gives also the meanings attached to musgan above ; the 

words are evidently the same, 
musgan, the horse fish : 
musuinn, confusion, tumult, Ir. muisiun, codlata, hazy state 

preceding sleep. From Eng. motion % 
mutach, short, E. Ir. mut, everything short : *mutto-, root mut, 

dock ; Lat. mutilus, maimed (Eng. mutilate), muticus, docked ; 

Gr. fitTvXos, hornless. 
mutan, mutan, a muff, fingerless glove, also mutag (Arms.) ; from 

miotag, with a leaning on mutach, short. Thurneysen takes 


it from mutach without reference to miotaq. Ir. has muthda 
muth, change, M. W. mudaw ; from Lat. muto, I change. 


n-, from, in a nuas, a nios, Ir., 0. Ir. an- ; see a number 5. 

na, not, ne, Ir., 0. Ir. na : used with the imperative mood solely. 
It is an ablaut and independent form of the neg. prefix in 
(see ion-, an-), an ablaut of I. E. ne, Lat. ne, Gr. vn- ; shorter 
form Lat. ne-, Got. ni, Eng. not (ne-d-wiht), etc. ; further I.E. 
n-, Gr. dv-, Lat. in-, Eng. un-, Gaelic an-. See nach, which is 
connected herewith as Gr. ovk, ov \ the W. is nac, nag, with 
imperative, Br. na. 

na, or, vel, Ir. nd, E. Ir., 0. Ir. n6, W. neu : *nev (Stokes, who 
allies it to Lat. nuo, nod, Gr. vevu>, Skr. ndvate, go, remove ; 
but, in 1890, Bez. Beit. 16 51, he refers it to the root nu, 
Eng. now). It can hardly be separated from neo, otherwise, 
q.v. Strachan agrees. 

na, than, Ir. nd, M. Ir. ind, E. Ir. inda, indds, 0. Ir. ind as, indds, 
pi. indate (read inddte) ; from the prep, in and id, to be 
(Zeuss 2 , 716-7, who refers to the other prepositional com- 
parative conjunction oldaas, from ol, de) The use of in in 
0. Ir. as the relative locative may also be compared. 

na, what, that which, id quod, M. Ir. ina, ana, inna n-, E. Ir. 
ana n- ; for an a, 0. Ir. rel. an (really neuter of art.) and 
G. rel. a, which see. Descent from ni or ni, without any 
relative, is favoured by Book of Deer, as do ni thissad, of 
what would come. Possibly from both sources. 

'na, 'na-, in his, in her, in (my) ; the prep, an with the possessive 
pronouns : 'nam, 'nar, 'nad (also ad, E. Ir. at, it), 'nur, 'na 

nabaidh, nabuidh, a neighbour ; from the Norse nd-bui, neighbour, 
" nigh-dweller," the same in roots as Eng. neighbour. 

nach, not, that not (conj.), that not = quin (rel.), nonne % Ir., E. Ir. 
nach, W. nac, nag, not, Br. na : *nako, from na, not, which 
see above, and ko or k as in Gr. ovk against ov (Stokes). The 
ho has been usually referred to the same pronominal origin 
as -que in Lat. neque ; it does appear in neach. 

nadur, nature, Ir. nddiir, W. natur ; from Lat. natura, 

naid, a lamprey (Sh., O'B.), Ir. naid : 

naidheachd, news, lr. nuaidheachd, W. newyddion ; from nuadh, 

naile, yea ! an interjection : 

260 Etymological dictionary 

naird, a naird, upwards, Ir. andirde, E. Ir. i n-ardi, i n-airddi ; 

prep, in (now an) into, and dirde, height : " into height." 

This adverb is similar in construction to a bhan, a mack, a 

steach, etc., for which see a number 6. 
naire, shame, Ir. ndire, E. Ir. ndre : *nagro-, shameful, root nagh, 

be sober, Gr. vr}</xo (do.), Ger. niichtern, fasting, sober, 
naisneach, modest ; compare the next word, 
naistinn, care, wariness ; from Norse njdsn, spying, looking out, 

Got. niuhseini, visitation (kTrio-KOTn)), Ag. S. nedsan, search out. 
naitheas, harm, mischief : 
nail, from over, to this side, lr., 0. Ir. anall ; from an (see a 5) 

and all of thall, q,v. 
Damhaid, an enemy, Ir. ndmhaid, g. namhad, 0. Ir. ndma, g. 

ndmat, pi. n. ndmait : *ndmant-, root nom, nem, seize, take ; 

Gr. v€fA€(ri<$, wrath, nemesis, j/wpw, i/e/xw, distribute ; 0. H. G. 

ndma, rapine, Ger. nehmen, take, Eng. nimble ; Zend, nemanh, 

crime, Alb. name, a curse. Cf. W., Corn., and Br. nam, 

na'n (na'm), if (with false supposition), M. G. dane, da n-, da m- 

(D. of Lis.), Ir. da, da (for da n-, eclipsing), E. Ir. dd n-, 

dia n-, 0. Ir. dian : the prep, di or de and rel. an ; Manx dy. 

The G. form with n for d is puzzling, though its descent from 

da n- seems undoubted. 
naoi, nine, so Ir., 0. Ir. ndi n-, W., Corn, naw, Br. nao : *nevn J 

Lat. novem ; Gr. hv-vka \ Eng. nine, Ger. neun ; Skr. ndvan. 
naoidhean, an infant, so Ir., 0. Ir. ndidiu, gen. nbiden : *ne-vid-, 

" non-witted " ? Cf. for force Gr. vrjinos, infant ( = v?/-7rios, 

not-wise one), from -tti/os, wise, ttlvvtos (do.), root qei of ciall, 

q.v. So Stokes in Celt. Ph. 2 ; now *no-vidion (no = ?ie); cf. 

Gr. V7;7T109. 

naomh, holy, Ir. naomh, E. Ir. ndem, ndeb, 0. Ir. nbib : *noibo-s ; 

0. Pers. naiba, beautiful, Pers. niw (do.). Bez. suggests the 

alternative of Lettic naigs, quite beautiful, 
naosga, a snipe, Ir. naosga : *snoib-sko-, root sneib, snib of Eng. 

snipe 1 
nar, negative particle of wishing : *ni-air, for not ; air and ni. 
Iiasag, an empty shell : 
nasg, a band, tieband, collar, Ir., E. Ir. nasc : *nasko- ; 0. H. G. 

nusca, fibula, Norse nist, brooch : *ndh-sko-, root ndh (Brug.). 

The verb nasg, 0. Ir. -nascim, appears in Br. as naska. The 

root nedh is in Skr. nahyati. Others make the root negk of 

Lat. nexus, etc., and the root snet of snath, q.v., has been 

suggested. See snaim further, 
nasgaidh, gratis, free, Ir. a n-aisge, freely, aisge, a gift. See 



natar, nitre ; from Eng. natron, nitre. 

nathair, a serpent, so Ir., 0. Ir. nathir, W. neidr, Corn, nader, 
M. Br. azr : *natrix ; Lat. natrix, water snake ; Got. nadrs, 
Norse nab"?', Eng. adder. The Teutonic words are regarded 
by Kluge as scarcely connected with Lat. natrix, whose root 
is nat, swim. 

-ne, emphatic participle added to the pi. of 1st pers. pron. sin-ne, 
ar n-athair-ne, " onr father " ; 0. Ir. ni, -ni, used indepen- 
dently ( = nos) and as a suffix. See further under sinne. 

neach, anyone, Ir. neach, 0. Ir. neck, aliquis, W., Cor., Br. nep, neb, 
quisquam : *neqo-, ne-qo- ; Lit. nekas, something, nekurs, 
quidam, Lett, kd ne kd, anyhow. Stokes takes the ne from 
the negative root ne (see na) ; the qo is the pronominal stem 
of the interrogative (cf. Lat. -que, neque). 

nead, a nest, Ir. nead, E. Ir. net, W. nyth, Corn, neid, Br. nez, neiz: 
*nizdo-s ; Lat. nidus ; Eng. nest ; Skr. nidas. Supposed to 
be from *ni-sed-, " sit down." 

neamh, heaven, Ir. neamh, 0. Ir. nem, W., Corn, nef, M. Br. neff, 
now env : *nemos ; Skr. ndmas, bowing, reverence ; Lat. 
nemus, grove ; Gr. vefios, pasture : root nem, distribute, Gr. 
vefjLiD (do.), Ger. nehmen, take. Gaulish has ve^Tov or 
vefX€Tov, 0. Ir. nemed, sacellum. Often, and lately (1895) by 
Prof. Rhys, referred to the root nebh, be cloudy, Gr. v'efyos, 
cloud, Lat. nebula (see neul) ; but the Gaelic nasalized ea is 
distinctly against this, as also is the Br. env (Stokes). 

neamhnuid, a pearl, Ir. meamhunn, M. Ir. niamnuid, pearl, E. Ir. 
nemanda, pearly, 0. Ir. mem, onyx (for nem 1) ; root nem of 

neanntag, nettle, Ir. neantog, E. Ir. nenntai, nettles, nenaid. See 
v neapaicin, a napkin, Ir. naipicin ; from Eng. 

nfearachd, happiness, usually mo nearachd, lucky to, Ir.molgheane'ar, 
happy is he (O'B.), is mennar dnit-se, happy is it for you 
(O'Growney), M. Ir. mo ghenar duit, good luck to you (F. M.), 
mongenar (L. B.), E. Ir. mogenar. The root seems to be mag 
(I. E. magh), increase (see mac) ; cf. Lat. made, root, mak, 

nearag, a daughter (Oss. Ballads) ; if a word properly handed 
down, it is interesting to compare it with the root of the 

neart, strength, Ir. neart, 0. Ir. nert, W., Corn, nerth, Br. nerz, 
Gaul, nerto-, root ner ; Skr. ndr, man ; Gr. avrjp (root ner) ; 
Lat. Umbr. nerus, viros, Sab. Nero, fortis ; Teut. Nerthus, 
Norse Njorb"r ; Lit. noreti, to will. 


neas, weazel ; see nios. 

neasg", neasgaid, a boil, Ir. neascbid, E. Ir. nescoit : *ness-conti-, 

from E. Ir. ness, wound {*snit-so-, root suit, cut. Ger. schneide, 

Sc. sned), and -conti- found in urchoid % Stokes regards E. Ir. 

ness, wound, as from *nekso-, root neg. 
neimh, poison, Ir. nimh, neimh, 0. Ir. nem, pi. neimi : *nemes-, 

" something given," root nem-, distribute (as in neamh) 1 
neip, a turnip ; from the Sc. neep, M. Eng. nepe, from Lat. ndpus. 
neo, air neo, otherwise, alioquin (conj.) ; see next. 
neo-, un-, Ir. neamh-, neimh-, M. Ir. nem, 0. Ir. neb-, neph- : *ne-bo- ; 

the ne is the negative seen in na, ni, but the bo is doubtful. 

Zimmer suggests that b is what remains of the subj. of bu, 

be: " be not." 
nebinean, ne6nan, the daisy, Ir. ndinin : " noon-flower," from 

nbin, noon. Cf. the Eng. daisy for force, 
nednach, eccentric, curious : *neo-gnathach, " unwont." 
neonagan, a stye in the eye (Arg.) ; cf. leamhnad. Also stebnagan ; 

cf. Sc. styen. 
neoni, nothing, a trifle, 0. Ir. nephni ; from two- and ni, thing, 
neul, nial, a cloud, Ir. neul, 0. Ir. ntl. pi. ace. niula, W. niwl, mist : 

*neblo-s ; Lat. nebula ; Gr. vefekr) ; Ger. nebel, mist ; 0. Slav. 

nebo, sky ; Skr. nabhas, mist. 
ni, not, Ir. ni, 0. Ir ni, ni, W. ni : *nei ; 0. Lat. nei, Lat, ni-, ne ; 

0. H. Ger. ni, Ger. nein ; 0. Slav, ni, neque ; Zend nae- ; 

Gr. V7]-. Thur. says *ne-est = *nest, Celtic nist, nis, ni h- 

ni, a thing, Ir. nidh, 0. Ir. ni, res, probably a curtailed form of 

0. Ir. ani, id quod, from the art. neut. and the pronominal 

suffix ei, which Zimmer compares to Got. ei, that (conj.), 

sa-ei, that-ei, which is either the locative of pronominal o- 

(Gr. €t, I. E. ei-so, this here), or the particle seen in Gr. 

ovtoct-l (l long), an instrumental of Lat. is, Gaelic e, he. 

Some have regarded ni as from *gnithe, factum, which see in 

ni, will do. 
ni, cattle ; this is the same as ni, thing. 

ni, will do, Ir. gnim, I do, 0. Ir. dogni, facit ; see dean, gnlomh. 
niata, courageous, Ir. nia, gen. niadh, a champion, niadhas, valour, 

M. Ir. forniatta, brave, E. Ir. nia, g. niath, possibly Ogam 

neta, netta (*neta ?) : *neid-, Gr. ovecSos, revile, Lit. ndids, 

hatred, Skr. nind, mock, or *ni-sed-, down-setter 1 Rhys 

(Lect.) cfs. the Teut. nan)>, venture, strive ; this would give 

Gaelic preserved d. 
nic, female patronymic prefix, M. Gaelic nee (D. of L.), Ir. ni, 

M. Ir. ini, an abbreviation of 0. Ir. ingen, now inghean or 


nighean and ui, nepotis (Stokes). The G. nic, really " grand- 
daughter," stands for inghean mhic or ni mhic ; we have 
recorded in 1566 Ne V c Kenze (M'Leod Charters). 

nigh, wash, Ir. nighim, E. Ir. nigim, 0. Ir. dofonuch, lavo, nesta, 
laveris : *nigo, 1. E. neigo ; Gr. vi£(o, vltttu) ; Eng. nick, Auld 
Nick, a water power, Ger. nix ; Skr. nij, clean. 

nighean, a daughter; a corruption of inghean, q.v. 

nimh, poison, Ir. nimh ; see neimh. 

nior, not (with perfect tense), Ir. nior, E. Ir. nir = ni-ro ; to is the 
sign of past tenses. 

nios, neas, a weazel, Ir. neas, eas(6g), 0. Ir. ness : 

nios, from below, up, Ir. anios, E. Ir. anis \ from an (see a number 
5) and \os. 

nis, now, Ir. anois, M. Ir. anosa, E. Ir. innossai, 0. Ir. indossa ; 
ind (now an) of the article and G. fois, rest. The word 
appears in a bhos, q.v. The form ijidorsa, this hour ( = now), 
is rejected by Ascoli as a misspelling for indossa. 

ni 's, id quod, the usual classical Gaelic with the verb substantive 
to denote comparative state : tha i ni's f hearr, she is better, 
Ir. nios, M. Ir. ni is : "thing that is," from ni and is. The 
usual and true Gaelic form na 's is not a degraded form of 
Ir. ni } s. The G. na of na } s is simply na = id quod (see na) ; 
the Ir. is some mediaeval development with ni, for old ana, 
id quod, was lost, the simple a (art.) being used now in its 
stead, as in 0. Ir. As it was impossible to use a in the 
comparative construction with clearness, recourse was had to 
ni is. Thus Ir. : An tan do thogradh ni ba m6 do dheunamh 
= G. An tan a thogradh e na bu mho a dheanamh. Hence 
ni 's should never have been used in Sc. Gaelic. 

niuc, a corner ; from the Sc. neuk, M. Eng. nok. Dial. iuc. 
Skeat thinks the Eng. is the borrower. 

no, or, vel, Ir. na, E. Ir., 0. Ir. no, W. neu ; see na. 

nochd, to-night, Ir. anochd, 0. Ir. innocht, hac nocte : the art. and 
nochd, night, W. henoeth, Corn, neihur, Br. neyzor, nos : 
*nokti- ; Lat. nox, noctis ; Gr. vt>£, rv/crds ; Got. nahts, Eng. 
night ; Lit. naktls ; Skr. ndkti. 

nochd, naked, Ir. nochdadh, manifestation, 0. Ir. nocht, W. noeth, 
Corn, noyth, Br. noaz : *noqto- ; Got. naqa}>s, 0. H. G. nacot, 
Eng. naked ; further cf. Lat. nUdus (*nogvidus) ; Slav, nagu ; 
Skr. nagnd. 

nodadh, a nod, suggestion ; from the Eng. 

nodha, new ; see nuadh. 

noig, the anus : 

noig, old-fashioned face ; noigeiseach, snuffy ; noiqeanach (D. 


noigean, a noggin, Ir. noigin; from the Eng. noggin. Skeat 

thinks the Eng. are the borrowers ; but this is unlikely, 
noin, noon, Ir. ndin, g. ndna, evening, noon, E. Ir. nbin, nona, W. 

naivn ; from the Lat. nona hora, ninth hour of the day, or 3 

noir, the east, Ir. anoir, 0. Ir. anair, "from before," if one looks at 

the morning sun ; from an (see a number 5) and air. 
nollaig, Christmas, Ir. nodlog, E. Ir. notlaic, W. nadolig ; from 

Lat. natalicia, the Nativity. 
norra, a wink of sleep (Arran), norradh (M'Rury) : 
nds, a custom, Ir., E. Ir. nds, W. naws, M. Br. neuz : *nomzo-, Gr. 

vofxos, law, Lat. numerus. Thurneysen thinks the Gadelic 

words are borrowed from the Welsh naws, from gnaws (see 

gndth). Stokes gives *nomso- as stem for Gadelic alone ; the 

W. he regards as from gnd, as above. The ideal stem would 

be *ndsto-, root ndd. 
n6s, a cow's first milk, E. Ir. nus ; from nua, new, and ass, milk, 
ndtair, a notary, Ir. notadoir, 0. Ir. notire ; from Lat. notarius. 
nothaist, a foolish person : 
nuadarra, angry, surly ; see nuarranta. 
nuadh, new, Ir. nuadh, 0. Ir. nue, nuide, W. newydd, 0. Br. 

nouuid, Br. neuez, Gaul, novio- : *novio-s ; Lat. novus, Novius ; 

Gr. vtos, young, new ; Got. niujis, Eng. new ; Lit. naiijas ; 

Skr. navya. 
'nuair, when, "the hour that," Ir. anuair, E. Ir. innuair: the art. 

and the word uair, q.v. 
nuall, nuallan, a howling, cry, Ir. nuaill, E. Ir. nuall : *nouslo-n ; 

Skr. nu, cry, navati ; Lettic nauju, cry ; 0. H. G. niumo, 

praise, rejoicing, 
nuarranta, sad, surly ; cf. the Ir. interjection mo nuar, my woe, 

root nu as above, 
nuas, down, from above, Ir. anuas ; see a number 5 and uas. 
nuig, as far as, 0. G. gonice (B. of Deer), Ir. nuige, go nuige, E. Ir. 

connici : *con-do-icci ; see thig, come, 
nuimhir, number, so Ir. ; from Lat. numerus. Usually uimhir, 

. ( l; v - 

'n uiridh, last year, Ir. 'nuraidh, E. Ir. innuraid ; the art. and 
0. Ir. dat. urid. See uiridh. 

null, over, to beyond ; for nunn on the analogy of nail, and for 
dissimilation of the ws. See nunn, the only Argyllshire form. 

nunn, over, beyond, Ir. anonn, 0. 1. inunn ; from the prep, an 
(see a 5) and sund, here (" from here "), W. hwnt, Br. hont : 
*suno-to-, pronominal roots sou and to ; for both cf. Gr. ovtos 
( = so-u-to-s), this. The pronominal forms beginning in so and 
to, or .s and t without o, are all from the roots so and to 



0, the interjection " ! oh ! " Ir. o ; see vocative a. 

0, from, ab, Ir. 6, 0. Ir. 6, ua (h6, hua) : *ava ; Skr. dva. away, 

off; Lat. au-, as in aufero, take away; Ch. SI. u-, Pruss- au-. 

Also bho, q.v. 
0, since, when, with the rel. as 'n, Ir. 6, 0. Ir. 6, ex quo ; it is 

merely the prep, o used as a conjunction. 
Ob, refuse, Ir. obaim, 0. Ir. obbaim, obbad (inf.) ; referred to ud- 

bad, " out-speak," the prefix ud-, out (allied to Eng. out, Skr. 

ud, out, of; and ba, speak, I. E. bha, Lat. fari, Gr. <f>a in 

<f>rj[XL. Ascoli gives the root as ben (see bean), repellere. 
6b, a creek ; from Norse hop, small land-locked bay, Sc. hope, 

Ag. S. hop, valley. 
obaidh, a charm ; see ubag. 
obair, a work, so Ir., E. Ir. opair, oper, 0. Ir. opred, operatio ; from 

Lat. opus (g. operis), opera. 
f obair, a confluence ; the usual pronunciation of the Aber- in 

place names. See abar. 
obann, sudden, Ir. obann, E. Ir. opond : *od-bond, e vestigio, from 

bonn % Stokes refers it to the root of Gr. a<£va>, 0. Slav, abije, 

immediately, suggesting *ob-no-. W. buan also suggests itself. 
OCar, interest on money, Ir. ocar, W. ocr ; from Norse okr, usury, 

Ag. S. wocer, Got. wokrs, Ger. wucher ; root veg. 
och, an interjection, alas ! Ir. och, uch, 0. Ir. uch, vae, ochfad, 

sighing : *uk ; Got. auhjon, make a noise, Norse ugla, Eng. 

owl ; Let. auka, storm wind, Serb, uka, a cry. 
ochd, eight, Ir. ochd, 0. Ir. ocht n-, W. wyth {*okti), Br. eiz : *okto ; 

Lat. octo ; Gr. Skto) ; Got. ahtau ; Skr. ashtau. 
OChoin, alas, Ir. och on ; literally " alas this ! " From och and the 

old pronoun 6n, discussed under eadhon. 
ocras, hunger, Ir. ocru*, ocarus, E. Ir. accorus. See acras. The 

Lat. careo, want, may be suggested as allied ; root ker, kor. 
od, yonder, yon ; see ud. 
oda, tongue of land ; N. oddr. 

oda, horse-race (Uist), race, race-course (Carm.) ; cf. N. at, horse- 
odhar, dun, so Ir., E. Ir. odar : *odro-s, for *odh-ro-, shady, Lat. 

umbra ( = *o-n-dhra), dter, dark, Umbrian adro, atra. Bez. 

suggests, with query, *jodros, allied to Lit. judas, dark. 

Thurneysen has referred *odro-s to I. E. udro-, otter, hydra, 

watery, the idea being " otter-like "or " water-like " (Gr. v8<Dp, 

Eng. ivater), 



ofrail, an offering, Ir. ofrdil, M. Ir. offrdil, E. Ir. oifrend ; from 

Lat. offerendum. 
dg, young, Ir. bg, 0. Ir. 6c, bac, W. ieuanc, Corn, iouenc, Br. 

iaouank, Gaul. Jovinc-illos : *jovnko-s, comparative jovos ; 

Lat. juvenis, juvencus ; Eng. young, Got. juggs ; Skr. yuvagd, 

juvenile, yt/van, young. 
Ogha, a grandchild, Ir. 6, ua, g. ui, a grandson, descendant, 0. Ir. 

ua, aue, haue, g. haui : *(p)avio-s ; Gr. 7rats, for 7ra/ts, boy ; 

further Lat. puer, for pov-er ; W. w^r ; root £% ^>cw, joov, 

beget. Brug. (Grund. 2 122) refers it to *avio-s, an adj. from 

ewo-s, grandfather, etc., Lat. avus. Eng. eame. 
f Oghum, the " Ogam " writing, so Ir., E. Ir. ogum, Ogma mac 

Elathan (son of knowledge), the Hercules of the Gaelic gods, 

Gaul. Ogmios, the Gaul. Hercules and god of eloquence : 

*Ogambio-s. Cf. Gr. oypos (^y-juos 1 ?), a furrow, line, Skr. 

djmas, course, run, root ag : the comparison is very doubtful. 

See oidheam. 
dglach, a youth, servant, Ir. dglach, 0. Ir. oclach; from bg and 

suffix -lack (see teaglach). 
Ogluidh, gloomy, awful, bashful, Ir. ogluidh, bashful ; from Norse 

uggligr, fearful, Eng. ugly. 
oich, interjection of pain, Ir., 0. Ir. uch. See och. 
oide, foster-father, step-father, Ir. oide, 0. Ir. aite : *attio-s ; Gr. 

arret, father ; Got. atta, father ; Ch. SI. otici, father ; Skr. 

altd, mother, 
oidhche, oiche, night, Ir. oidhche, 0. Ir. aidche, later oidche, also 

adaig : *ad-aqid, *ad-aqi, root aq, dark ; Lat. aquilus, dark ; 

Lit. aklas, blind ; Gr. aKapov, blind (Hes.). Skr. andhas, 

darkness, with root andh, adh, Lat. ater, etc., have been 

suggested, the ad of *ad-aqia being made the root and not 

the aq (see odhar). 
f oidheadh, tragical death, so Ir., E. Ir. oided, aided ; root pad, 

ped, fall, Lat. pestis (Stokes). See eas. 
oidheam, a secret meaning, inference, idea (M/A., M'E.), a book 

(M'F., H.S.D.). Properly oigheam, the same as ogham above 

(Zeuss, Pthys' Hib. Led.). 
oidheirp, oirpe, an attempt : *ad-erb-, root erb of earb, q.v. % 
oifig, an office, Ir. oifig, M. Ir. oifficc ; from Lat. officium (Eng. 

oigeach, a stallion, young horse ; from bg and each. Commonly 

aigeach, q.v. 
6igh, a virgin, Ir. oigh, E. Ir., 0. Ir. 6g, uag, integer : *a,ugi-, root 
\- zb) >.iix.aug, increase; Lat. augeo ; Got. dukan, increase; Lit. dugu, 

(Brug.). Bez. (in Stokes' Urkel. Spr.) suggests Czech pouhy, 

pure, and a stem *pougo-s. 



oigheam, obedience, homage ; cf. taidhe, 

oighionnach, aigheannach, a thistle (Perth, according to M'A.) : 

see fobhannan. 
oighre, ice, Ir. oidhir, M. Ir. bigred, E. Ir. aigred, snow ; see deigh. 
oighre, an heir, so Ir., M. Ir. oigir; founded on Lat. heres, 

possibly on M. Eng. heir rather, which is from heres. 
oighreag", cloudberry ; founded on Sc. averin. 
oil, vexation, offence, Ir. foil. The E. Ir. ail has a long, and is 

for agli-, Got. agls, disgraceful (Strachan). The G. is perhaps 

from the root of oillt. 
oil, rear, educate, Ir. oilirrt, 0. Ir. ailim ; root al as in altrum. 
oilbheum, offence, stumbling-block, Ir. oilbhe'im, M. Ir. ailbeim : 

"stone-dashing," "stone-stumbling"; from ail, rock, and 

beum, blow, q.v. (Atk.). 
oilean, eilean, training, nurture, Ir. oileamhuin, nurture, M. Ir. 

oilemain, inf. to ailim, I rear ; root al, as in altrum, q.v. 
oillt, horror, disgust, Ir. oilt : *aleti-, root pal, strike, whence 

Lat. palma, palm, palpo, palpitate, etc. 1 
oineach, liberality, Ir. oineach, mercy, liberality. See eineach. 
dillid, a fool, Ir. binmhid, E. Ir. 6inmit, ; from on-, foolish, 

and merit, mind. See next, 
dinnseach, a foolish woman, Ir. 6inseach ; from 6n-, foolish, and 

the feminine termination -seach. 
oir, edge, border, Ir., E. Ir., 0. Ir. or, W. gor-or, ora superior: *oro-. 

Cf. Lat. ora, coast, from which Thur. regards it as borrowed ; 

it is not allied to Ger. ufer, coast. 
oir, for, 0. Ir. ar, air ; the prep, air (*are) used as a conj. The 

Ir. oir, because, for, 0. Ir. 6re, uare, abl. of 0. Ir. uar, huar, 

is from Lat. hora, Gaelic uair. 
Oir-, prefix denoting " ad " or " on," Ir. oir-, 0. Ir. air-, ar- ; this is 

the prep, air (*are). Hence oirbheart, a good deed, Ir. do., 

from beart ; oirbheas, act of charity, from beus, conduct, etc. 

Sometimes confused with or-, gold, as prefix ; cf. oirdheirc. 
oircheas, pity, charity, Ir. oircheasachd, need, charitableness ; cf. 

0. Ir. airchissecht, gratia, indulgentia, vb. airchissim, parcit, 

indulget : air + cess ; root of cead 1 
oirde, a piece or lump of anything ; see ord. 
dirdheirc, glorious, Ir. birdhearc, 0. Ir. airdirc, erdirc ; from air 

and dearc, see : "con-spicuous." See oir- for the oir-. 
oirfeid, music, Ir. oirfid., E. Ir. air-fitiud, playing, inf. to arbeitim, 

arpeitim ; from air and peitim, M. Ir. peiteadh, music ; peit 

or pet is from svettd, whistle, pipe, G. fead, q.v. 
dirleach, an inch, Ir. orlach, ordlach, M. Ir. ordlach, tri hordlaighe, 

three inches ; from ordu, thumb, now G. brd-ag, q.v. 


oirthir, the east, so Ir., 0. Ir. airther; comparative of air, ante — 
" in front," as one faces the sun in the morning. 

oirthir, border, coast, so Ir., M. Ir. airer ; from air and tir. 

6isg, a sheep, yearling ewe, E. Ir. bisc ; for oi-shesc, bi, sheep, 
and seasg, barren, q.v. The word bi is from *ovi-s ; Lat. 
ovis ; Gr. ok ; Lit. avis ; Skr. dvis. 

oisinn, a corner, Ir. isinn, the temple, fan na hoisean, along the 
temple, E. Ir. na-h-usine, the temples : *od-stani-, " out- 
standing" (1). See ursainn, tarsainn. 

oisir, an oyster, Ir. oisre ; from M. Eng. oistre, from Fr. oistre, 
from Lat. ostrea. 

oistric, ostrich, Ir. ostrich ; from the Eng. 

oit, an interjection to denote the sense of burning heat; cf. 0. Ir. 
uit mo chrob, alas for my hand ! 

oiteag, a breeze, puff of wind, Ir. oitebg : *atti-, root at, as in Gr. 
aT/xos, vapour, Eng. atmosphere ; Ag. S. aefrm, breath ; Skr. 
dtmdn, breath, soul. 

oitir, a ridge or bank in the sea, a low promontory, Ir. oitir : *ad- 
tir, from tir, land, " to-land." 

61, drink, drinking, Ir. 61, blaim, E. Ir. 61, inf. to ibim, 0. Ir. oul, 
*povolo (St.), drinking : *potlo-, root po, po, drink ; Lat. pbto, 
Eng. potaU, etc. ; Skr. pa-, drink. Zimmer considers it 
borrowed from Norse 61, Eng. ale. The root pele, pie, full, 
has also been suggested j but it is unlikely here. 

Ola, oil, Ir , 0. Ir. ola, W. olew, 0. W. oleu, Br. eol ; from Lat. 
oleum, Eng. r>»7. 

61ach, a hospitable person : " boon-companion ;" from bl. 

olann, wool, so Ir., E. Ir. oland, 0. W. gulan, W. gwlan, Corn. 
gluan, Br. gloan : * viand, *vlano- ; Lat. Idna ; Gr. Xavos, 
A.7]vos ; Eng. wo'jI, Got. vulla \ Lit. wilna ; Skr. urnd ; I.E. 
vlnd, vlnd. 

olc, bad, Ir. olc, 0. Ir. olcc, olc ; cf. Lat. ulciscor, revenge, ulcus, 
wound, Eng. ulcer; Gr. cAkos, wound. Bez. suggests O.H.G. 
ilki, hunger, Lit. alkti, Ch. SI. alkati, hunger. 

ollabhar, a great army (M'F.), Ir. ollarbhar : oil + arbhar. For 
oil, see next word ; E. Ir. arbar, a host, is from ber (see beir). 

oilamh, a learned man, a doctor, so Ir., 0. [r, ollam, g. ollaman ; 
from Ir. oil, great (root pol, pel, pie, full, fill). 

Omar, amber, Ir. omra, W. amfer ; from the Eng. 

omhail, attention, heed, Ir. umhail ; cf. G. umhal, obedient. 

omhan, othan, froth of milk or whey, whey whisked into froth 
(Carm.), Ir. nan, E. Ir. uan, froth, foam, W. ewyn, Br. eon : 
*oveno-, *poveno-; Lit. putd, foam, Lettic putas. 

onagaid, confusion, row (Dial.) ; cf. aonagail. 


onfhadh, a blast, storm, raging of the sea, Ir. anfadh, E. Ir. 

anfud, for an-feth, " excess-wind," feth, aura ; root ve, ven, 

blow ; Skr. v&ta, wind ; Gr. a^/xt, blow, drjp, Lat. aer, Eng. 

air ; Lit. v<yas, wind ; further Lat. ventus and Eng. wind. 
onnchon, a standard (M'F., O'B.), so Ir., also Ir. onchu, leopard, 

E. Ir. onchu, banner, leopard ; the idea of " leopard " is the 

primary one. From Fr. onceau, once, Eng. ounce, leopard, 
onoir, respect, honour, Ir. onoir, E. Ir. onoir, onoir : from Lat. 

onrachd, solitude, Ir. aonarachd ; from aonar, aon. 
6r, gold, Ir., 0. Ir. 6r, W. aur, Cor. our, Br. aour ; from Lat. 

6r-, prefix air, oir, confused often with the prefix or-, gold ; e.g. 

drbheart, good (golden !) deed, which is for oirbheart (see 

6rag, sheaf of corn (H.S.D.), orag (M'F., Arm.) : 
oragail, an organ, Ir., M. Ir. orgdn, E. Ir. organ, W. organ j from 

Lat. organum, Eng. organ. 
draid, a speech, Ir. draid, prayer, oration, E. Ir. orait, prayer, 

orate ; from Lat. orate, pray ye, oratio, speech, 
bran, a song ; this is for *aura?i, from the correct and still exist- 
ing form amhran, Ir. amhrdn, M. Ir. ambrdn, Manx arrane ; 

from amb, i.e. mu, about, and rann 1 Ir. amhar, E. Ir. amor, 

music. Cf. Ir. amhra, eulogy, especially in verse Cf. amra 

(Cholumcille), panegyric. 
orair, a porch, (orrar, M'D.) : " front," from air- or ar- and air, a 

reduplication really of air, " on-before." 
orais, a tumultuous noise (H.S.D. from MSS.) : 
6rd, a hammer, Ir , M. Ir. ord, 0. Ir. ordd, W. gordd, 0. Cor. 

ord, Br. orz, horz, Gallo. Brit Ordo-vices (l) : *ordo-s, *urdo-s, 

root verdh, urdh, raise, increase, w T hence or allied are Gr. 

6p66s, Lat. arduus, G. ard, etc. ; especially Skr. vardhate, 

raise, increase, grow. See or dag. Thur. thinks it perhaps 

possible that Romance urtare, hit, thrust, Fr. heurter, Eng. 

hurt, are hence, and Ascoli that Fr. ortail, big toe (orddu = 

ortu), is from ord, the basis of brdag, q.v. 
6rd, a mountain of rounded form (topographical only) ; from 

drdag, thumb, Ir. or dog, 0. Ir. orddu, g. ordan : *ordos, *urdos ; 

same root as ord above, 
drdugh, order, Ir. ord, ordughadh, 0. Ir. ord, ordaad, ordination, 

W. urdd, urddawd, ordaining, Br. urz ; from Lat. or do. 
organ, organ ; see oragan. 


orra, ortha, orr*, or, a charm, incantation, Ir. orrtha (orrtha, 
Con.), ortha, prayer, charm (in this last sense pronounced 
arrtha), E. Ir. ortha, ace. orthain, prayer (especially in verse) ; 
from Lat. ordtionem, Eng. oration. 

orrais, squeamishness, nausea : 

os, above, Ir. os, 6s, uas, 0. Ir. 6s, uas, W. uch, Br. a, us ; see uasal 
for root. 

OS, an elk, deer, Ir. os (O'B.), E. Ir. os, oss, W. uch, pi. uchen, bos, 
Corn, ohan, boves, Br. oc'hen (do.), 0. Br. ohen, bourn : *ukso-s 
(for G.), *uksen- (for Brittonic) ; Got. auhsa(n), Eng. ox, oxen ; 
Skr. ukshdn, bull. 

OS, quoth ; for ors\ from or, ar, say ; see arsa. 

OS, mouth of a river, harbour bar ; from Norse oss, river mouth ; 
Lat. ostium. 

osadh, desisting, Ir. osadh, truce, E. Ir. ossad (do.) : *ud-sta- 
" stand out " ; root sta, stand. 

osag, a blast, breeze : *ut-sd, root, ut, vet, ve, blow, as in onfhadh. 

osaii, a hose, stocking, Ir. assan, caliga, 0. Ir. ossa, assa, soccus, 
W. hosan, Cor. hos ; from Ag. S. hosa, g. hosan, now hose, 
hosen, Norse hosa. 

OSCach, eminent, superior (Sh., O'B.), Ir. oscdek ; from os and edeh. 

oscarach, oscarra, bold, fierce, Ir. oscar, champion ; from the 
heroic name Oscar, son of Oisian (Ir. Oisin, little deer or os, 
q.v.) Possibly Oscar stands for *ud-scaro-, "out-cutter," 
root scar of sgar, q.v. Zimmer derives it from Norse 'Asgeirr. 
spear of the Anses or gods, and Oisian from the Saxon 
'Oswine, friend of the Anses ; which should give respectively 
' Asgar and 'Oisine, but the initial vowels are both o short in 
Oscar and Oisian. Doomsday Book has Osgar. 

6sd, osda, tigh dsda, an inn, Ir. tigh osda ; from M. Eng. ooste, 
host, hotel, house, hospitium, through Fr. from Lat. hospitium. 
Stokes takes it direct from 0. Fr. oste. 

osnadh, a sigh, so Ir., 0. Ir. osnad, W. ivchenaid, uch, Br. huanad. 
Zimmer has analysed this into os, up, and an (root of anail), 
breath : " up breath " ; cf. Lat. suspirium, from sup-spirium, 
" up-breath." But consider *ok-*, from uk of och. Cf. E. Ir. 
esnad, M. Ir. easnadh, song, moaning. 

ospag, osmag, a gasp, sob, sigh, pang, lr. ospog, uspdg, osmbg ; cf. 
osnadh. Aso uspag, q.v. 

ospaim, gasping quickly, sobbing, sighing ; from os and spairn, 
q.v. Cf. uspairn. 

othail, odhail, confusion, hubbub, also (Dial., where pronounced 
ow-il), rejoicing ; spelt also foghail, fdghail ; root gal, as in 
gal 1 For odhail, rejoicing, cf. M. Ir. odhach, ceolmar, also 


uidheach, od, music ; root ved ; Gr. vSeo, sing, praise, Skr. 

vadati, sing, praise ; Lit. vadinu, rufe, root, ved, vad, ud % 

Othar, ulcer, abscess, Ir. othar, sick : *putro- ; Lat. puter, Eng. 

putrid; root pu, pu, 'Eng. foul, etc. 
dtrach, dunghill, Ir., M. Ir. otrach, dunghill, 0. Ir. ochtrach 

( = othrach 1), excrement : *puttr-, root put, pu, Lat. puteo, 

puter, as under othar. Ir. othrach, dung, *putr. 

pab, shag, refuse of flax, woolly hair, and (M'A.) tassel ( = bab), 
M. Ir. papp, popp, sprig, tuft, E. Ir. popp, bunch, which 
Stokes refers to a Celtic *bobbu-, *bhobh-nu-, from *bhobh, 
*bhabh, Lat. faba, bean, Gr. 7ro/x<£os, blister, 7T€/z<£i£, bubble, 
Lettic bamba, ball, I. E. bhembho-, inflate. Eng. bob, cluster, 
bunch, appears in the 14th century, and Sc. has bob, bab 
correspondingly ; the Gadelic and Eng. are clearly connected, 
but which borrowed it is hard to say. The meaning of pab 
as "shag, flax refuse "appears in the Sc. pab,pob. Borrowing 
from Lat. papula, pimple, root pap, swell, has been suggested. 
<l pac, a pack, Ir. paca ; from Eng. pack Hence pacarras, a mass 

of confusion. 
I pacaid, a packet ; from the Eng. 

padhadh, thirst, Manx paa; seemingly formed by regressive 
analogy from the adjective pai teach, thirsty, a side-form of 
pditeach, drinking, bibulous, from p6it, Lat. potus, drunk. 
M. Ir. paadh is explained by Stokes as *spasdtu-, root spas or 
spes, Lat. spiro, breathe, W. fun, breath, from *sposnd. For 
phonetics see piuthar. 
^ padhal, ewer, Ir. padhal, ewer, pail, W. padell, pan ; from Eng. 
pail ; cf . adhal, paidhir, staidhir, faidhir, rathad. 

paganach, heathen, Ir. pdganach, pdgdnta, M. Ir. pagdnta ; from 
Lat. paganus, villager, pagan, whence Eng. pagan. 

paidhneachas, a penalty, pledge ; from paigh, with leaning on 
y paidhir, a pair ; from English pair, M. Eng. peire, Fr. paire, from 
Lat. par. Cf., for phonetics, faidhir (fair) and staidhir (stair). 

paidir, the Lord's prayer, so Ir., M. Ir. paiter, 0. Ir. pater, W. 
pater ; from Lat. pater in Pater noster, etc., which begins the 

paidreag, a patch, clout : 

paidrean, a cluster of grapes, posy, string of beads, Ir. paidirin, 
rosary, necklace ; from paidir. 



paiofh, paidh, pay, Ir. paidhe, payment ; from Eng. pay. 
pail-chlach, pavement, Ir. pdil-cklack, stone pavement, pail, 

pabhail, pavement ; formed from the Eng. pave, pavement. 
pailleart, a box on the ear, a blow with the palm : *palm-bheart, 

"palm-action," from Lat. palma, palm ; cf. W. pal/ad, stroke 

of the paw T , Br. palfod, blow on the cheek. 
-^ pailliun, a tent, Ir. pailliun ; from M. Kng. pailyoun (Barbour), 

pavilon, Fr. pavilion, from Lat. papilionem, a butterfly — 

tents being called after the butterfly because spread out like 

its wings. Stokes takes it direct from the Fr. 
pailm, palm tree, Ir., M. Ir. pailm ; from Lat. palma, whence 

Eng. palm. 
pailt, plentiful, pail teas, plenty, Manx palchys, Cor. pals, 

plenteous, M. Br. i>aout, numerous, Br. paot, many, much ; 

the G. is in all likelihood a Pictish word — a root qalt, I.E. 

qel, company, collection, as in clann, q.v. 
i paindeal, a panther ; founded on the Eng. panther, M. Eng. 

painneal, a panel, Ir. paineid, W. panel ; from the Eng., M. Eng., 

Fr. panel. 
painnse, a paunch ; from the Sc painch, pench, Eng. paunch. 
painntear, a snare, lr. painteur, M. Ir. painnter ; from M. Eng. 

pantere, snare for birds, 0. Fr. pantiere. Hence Eng. painter, 

boat rope, 
paipeir, paper, Ir. pdipeur, W. papyr ; from Lat. papyrus, whence 

Eng. paper. 
paipin, poppy, Ir. paipin, W. pabi ; from Lat. popaver, whence 

Eng. poppy. 
pairc, a park, Ir. pdirc, W. pare, panvg ; from M. Eng. park, 

parrok, now park. 
pairilis, palsy, Ir., M. Ir. pairilis, W. parly s ; from Lat. paralysis, 

whence Eng. palsy. 
pairt, a share, part, Ir. pdirt, E. Ir. pairt, W. parth ; from Lat. 

pars, partis, a part, whence Eng. part. M. Ir. pars, point of 

time less than a minute, 
paisd, a child, Ir. pdisde ; formed from M. Eng. page, boy, Sc. 

page, boy, now Eng. page. 
paisean, a fainting fit, lr., M. Ir. pdis, E. Ir. paiss, passio, suffer- 
ing ; from Lat. passionem, patior, suffer, 
paisg, wrap ; see pasgadh. 
pait, a hump, lump, Ir. pait, M. Ir. pait, mass ; also Ir. paitedg, 

small lump of butter ; from Eng. pat. Skeat thinks the Eng. 

is from the Gaelic, but the/> is fatal to the word being native 



paiteag, a periwinkle (H.S.D., for Heb.) : 

palla, green shelf in a rock (Lewis) ; N. pallr, step, dais. 

palmair, a rudder, Ir. palmaire ; see falmadair. 

palas, a palace, Ir. pdlas, W. palas ; from Lat. palatium, whence 

Eng. palace. 
panna, a pan ; from M. Eng. panne, now pan. 
pannal, pannan, a band or company, also, bannal, q.v. j from 

Eng. band. 
pap, the pope, Ir. papa, 0. Ir. papa, W., Br. pab ; from Lat. papa, 

father, pope, Eng. pope. 
paracas, a rhapsody (M'A.) : 
paradh, pushing, brandishing ; cf. purr. 
v parant, a parent ; from Eng. parent. 
par dag, a pannier (Arm.) : 
parlamaid, parliament, Ir. pairlimeid, M. Ir. pairlimint ; from 

Eng, parliament. 
parraist, a parish, Ir. parraisde ; from Eng. parish, M. Eng. 

parras, paradise, Ir. parrthas, 0. Ir. pardus, W. paradwys, Br. 

baradoz ; from Lat. paradisus. 
partan, a crab, portan (Skye), Ir. partdn, portdn, M. Ir. partan ; 

Sc. partan. E. Ir. partar, partaing, ruby 1 
pasgadh, a wrapping, covering, pasgan, a bundle, pasg, a faggot ; 

cf. Ir. faisg, a pen, W. ffasg, bundle, which last is certainly 

from Lat. fasces, 
pasmunn, expiring pang (H.S.D.) ; from Eng. spasml H.S.D. 

gives also the meaning " cataclysm applied to the sores of a 

dying person." 
peabar, piobar, pepper, Ir. piobar, W. pubyr ; from Lat. piper, 

Eng. pepper, Norse piparr. 
peacadh, sin, so Ir., 0. Ir. peccad, g. pectho, W. pechod, Br. pechet ; 

from Lat. peccatum, pecco, Eng. peccant. 
- p6a-chearc, pea-hen : from the Eng. pea. See peucag. 

peall, skin, hide, E. Ir. pell ; from Lat. pe His, hide, allied to Eng. 

peallach, shaggy, matted in the hair, from peall, mat, hairy skin ; 

see peall above, 
v peallaid, sheepskin ; from Scotch pellet, a woolless sheepskin, 

Eng. pelt, from Lat. pellis through Fr. 
peanas, punishment, Ir. pionus ; from Lat. poena, with possibly a 

leaning on the English punish. 
peann, a pen, so Ir., E. Ir. penn, W. pin ; from Lat. penna. 



pearluinn, fine linen, muslin j from Sc. pearlin, lace of silk or 

thread, Eng. purl, edging of lace, from Fr. pourfiler, Lat. 

filuin, thread, 
pearsa, a person, Ir. pearsa, g. pearsan, 0. Ir. persa, g. persine ; 

from Lat. persona, Eng. person. 
pearsail, parsley, Ir. pearsdil ; from M. Eng. persil, Eng. parsley. 
peasair, pease, Ir. pis, a pea, pi. piseanna, W. pys, Br. pi. piz ; 

from Lat. pisum, Eng. pease. 
peasan, impudent fellow, varlet ; from Eng. peasant. 
peasg, gash in skin, chapped gashes of hands, cranny, W. pisg, 

blisters ; G. is possibly of Pictish origin. The Sc. pisket 

shrivelled, has been compared, 
peata, a pet, Ir. peata, E. Ir. petta ; Eng. pet. Both Eng. and 

Gadelic are formed on some cognate of Fr. petit, little, Eng. 

petty (Stokes). 
peic, a peck, Ir. peic, W. pec ; from Eng. pec. 
peighinn, a penny, Ir. pighin, E. Ir. pinginn ; from Ag. S. pending, 

Norse penningr, now Eng. penny. 
peilig, a porpoise ; from Sc. pellack. 
peileasach, frivolous ; cf. Sc. pell, a soft, lazy person, 
peileid, cod, husk, bag : 
peileid, a slap on the head, the skull or crown of the head ; in the 

last sense, cf. Sc. pallet, crown of the head, M. Eng. palet, 

head-piece. In the sense of " slap," cf. Eng. pelt. 
peileir, a bullet, Ir. peileur, L. M. Ir. peler : from some French 

descendant of Lat. pila, ball, and allied to Eng. pellet, 0. Fr. 

pelote, ball, Sp. pelote, cannon ball, 
peilisteir, a quoit, flat stone ; formed from the above stem 1 
peillic, a covering of skins or coarse cloth, Ir. peillic, a booth 

whose roof is covered with skins, E. Ir. pellec, basket of 

untanned hide ; from Lat. pelliceus, made of skins, from 

peinneag, a chip of stone for filling crevices in wall ; from Sc. 

pinning, pinn (do.), allied to Eng. pin. 
peinnteal, a snare ; another form of painntear, q.v. 
peirceall, the jaw, lower part of the face, corner, Ir. peircioll, 

cheekblade, corner : *for-ciobhull, "on-jaw"? See ciobhull. 
peirigill, danger, Ir. peiriacul ; from Lat. periculum. 
p^ire, the buttocks, Ir. peire (O'K.) ; cf. Cor. pedren, buttock, W. 

pedrain. The word peurs, lente perdere (M'A.), is doubtless 

peireid, ferret (M'A.). 
p^iris, testiculi (H.S.D.) ; apparently from Fr. pierre. 


peiteag", waistcoat, short jacket ; from Sc. petycot, a sleeveless 

tunic worn by men, Eng. petticoat. Manx has pettie, flannel 

waistcoat, peddee, waistcoat, 
peithir, a forester (pethaire, M'D.), peithire, a message boy 

(M'A.) ; cf. Sc. peddir, a pedlar, Eng. pedlar. 
peithir, beithir, thunderbolt; a mythic and metaphoric use of 

beithir, q.v. 
peitseag, a peach ; Ir. peitseog ; from the Eng. 
peddar, pewter, Ir. peatar, W. ffeutar ; from Eng. pewter. Also 

feodar, q.v. 
peucag, pea-hen, Ir. peacog, peacock (Fol.) ; from Eng. peacock. 
peur, a pear, Ir. piorra, peire (O'R.), W. peran ; from Eng. pear. 
peurda, flake of wool off the cards in the first carding : 
peurdag, piartag, a partridge, Ir. pitrisg (Fol.) ; G. is from Sc. 

pertrik, a side form of Eng. partridge, Lat. perdic-em. 
peursair, perchman, shore herd (Carm.) : 
pian, pain, Ir. pian, 0. Ir. pian, poena, W. poen, pain, Cor. peyn, 

Br. poan ; from Lat. poena, Eng . pain. 
pibhinn, lapwing ; from Sc. peevmip, Eng. peewit. The true G. is 

adharcan, " horned one" (from ad hare, because of the appear- 
ance of its head). 
pic, pitch, Ir. pic, W. pyg ; from M. Eng. pik, now pitch. 
pic, a pike, Ir. pice, W. pig, from the Eng. 
piceal, pike, Ir. picill (Fol.) ; from the Eng. 
pigeadh, pigidh, earthen jar, Ir. pigin, W. picyn ; from Eng., Sc. 

piggin, pig, which is a metaphoric use of Eng. pig, sow. 
pighe, pigheann, a pie, Ir. pighe ; from the Eng. 
pigidh, robin redbreast (H.S.D.) ; a confused use of Eng. pigeonl 
pilig, peel, peeling (Dial.) ; from the Eng. See piol. 
pill, a sheet, cloth, the cloth or skin on which corn is winnowed ; 

a particular use of the oblique form of peall, q.v. M. Ir. 

pill or pell means " rug." 
pill, turn, Ir. pillim, better fillim (O'B.) ; see till for discussion 

of the root, 
pillean, pack-saddle, pillion, Ir. pillin, W. pilyn ; Eng. pillion is 

allied, if not borrowed, according to Skeat. All are formed 

on Lat. pellis (see peall). Sc. has pillions for " rags" ; Br. 

pill (do.). 
pinne, a pin, peg, Ir. pionn (Lh.), W. pin ; from M. Eng. pinne, 

now pin. 
pinnt, a pint, Ir. pi-dnt (Fol.) ; from the Eng. 
piob, a pipe, a musical instrument, Ir. piob, E. Ir. pip. pi. pipai 

(Lib. Leinster), (music) pipe ; from Med. Lat. pipa, whence 

Ag. S. pipe, Eng. pipe, Ger. pfeife, Norse pipa. W., Cor., 

and Br. have pib, pipe, similarly borrowed. 


piobar, pepper ; see peabar. 

piobull, the bible (Dial.) : see biobull. 

pioc, pick, Ir. piocaim ; from Eng. pick. Thur. thinks that W. 

pigo is ultimately from the Romance picco (point), Fr. pique, 

or allied thereto. Skeat takes the Eng. from Celtic ; but see 

Bradley's Stratmann. 
piocach, a saith, coalfish (Wh.) : 
piocaid, pickaxe, Ir. piocoid ; from pioc, Eng. pick, a pickaxe, from 

Fr. pic (do.). Whether the termination is Gadelic or the Fr. 

word piquet, little pickaxe, Eng. picket, was borrowed at once, 

it is hard to say. 
piochan, a wheezing, Manx piaghane, hoarseness, Ir. spiochan ; 

Sc. pech, pechin, panting, peught, asthmatic. Onomatopoetic. 

Cf . Lat. pipire, chirp, pipe. W. has peuo, pant, 
pioghaid, pigheid, a magpie, Ir. pioghaid (Fol.), pighead (O'R.) ; 

from Sc. pyat, pyet, diminutive of pie, M. Eng. pye, now 

usually mag-pie. 
piol, nibble, pluck ; from Eng. peel, earlier, pill, pyll, peel, pluck, 

ultimately from Lat. pellis. Also spiol, q.v. W. has pilio, 

peel, strip, 
piollach, (1) neat, trim (M'F., H.S.D., Arm.), (2) hairy 

( = peallach, of which it is a side form, H.S.D., etc.), fretful, 

curious-looking (M'A.). The second sense belongs to peallach, 

the first to piol : " pilled." 
piollaiste, trouble, vexation : "plucked" state, from piol % 
pioraid, hat, cap ; see biorraid. 

piorbhuic, piorrabhuic, periwig, Ir. peireabhuic ; from the Eng. 
piorr, scrape or dig (H.S.D.), stab, make a lunge at one (M'A.) ; 

the first sense seems from Sc, Eng. pare ; for the second, see 

purr. ™ 

piorradh, a squall, blast j from L. M. Eng. pirry, whirlwind, 

blast, Sc. pirr, gentle breeze, Norse byrr, root bir, pir, of 

onomatopoetic origin (Skeat, sub pirouette, for Eng.). 
pios, a piece, Ir. piosa ; from Eng. piece, Fr. piece, Low Lat. 

pettium, from Gaulish *pettium, allied to G. cuit, Pictish pet 

(see pit). 
pios, a cup, Ir. piosa ; from Lat. pyxis, box (Stokes). 
piostal, a pistol, so Ir. ; from Eng. 
pipheanaick, giggling (M'D.) : 
piseach, prosperity, luck, Manx bishagh, Ir. biseacli, M. Ir. bisech. 

Cf. Ir. piseog, witchcraft, M. Ir. pisdc, charm, Manx pishag, 

charm, Cor. pystry, witchcraft, M. Br. pistri, veneficium, 

which Bugge refers to Lat. pyxis, medicine box (see pios). 
piseag, a kitten, Ir. puisin; from Eng. puss. Aran Ir. piseog, 

sea bream. 


pit, hollow or pit (Diet, only), kvo-Oos, M. G. pit (D. of L.), Manx 

pitt, Ir. pit ; from Ag. S. pyt, pit, well, now pit, from Lat. 

puteus, well. For force, cf. Br. fetan, fountain, fete, kvo~6o<s. 

The non-existent Diet, meaning is due to the supposed force 

of topographic pit discussed in the next article. 
Pit-, prefix in farm and townland names in Pictland, meaning 

" farm, portion " ; 0. G. pet, pett, g. pette (B. of Deer), a 

Pictish word allied to W. peth, part, Gaelic cuid. See further 

under cuid and pios. 
piug, a plaintive note (H.S.D) ; cf. W. puch, sigh. Onomato- 

poetic % 
piuthar, sister, Ir. siur, E. Ir. siur, fiur, g. sethar, fethar, 0. Ir. 

siur, W. chwaer, Corn, huir, Br. hoar : *svesdr, g. svestros 

(Stokes) ; Lat. soror ( = sosor) ; Eng. sister ; Lit. sesu ; Skr. 

plab, soft noise as of a body falling into water ; from Sc. plope, 

Dial. Eng. plop : onomatopoetic like plump. Skeat compares 

Eng. blab. See plub. 
placaid, a wooden dish ; through Sc. (?) from Fr. plaquette, 

plaque, a plate, whence Eng. placard, Sc. placad. M'A. 

gives also the meaning "flat, broad, good-natured female," 

which is a metaphoric use. 
plaibean, a lump of raw flesh, a plump boy; founded on Sc. 

plope, as in plab above. Cf. Eng. plump. 
plaide, a blanket, Ir. ploid ; Eng. plaid, Sc. plaiden, coarse 

woollen cloth, like flannel, but twilled : all are founded on 

Lat. pellis, but whether invented by Gadelic or English is at 

present doubtful. Skeat says it is Celtic, a view which, as 

the case stands, has most to say for it ; cf. G. peallaid, 

sheepskA Dunbar's " Hieland Pladdis." 
plaigh, a plague, Ir. pldigh, E. Ir. pldg, W. pla ; from Lat pldga, 

disaster, M. Eng. plage, Eng. plague. 
plais, a splash ; from Sc. plash, to strike water suddenly, Eng. 

plash, splash. 
plain, anything curdled : cf. Br. plommein, a clot, as of blood. 

See slaman. M'A. gives it the meaning of " fat blubber 

cheek." Arg. has " bainne plumaichte," curdled or soured 

plang, a plack — a Scots coin ; from Sc. plack, a copper coin equal 

to four pennies Scots, which came with the Flemish, etc., 

and is allied to Fr. plaque, used of coin, though really a 

" metal dish, etc." See placaid. 
plangaid, a blanket ; Ir. plainceud (Fol.) ; from the Eng. 
plannta, a plant, Ir. planda ; from Eng. plant, Lat. planta. 


plaosg, a husk, shell, Manx pleayse, Ir. plaosg, W. plisg (pi.), Br. 
pluskenn. This Ernault considers borrowed from Romance — 
Fr. peluche, shag, plush, Eng. plush, from Lat. *pilucius, 
hairy, pitus, hair : an unlikely derivation. Seemingly 
blaosg is another form (Manx bleayst, M. Ir. blaesc, W. blisg) : 
*bhloid-sko-, root bhlbi, bhle, bhel, swell, etc. ; Gr. <£Aoids 
(*bhlovio-1), bark, shell, <£AeSo)v, bladder. 
f plasd, a plaster, Ir. plasdruighim ; from the Eng. 

plat, a sort of cloth made of straw ; from Sc. plat, plait, Eng. 
plait. M'A. has the meaning "thrust, clap on," from Sc. 
plat, a stroke to the ground, blow with the fist, M. Eng. 
platten, strike, throw down, Ag. S. plaettan. 

plath, pladh, a flash, glance, puff of wind j from *svl-, root svel of 

pleadhag, a dibble, paddle ; also bleaghan, spleadhan, q.v. 

pleadhart, a buffet, blow ; from pailleartl 

pleasg, a noise, crack, Ir. pleasg (pleasg Lh.) — an Ir. word (M'A.), 

Ir. pleasgan or pleascdn, noise : cf. Sc. pleesk, plesk, plash, 

pleesh-plash, dabbling in water or mud. 
pleasg, a string of beads : 
pleat, a plait ; from Sc. plett, Eng. plait. 
pleid, solicitation : see bleid. 
pleigh, quarrel, fight, Ir. pleidh, debate ; Sc. pley, quarrel, debate, 

all from M. Eng. pleie, plege, Ag. S. plega, game, fight, Eng. 

pleoisg, plodhaisg, a booby, simpleton ; cf. W. bloesg, a stam- 
merer (mlaisqo-), Skr. mleccliati, talk barbarously, mleccha, 

foreigner, Lat. blaesus, Gr. /3\aur6<s. 
pleodar, pewter ; from Eng. spelter, with leaning on pebdar. 
pliad (H.S.D., Dial.), a plot of ground; of Scandinavian origin — 

Swed. plaetti, a plot of ground, Eng. plot, plat (Dr Cameron), 
pliadach, flat, as of foot (Carm.) : 
pliadh, a splay foot ; from Eng. splay. 
pliaram, babbling (H.S.D.) ; for *bliaram, ; see blialum, from Sc. 

plionas, a hypocritical smile (Wh.) : 
pliotair (pliodaire M'A.), a fawner, cajoler ; cf. Ir. pleadail, 

pleading ; from Eng. plead. 
pliut, a clumsy foot ; cf. Sc. phots, the feet when bare (Shet.), 

plootsacks, feet. Hence pliutach, a seal. See spliut. 
ploc, a round mass, clod, block (rare), Ir. bloc, a block, W. ploc, 

block, plug, Br. bloc'h, block, mass : Gadelic and W. are from 

Eng. block, from Fr. bloc, of German origin — Ger. block, clod, 

lump, from the root of Eng. balk. 


plod, a clod ; from Sc. plod, pload, a green sod (Aberdeen), 
plod, a fleet, Manx plod ; from Norse floti, Eng. fleet, float, etc. 
plod, a pool of standing water, Manx, Ir. plod ; from M. Eng. 

plodde, a puddle, Eng. plod, originally " to wade through 

water," ploud, wade through water (Grose), Sc. plout, plouter 

plodadh, parboiling ; from Sc. plot, to scald or burn with boiling 

water, plottie, a rich and pleasant hot drink made of cinnamon, 

cloves, etc. Also " floating" wood down river, 
ploic, the mumps ; see pluic. 
plosg, palpitate, throb, Ir. plosg (O'R., Fol.), blosgadh, sounding, 

E. Ir. blosc (" ro clos blosc-beimnech a chride," the hitting 

sound of his heart). See blosg. 
plub, a plump, sudden fall into water ; from Eng. plump. Cf. 

plab. Hence plubraich, gurgling, plunging ; etc. 
plub, an unweildy mass or lump ; from the Eng. plump. 
plubair, a booby, one speaking indistinctly, blubberer ; from Eng. 

pluc, a lump, pimple, Manx plucan, pimple ; seemingly a side 

form of ploc. M. Ir. has plucc, club or mace. Cf. Sc. pluke, 

a pimple. 
pluc, pluck, Manx pluck ; from the Eng. 
pluc, beat, thump ; from M. Eng. pluck, a stroke, 
plucas, the flux ; founded on Lat. fluxus 1 

pluch, squeeze, compress, Ir. pluchaim, Manx ploogh, suffocation : 
pluic, cheek, blub cheek, Ir. pluc : " puffed cheek" ; from ploc. 
pluideach, club-footed ; see pliut. 
pluirean, a flower, Ir. plur ; from M. Eng. flour (now flower), 

0. Fr. flour (now fleur). 
plum, plunge into water ; see plumb. 
plum, one who sits stock still, dead calm : 
pluma, plumba, a plummet, Ir. plumba ; from Eng. plumb, Fr. 

plomb, from Lat. plumbum, lead. 
plumb, noise of falling into water, plunge ; from Eng plump. 
plumbas, plumbais, a plum, Ir. pluma ; from M. Eng. ploume, 

now plum. 
plundrainn, plunder, booty ; from Eng. plundering. 
plur, flour, Ir. flur ; from M. Eng. flour ; same as Eng. flower, 

flour being for " flower of wheat." 
plutadh, falling down, as of rain ; from Sc. plout, Belg. plotsen, 

Ger. plotzlich, sudden, from *plotz, "quickly falling blow." 
pobull, people, Ir. pobal, 0. Ir. popul, W., Br. pobl, Cor. pobel ; 

from Lat. populus, whence Eng. people. 
poca, a bag ; from Sc. pock, Ag. S. poca, Norse poki, 0. Fr. poche. 


pdca, pdcaid, pocket, pouch. Ir. pdca, pdcait (F. M.), bag, pouch ; 

from M. Eng. poke, A. S. poca, as above. Eng. pocket, 

M. Eng. poket, is a dimunitive. K. Meyer takes the Ir. from 

the Norse poki. 
pdg, pag, a kiss, Manx paag, Ir. pdg, 0. Ir. pdc, pdcnat, osculum, 

W. poc, Br. pok ; from Lat. pdcem, " the kiss of peace," which 

was part of the ritual for the Mass ; hence in Church Lat. 

dare pacem, means "to give the kiss." The old Celtic liturgies 

generally carry the rubric " Hie pax datur'' immediately 

before the Communion, 
poireagan, rag, rags (M'D.) : 
poit, a pot, Ir. pota, W. pot, Br. pod ; from Eng. and Fr. pot, from 

Lat. potare ultimately. See next. 
p6it, drinking, tippling, Ir. pdit : from Lat. potus, drunk (Eng. 

potation, poison, etc.). See 61. 
poitean, a small truss of hay or straw ; see boitean. 
poll, a pool, a hole, mud, Ir., E. Ir* poll, W. pwll, Cor. pol, Br. 

poull ; from Late Lat. padulus, pool, a metathesis of palus, 

paludis, marsh (Gaidoz), whence It. padula, Sp. paul. 

Teutonic has Ag. S. pdl, Eng. pool, Du. poel, 0. H. G. pfuol, 

Ger. pfuhl. Skeat considers that poll is from Low Lat. 

padulis, and that the Ag. S. pdl was possihty borrowed from 

the British Latin or Latin remains seen in place-names having 

port, street, -Chester, etc. (Principles 1 437). 
poll, pollair, nostril, Ir. polldire, poll-srbna ; from poll. 
pollag, the fish pollock or lythe — gadus pollachius, of the cod and 

whiting genus, Ir. pulldg ; from poll 1 Hence the Eng. 

name. The Irish Eng. pollan, Sc. powan, is a different fish — 

of the salmon genus. 
pollairean, the dunlin (Heb.), polidna alpina. Mr Swainson 

(Folklore of British Birds) translates its Gaelic name as 

" bird of the mud pits (poll)," an exact description, he says. 
ponach, boy, lad (Dial.), poinneach (W. Ross) ; cf. Manx ponniar, 

a boy, a small fish basket 1 In Arg. boinnean (Wh.), from 

boinne. Cf. use of proitseach. The word is for bonach. 
ponaidh, a pony ; from the Sc. pownie, from 0. Fr. poulenet (I lost 

as usual), little colt, now poulain, a colt, from Med. Lat. 

pullatius, from Lat. pullus, foal, Eng. foal, filly. 
pdnair, bean or beans, Ir. pdnaire, M. Ir. ponaire ; from Norse 

baun, 0. H. G. pona, Ger. bohne, Eng. bean, Du. boon (Stokes' 

Celt. Dec). 
pong, a point, note, pongail, punctual ; see punc. 
p6r, seed, spore, Ir. pdr, seed, clan, W. par, germ ; from Gr. 

o-7ro/oos, seed, Eng. spore. 


port, harbour, port, Ir. port, harbour, fort, 0. Ir. port, W., Corn. 

port/i, Br. pors, porz ; from Lat. portus, Eng. port. 
port, a tune, Ir. port, M. Ir. ceudport, rhyme, prelude : " carry = 

catch " ; from Lat. porto, carry. Sc. port, catch, tune, is 

from Gaelic. Cf. Eng. sport, from Lat. dis-porto. 
p6s, marry, 0. G. pusta, wedded (B. of Deer), M. Ir. posaim ; from 

Lat. sponsus, sponsa, betrothed, from spondeo, I promise (Eng. 

spouse, respond, etc.). 
post, post, beam, pillar, Ir. posda, posta, W. post ; from the Eng. 

post, from Lat. postis. PI. puist, slugs for shooting (Wh.). 
prab, discompose, ravel (prab, H.S.D.), prabach, dishevelled, 

ragged, blear-eyed, Ir. prabach (O'R.) : "suddenly arrayed," 

from prap % 
prabar, prabal, a rabble ; from prab, prab, discompose. See 

above word, 
prac, vicarage dues, small tithes, which were paid in kind (N. H. 

and Isles), pracadair, tithe collector; from Sc. procutor, Eng. 

proctor, procurator. 
pracas, hotch-potch ; cf. Sc, Eng. fricassee. 
pracais, idle talk ; from Eng. fracas 1 
pradhainn, press of business, flurry (M'A. for Islay), Ir. praidhin, 

0. Ir, brothad, a moment ; see priobadh. 
prainnseag, mince collops, haggis ; from prann, pound (M'A.), a 

side form of pronn, q. v. 
prais, brass, pot-metal (Arm.), pot (M'A.), prais, brass (H.S.D., 

M'L., M'E.), Manx prash, Ir. prais, prds, W. p res ; from 

M. Eng. bras, Ag. S. brces. Hence praiseach, bold woman, 

concubine, meretrix. 
praiseach, broth, pottage, etc., Ir. praiseach, pottage, kale, M. Ir. 

braissech, W. bresych, cabbages ; from Lat. brassica, cabbage, 
pramh, a slumber, slight sleep : 
pramh, priam, heaviness ; properly " blear-eyed-ness " ; cf. Ir. 

srdm, eye-rheum, 
praonan, an earthnut ; see braonan. 

prap, quick, sudden, Ir. prab, M. Ir. prap ; see under priobadh. 
prasach, a manger, crib, frasach, (M'Rury) : 
prasgan, brasgan, a group, flock ; cf. Ir. prosndn, a troop, com- 
pany (O'R.) : 
prat, a trick (Wh.); pratail, tricky ; see protaig. 
preachan, a crow, kite, moor-bittern, Ir. preachan, crow, kite, 

osprey (according to the adj. applied), M. Ir. prechan, crow, 

raven : 



preachan, a mean orator (M'A.), Ir. preachoine, crier, M. Ir. 
prechoineadha, prsecones ; from the Lat. praeco(n), crier, 

preas, a bush, brier, W. prys, brushwood, covert : *qrst-, root qer 
of crann % The G., which is borrowed, is doubtless of Pictish 
yL preas, a press, cupboard, Manx prest ; from the Eng. press. 

preas, a wrinkle, fold ; from the Eng. press. 

preathal, confusion of mind, dizziness ; see breitheal. 
-/ prighig, fry ; from the Eng. frying. 

prine, a pin ; from the Sc. preen, M. Eng. preon, Ag. S. pre'on, 
Norse prjonn, Ger. pfriem. 

priobadh, winking, twinkling (of the eye), Ir. prap in le prap na 
sul, in the twinkling of the eyes (Keating), from prap, 
sudden, preaba in na bi preaba na sula muich (B of Moyra), 
M. Ir. prapwf, brief space (as twinkling of the eyes), la 
brafad sula, older fnha brathad sula, where we get the series 
prapud, brafad, brathad (g. brotto), 0. Ir. brothad, moment. 
Stokes compares the similar Gothic phrase — in brahva augins, 
where brahv might = a British *brap, borrowed into Irish. 
The form brafad could easily develop into brap ; the difficulty 
is the passing of th of brothad (which gives g. brotto) into /of 
brafad (but see Rev. Celt. 10 57). The G. priobadh has its 
vowel influenced by preabadh, kicking, that is, breabadh, q.v. 
Zim. (Zeit. 32 223) cites brofte, momentary, and says brafad 
is made from bro, eyebrow, falsely. 

priobaid, a trifle, priobair, a worthless fellow ; from Sc. bribour, 
low beggarly fellow, M. Eng. bribour, rascal, thief; from 
0. Fr. bribeur, beggar, vagabond, briber, to beg, bribe, morsel 
of bread, Eng. bribe. Hence priobaid is from an early 
Northern form of Eng. bribe. See breaban further. 

priomh, prime, chief, Ir. priomh, a principal, primh, prime, 0. Ir. 
prim, W. prif ; from Lat. primus, first, Eng. prime. 
*■ prionnsa, a prince, so Ir., M. Ir. prindsa ; from M. Eng. and Fr. 

prince (Stokes takes it from Fr. direct). 
-4 priosan, prison, Ir. priosun, M. Ir. primn ; from M. Eng. prisoun, 

from 0. Fr. prison (Stokes takes it from 0. Fr. prisun). 
■f pris, price, W. pru ; from M. Eng. pris, from 0. Fr. pris, Lat. 

probhaid, profit ; from the Eng. 

procach, a year-old stag (Rob Donn) : 

proghan, dregs, lees : 

proinn, a dinner, 0. G.proinn (B. of Deer), Ir. proinn, 0. Ir. proind, 
praind ; from Lat. prandium. 


prdis, pride, haughtiness ; from Sc. prossie, prowsie, nice and par- 
ticular, Dut. prootsch, preutsch, proud, Eng. proud. The 

Arran Dial, has prbtail for prbiseil. 
proitseach, a boy, stripling ; of. brod balaich, brodan, boy, from 

brod. The termination is -seach, really a fem. one. In Arg. 

propanach, a boy, from prop, also geamht. 
pronn, food ; see proinn. 

pronn, bran, Manx pronn; see next word. Hence Sc. pron, 
pronn, pound, bray, mash, Manx pronney, pounding ; see, for root 

and form, bronn, distribute, from the root bhrud, break, which 

thus in G. means (1) distribute, (2) break or crush. Hence 

pronnag, a crumb, Sc. pronacks. 
pronnasg, brimstone ; formed on Sc. brunstane, Norse brennisteinn, 

Eng. brimstone. Dial, of Badenoch has the form pronnasdail. 
pronndal, muttering, murmuring (Dial, brundlais) : 
prop, a prop, Ir. propa ; from Eng. prop. 
propanach, a boy (Wh.) : 
prosnaich, incite ; see brosnaich. 
protaigf, a trick ; from Sc. prattick, trick, stratagem, Ag. S. praett, 

craft, prcetig, tricky, Eng. pretty, Norse prettr, sl trick, 
prothaisd, a provost ; from the Eng. 
pubull, a tent, Ir. pupal, g. puible, 0. Ir. pupall, W. pabell, pebyll ; 

from Lat. papilio, butterfly, tent, Eng. pavilion. See pailliun. 
puc, push, jostle ; from the Sc. powk, thrust, dig, M. Eng. pukken, 

pouken, pdken, to thrust, poke, Eng. poke, Ger. pochen, knock, 

Dial. fuc. 
pucaid, a pimple ; see bucaid. 
pudhar, harm, injury, Iv.pudhar (O'B.), M. Ir. pudar, E. Ir. pudar, 

pudar ; from Lat. pudor, shame. Usually taken as borrowed 

from Lat. putor, rottenness, Eng. putrid. 
puic, a bribe : 

puicean, a veil, covering, Ir. puicin : 
puidse, a pouch ; from the Eng. 
puinneag, sorrel : 
puinneanach, beat, thump ; from M. Eng. pounen, now pound, 

Ag. S. punian. 
puinse, punch, toddy ; from Eng. punch. 

puinsean, puision, poison ; from the Eng. Manx has pyshoon. 
puirleaff, a crest, tuft, Ir. puirledgach, crested, tufted (O'B., Sh.), 

puirleog (O'K.) — an Irish word. See purlag. 
pulag, round stone, ball, pedestal, also bulag ; from M. JEng, 

boule, a ball or bowl, now bowl, Fr, boule. 
pulaidh, turkey cock : Fr. poulet. 


pulas, pot-hook (Dial.) ; see biilas. 

punc, a point, note, Ir. punc, 0. Ir. pone, W. pwnc ; from Lat. 

punctum, Eng. point. 
punnan, a sheaf, Manx bunney, Ir. punnann, E. Ir. punann, 
pundand (Corm.) ; from Norse bundin, a sheaf, bundle, Eng. 
bundle, bind. 
/ punnd, a pound, Ir. punta, punt, M. Ir. punt ; from the Eng. 
punnd, a place for securing stray cattle, a pound ; from the Eng. 
* pound. 

punntainn, funntainn, benumbment by cold or damp ; cf. Eng. 

swoon, M. Eng. swoghne, *swog-. Cf. Sc. fundi/. 
purgaid, a purge, Ir. purgdid ; from Lat. purgatio, Eng. purga- 
tion, purge. 
purgadoir, purgatory, Ir. purgaddir, E. Ir. purgatoir, Br. purgator ; 

from Lat. purgator ium, Eng. purgatory. 
pur lag, a rag, tatter, fragment : 
y purp, purpais, sense, mental faculty ; from Eng. purpose. 

purpaidh, purpur, purple, Ir. purpuir, M. Ir. purpuir, W. 
porphor : from Lat. purpura, Eng. purple. The old Gadelic 
form, borrowed through British, is corcur. 
purr, thrust, push ; from Sc. porr, thrust, stab, Du. porren, poke, 
thrust, Low Ger. purren, poke about ; further Eng. pore. 
^ pus, a cat, Ir. pus ; from the Eng. 
* put, the cheek (Stew., H.S.D.) j from Eng. pout. 
y put, thrust, push ; from Sc. put, push, thrust, M. Eng. puten, 

push, now Eng. put. Also G. but, butadh. 
V put, young of moorfowl ; from Sc. pout (do.), Eng. poult, chicken, 
from Fr. poulet, from Lat. pulla, a hen, pullus, young fowl, 
put, a large buoy, usually of inflated sheepskin ; seemingly of 
Scand. origin — Swedish Dial, puta, be inflated ; cf. Eng. 
pudding, W. pwtyn, a short round body, Cor. pot, bag, 
putag, oarpin, also butag ; from Eng. butt. Cf. Am Buta 
Leodhasach, the Butt of Lewis. 
f putag, a pudding, lr. putog ; from the Eng. 

putag, a small rig of land (H.S.D.) : 
^ putan, a button, W. botwn ; from Eng. button. 

puth, puff, sound of a shot, syllable ; onomatopoetic. Cf. Eng. 

puff, etc. 
puthar, power (M'A.) ; from the Eng. power. 



rabach, litigious, Ir. rdbach, litigious, bullying : 

rabhadh, a warning, so Ir., E. Ir. robuth, forewarning: ro + buth, 

latter from *buto-, root gu, cry, Gr. f3oi'}, shout, Skr. git, be 

heard. W. rhybudd is from the root qu (Stokes, Rev. Celt 12 ). 
rabhairt, reothairt, springtide, Manx royart, Ir. romhairt, 

rabharta, M. Ir. robarta, 0. Ir. robarti, malinas, (sing. 

*robarte), W. rhyferth: ro + bertio-, "pro-fero," root bher of 

rabhan, rhapsody, repetition, Ir. rabhdn, repetition : from ro and 

*ba, say, root, bhd, Lat. fdri, speak, Eng. fame, fate. 
rabhart, upbraiding, senseless talk ; from ro and ber of abair, say, 

rabhd, idle talk : *ro-bant, root ba, speak, as in rabhan. 
rac, the ring keeping the yard to the mast, the " traveller" ; from 

Norse rakki (do.). 
rac, a rake, Ir. rdca, W. rhacan ; from M. Eng. rake, Eng. rake. 
rac, a drake ; from the Eng., earlier Eng. endrake. The loss of d 

is due to the article, 
racadh, tearing ; see sracadh. 
racadal, horse-radish (Sh., H.S.D., Arm.), racadal (M'E.), Ir. 

rdcadal ; see rotacal. 
racaid, noise ; cf. the Sc, Eng. racket. Skeat takes the Eng. from 

the Gaelic, referring the G. to rac, to make a noise like geese 

or ducks. See next word, 
racail, noise of geese (H.S.D.) ; cf. Sc. rackle. See next word, 
racain, noise, riot, mischief, racaireachd, croaking, Ir. racan ; cf. 

Br. rakat, rakal, croak, raklat, cry as a hen ; Lat. raccare, 

cry as a tiger, Lit. rekti, cry, root rak. The words are greatly 

racan, a bandy or crooked stick ; cf. rac. 
racas, sail hoop ; see rac. 
rach, go, Ir. rachad, I will go, E. Ir. ragat, ibo, 0. Ir. doreg, 

veniam ; root reg, stretch. See eirich for the root connections, 
rachd, vexation, moan, Ir. rachd, a fit as of crying or tears : cf. 

rachd, strength (Carm.) : 
rachdan, a tartan plaid worn mantle-wise : 
racuis, rack, roasting apparatus, Ir. raca ; from the Eng. rack, 

M. Eng. racke. 
radan, a rat ; from Sc. ration, M. Eng. raton, now rat. 
radh, saying, Ir. rddh, 0. Ir. rdd, rdidiu, I speak : I. E. rodh-ejd ; 
Got. 7odja, I speak ; Skr. rddhayati, brings about ; root redh, 
re-dh, re-, of Lat. reor, think, ratio, reason. 


radharc, sight, Ir. radharc, E. Ir. radarc, rodarc: ro + darc ; for 

dare see dearc, behold, 
rag, a wrinkle, Ir. rag (O'B., etc.) ; see roc. 
rag, stiff, benumbed, unwilling, Manx, rag, stiff, Ir. rag (Fol.) ; 

*razgo-, root reg, rag, Lat. rigeo, rigid, Eng. rack, N. rakr, 

straight, Lit. rezgu, knit. Hence rogaim (so Ir. in Lh., etc.), 

sneeze- wort (Cam.). 
rag, a rag ; from the Eng. 
ragair, extortioner, villain ; from Eng. rack, as in rack-rant. 

Dial. G. has r6gair, for and from " rogue." 
ragha, raghadh, choice ; see roghainn. 
raghan, churchyard (Sutherland) ; cf. Ir. rath, barrow, the same 

as G. rath. 
raghar, radhar, an arable but untilled field (H.S.D., Dial.) : 
raichd, impertinence, idle prating (M'F., etc.) : 
raideil, inventive, sly, Ir. raideamhuil, cunning, sly : 
raidhlich, rag, cast off clothes (Suth.) ; Lat. reliquiae. 
raidse, a prating fellow ; founded on rhdh % 
rainig, came, Ir. rdnaig, 0. Ir. rank, venit ; for r-dnic, ro-dnic ; 

see thdmig. 
raip, filth, foul mouth, raipeas, foul mouth, rapach, slovenly, 

foul-mouthed ; M. Ir. rap, animals that draw food to them 

from earth, as the pig and its like (O'Cl.), E. Ir. rap (Corm., 

rop for cows, etc.): rab-tho-, root rab, srab, Lat. sorbeol 

Stokes gives the stem as *rapno-, root rap of Lat. rapio, I 

seize. The Ger. raffen, seize, snatch, has also been suggested. 
raisean, goat's tail : 

raite, a saying, dictum ; for rhdhte, a participial formation, 
rai teach, covenanting, affiancing (Suth.) ; see rath, rdtlian. 
raith, a quarter of a year, Ir. rdithe, M. Ir. raithe : *rdtio-, from 

ft-, Skr. rtu, season of the year, appointed time for worship, 

Zend (ratu) do.). 
raith, a threatening : 
raith, prating largely (M'D.) : 
raithneach, raineach, fern, Ir. raithneach, raith, W. rhedyn, Cor. 

reden, 0. B. raten, Br. raden, Gaul, ratis : *pratis ; Lit. 

papartis, Russ. paporoti ; Eng. fern. 
ramachdair, a coarse fellow : 
ramair, a blockhead, a romp ; cf. ramalair. 
ramasg, sea tangle : 
ramh, an oar, Ir. rdmha, 0. Ir. rdme, W. rhaw, spade, Corn, rev, 

oar, Br. roenv : *rdmo- ; root ere, re, ro ; Lat. remits, (*re$mo-) ; 

Gr. €/)€T/xos j Eng. rudder ; Skr. aritras. 
ramhlair, humorous, noisy fellow ; from Eng. rambler. Also, 

Badenoch Dial., ramalair, rambler. 


rail, roar, cry ; Skr. rd, bark, ran, sound, rdyana, crying ; Ch. SL 

raru, sonitus, Let tic rat, scold ; and cf. Lat. rdna, frog, 
rangoir, a wrangler ; founded on the Eng. 
rann, a division, portion, Ir., 0. Ir. rann, W. rhan, Cor. ran, later 

radn, 0. Br. rannou, partimonia : *(p)rannd, *pratsnd, root 

par, per ; Lat. pars, partis, portio ; Gr. iroptlv, supply, 

7T€7r/3WTat (perf. pass, of 
rann, a quatrain, stave, Ir. rann, E. Ir. rann, rand', from rann 

above {rann, stave, is mas. in E. Ir., the other rann is fern.), 
ranndair, a murmuring, complaining (H.S.D., Dial ) ; cf. ran. 
rannsaich, search, scrutinize, Ir. rannsuighim ; from Norse rann- 

saka, search a house, ransack, whence Eng. ransack. 
ranntair, a range, extent of territory : "division," from rann. 
raog, a rushing (H.S.D., Dial.) ; cf. ruaig. 
raoic, raoichd, hoarse sound or cry, wild roaring, as of bull ; 

raibheic (M'A.), pronounced raoi'c, roar : *ro-beuc. 
raoine, a young barren cow that had calf ; cf. Sc. rhind, as in 

rhind mart, Ger. rind, cattle, beeves. In Suth. reithneach. 
raoir, an raoir, last night, Ir. a ra<nr % a reir, Ir. areir, *prei-ri, 

root as in riamh (Asc, St.). The Skr. rdtri, night, has been 

compared, but the phonetics do not suit, and also Lat. retro. 

Cf. also earar, uiridh. 
raoit, indecent mirth ; from Sc. riot (do.), Eng. riot. 
raon, a field, plain, road, so Ir., E. Ir. roen, road, 0. Ir. roe, roi, 

plain : ^roves-no-, *roves-jd 1 Lat. rus, r&ris ; Eng. room. 

Norse rein, a strip of land, suggests the possibility of a 

Gadelic *roino-. 
rapach, dirty-mouthed ; see raip. 
rapach, noisy, rapal, noise, Ir. rdpal, noise, bustle ; founded on 

Eng. rabble. 
ras, a shrub (M'F., not M'A. or M'E.), Ir. ras (O'B., etc.) : 
rasan, harsh, grating noise, loquacity, rasanach, discordant, Ir. 

rdscach, clamorous, talkative ; cf ran for ultimate root, 
rasdail, a rake, harrow, E. Ir. rastal \ from Lat. rastellus, rake, 

hoe, rastrum, from rddo, scrape, Eng. raze, rash, etc. 
rasdail, sound of frying meat ; cf . rbsd. 
rath, prosperity, so Ir., 0. Ir. rath, gratia, W. rhad, grace, favour : 

*rato-n, root rd, give ; Skr. rdti, gift, ras, rayis, property, 

Zend rdta, gift ; Lat. res. 
rath, a raft, Ir. rathannaibh, (on) rafts (F. M.) ; Lat. ratis. The 

root is the same as that of ramh { — ret, rdt here), 
rath, rathan, surety, vadimoniuni, Ir. rath (O'B., O'CL), 0. Ir. 

rdth ; cf . 0. Br. rad, stipulationes, which Stokes equates with 

Ir. rath, and says that it is from Lat. rdtum (ratum facere = 


"ratify"), a derivation to which Loth objects. Hibernian 

Lat. has rata for surety. The Lat. and G. are ultimately 

from the same root in any case (see radh). 
f rath, a fortress, residence, Ir. rath, E. Ir. rath, rdith, g. rdtha, 

Gaul, ratin, Argento-ratum : *rdti-s, *rdto-n ; cf. Lat. prdtum, 

a mead. W. rhath, cleared spot ; borrowed from G. 1 (Rhys), 
rathad, a road, Ir. rat had, rod ; from M. Eng. roade, road, Ag. S. 

rdd; cf. M. Ir. ramhad (O'CL), E. Ir. ramut (Corm.). 
r6, the moon, Ir., 0. Ir. re, luna : *revi, Skr. ravi, sun. 
re, time, space, Ir. re, 0. Ir. re, g. ree, space : *revesi-, the e form 

of 0. Ir. rbi, *rovesjd, discussed under raon, q.v. Hence the 

prep. r6, during, which governs the genitive, 
reabh, wile, trick, reabhair, subtle fellow, reabhradh, disporting, 

as boys (Badenoch), Ir. reabh (O'Cl.), reabhach, mountebank, 

the devil, reabhradh, E. Ir. rebrad, boys playing, sporting ; 

root reb, play. Bez. compares M. H. G. reben, move, stir, 

Swiss rabeln, to brawl, be noisy, to which add Eng. rabble. 

Cf. Zim. .Stud. 1 83, 84. 
reachd, law, statute, so lr., 0. Ir. iecht, W. rhaith, Br. reiz, just : 

*rektu-, from the root reg ; Lat. rectum, right, rego, rule ; 

Eng. right. 
reachd, a loud sob, keen sorrow, lr. rachd (also G. rachd), E. Ir. 

recht ; cf. Eng. reck. 
reamhar, fat, Ir. reamhar, ramhar, E. Ir. remor (remro-), W. rhef, 

thick ; root rem, to be thick ; Norse ramr, strong, stark. 

Stokes gives the alternatives of M. H. G. fram, vrom, sound, 

brave, 0. Sax. furm, or (Jr. irpefivov, stem, thick end. 
reang, a wrinkle in the face : "a rib ;" see reang, boat-rib. 
reang, a rank, series ; from early Sc. renk, M. E. ? eng, now rank ; 

Ir. ranc, W. rheng, Br. renk ; 0. Fr. renc. 
reang, a boat-rib, rangan (Sutherland), reang, a bar, pole (Carm.) ; 

from Norse rong, g. rangar, a ship-rib. See rong. 
reang, kill, starve (M'F.), E. Ir. ringim, I tear, reang adh, to hang, 

reng, piercing or tearing. See tarruing. 
reannach, spotted, striped : " starred ;" see reannag. 
reannag, a star, Ir. reanndn, 0. Ir. rind, constellation, signum, 

sidus : *rendi-, root red, rd, order ; Lit. rinda, row, order, 

Ch. Slav. r§du, ordo : Gr. epyjpeSeTai, fixed ; Lat. or do (Fick, 

reasach, talkative, prattling (H.S.D., Dial.), Ir. reascach, rdscach ; 

see rdsan. 
reasgach, stubborn, irascible, rgstive : 
reic, sell, Ir. reic, a sale, 0. Ir. recc, a sale, reccaim (vb.), also 

renim, I sell : root 'per, through, over (" sell over sea") ; Gr. 


ircpaca, sell, pass through, 7rL7rpd<TK0), irkpinipt, 1 &ell ; Lit. 

pirkti, perku, buy. The Gadelic and Lit. show a secondary 

root perk, prek, Gadelic *(jp)rek-kd, while 0. Ir. renim and 

Gr. 7T€/>v7//ai give a stem pernd-, prend- (Ir.). 
r6ic, roar, howl (H.S.D.) : 
r^idh, plain, smooth, Ir. rtidh, 0. Ir. re'id, W. rhwydd, 0. W. ruid, 

0. Br. roed, M. Br. roez, Br. rouez : *reidi- ; Eng. ready, Ger. 

bereit, Got. garaids, ordered. Also 0. Ir. riadaim, I drive, 

Gaul, reda, waggon, allied to Eng. ride, Ger. reiten, etc. 
r&lig, a burying ground, Manx ruillick, Ir. reilig, roilig, E. Ir. 

r€lic(c), relec(c), 0. Ir. reilic, cemeterium ; from Lat. reliquiae, 

reim, dominion, power, Ir. reim : 
r^im, course, order, Ir. reim, 0. Ir. reimm, inf. to rethim, I run : 

*reid-s-men-, root reid of reidh, 0. Ir. riadaim, I drive. 

Strachan suggests as alternates root rengh, spring, leap (cf. 

W. rhamu, soar), Gr. pt^a, quickly, Ger. ge-ring, light, Lit. 

re7igtis, hurry ; or root ret, run (see ruith), *retmen, or, rather, 

*ret-s-men, which would only give remm. 
r6ir, a r6ir, according to, Ir. a reir, do reir ; dat. of riar, q.v. 
- reis, a race ; from the Eng. (H.S.D.). Cf. reise, span, o. E. Ir. 
r6is, a span, Ir. revise : *prendsid, from sprend, Lit. apresti, to 

measure a span, root sprend (Strachan). 
reisimeid, a regiment ; from the Eng. 
r6it, reite, concord, conciliation, Ir. reidhteach ; from reidh, with 

terminal -tio-. 
reithe, reath, a ram, Ir. reithe, E. Ir. rethe : *retio- ; cf. Lat. aries 

l^eriet-), Umbrian erietu (from eri-), Gr. e/3i<£os, etc., as in 

reodh, reotha, frost, Ir. red, reodhadh, E. Ir. reo, reod, 0. Ir. rtud, 

W. rhew, Corn, rm, gelu, Br. reo, rev. Stokes gives the stem 

as *regu-, even suggesting that the Gadelic forms are borrowed 

from the Cymric ; 0. Ir. reud he refers to *presatu-. I. E. 

preus, whence Lat. pruina, Eng. freeze, has been suggested, 

but the vowels do not immediately suit (preus would give 

rua-, rb- or ro-, in G.) ; yet *prevo-, a longer form (with or 

without s) of preu-s, can account for the Celtic forms, 
reub, riab, tear, wound, Ir. reubaim, reabaim, E. Ir. rSaim, r4p- 

gaeth, rending wind : *reibbo-, root reib, Eng. reap, ripe, and 

rip (?). Stokes gives the stem as *reip-n6-, root reip of Gr. 

kpuiru, dash down, Lat. ripa, Eng. rive, rift, Norse rifna, 

rumpi, rifa, break. G. reubainn, rapine, leans for its form 

and force on Lat. rapina. W. rheibio, seize, is from Lat. 




reubal, a rebel ; from the Eng. 

reudan, a timber moth ; of. O. Ir. retan, recula, small thing, from 

ret, now rud, q.v. 
reul, pi., reultan, star, Ir reult, g. reilte, E. Ir. retla, g. retland, 

retglu, g. retgland ("ret gle, bright thing," Corm.) ; perhaps 

ret, thing, and *gland, shining, Ger. glanz (see gleus). 
reumail, constant (Arms.) ; from re'im, course, 
reusan, reason, Ir. reusuu, M. Ir. re'sun, from M. Eng. reisun, now 

reusbaid, a beggar's brat (Arran), a rascal : 
ri, to, against, Ir. re, 0. Ir. n, fri, in composition frith-, fris-, fre-, 

W. gwrth, wrth, versus, contra, re-, Cor. orth, Br. ouz ; *vrti, 

root vert, turn ; Lat. versus, against, to, verto, turn ; Eng. 

-wards, etc. 
riabhach, brindled, greyish, so Ir., M. Ir. rial, a stripe : *reibdko-, 

Lit. raibas, mottled grey, Lett, raibs, motley, 0, Pruss. 

roabau, striped. 
riabhag, a lark, Ir. riabhog, " grey one," from riabhach. 
riach, cut the surface, graze. Although there is I. E. reiko-, 

notch, break (Gr. ipeUco, tear, Lit, raikyti, draw a furrow, 

etc., Ger. reihr, row, Eng. row), yet it seems most probable 

that riach is a variant of strioch, q.v. 
riachaid, a distributing : 
riachlaid, tattered garment (Suth.) : 
riadh, interest ; from an older Had, running, course (see reidh for 

root). Cf. for force M. Ir. rith, interest : " running." 
riadh, a drill (as of potatoes, Badenoch) : " course, running," as in 

the case of riadh above. See riamh. 
riadh, a snare : *reigo-, root rig in cuibhreach 1 
riaghailt, a rule, Ir. riaghail, 0. Ir. riagul, riagol ; from Lat. 

regula, Eng. rule. Hence also riaghail, rule thou, 
riaghan, a swing, swinging ; cf Ir. riagh, gallows, riaghadh, 

■ hanging, gibbeting, 0. Ir. riag, gibbet. Cf. riadh, snare, 
riamh, a drill (of potatoes, turnips, etc , M'A. for Skye) ; see 

riadh. H.S.D. gives the meaning of " series, number," Ir. 

riomh, 0. Ir. rim, number, W. rhif, as in direamh, q.v. 
riamh, ever, before, Ir. riamh, 0. Ir. riam, antea : *reimo-, 

preimo-, I. E. pri, pri, belonging as a case to pr<>, before, and 

per ; Lat. pri- (in pris cus, primus, etc.), Lith. pri, Got. fri-, 

See roimh. 
rian, order, mode, sobriety, Ir. rian, way or path, E. Ir. rian, way, 

manner : *rtino-, root rei ; Lat. ritus, Eng. rite (Strachan). 
riar, will, pleasure, Ir. riar, 0. Ir. riar, voluntas : *prijard 

(Stokes), root pri, love, please ; Eng. friend, Got. frijon, to 


love ; Ch. SI. prijati, be favourable ; Skr. priyate, be gratified, 

prindti, enjoy, 
riasail, tear asunder, riasladh, mangling, tearing asunder : *reik-so-, 

root reik, notch, break ; Gr. ipeUio, tear 1 Cf riastradh, riach ; 

and riaghan, a swing, 
riasg, dirk-grass, morass with sedge, land covered with sedge or 

dirk-grass, Manx reeast, wilderness, Ir. riasg, moor or fen, 

E. Ir. riasc, morass ; *reisko- ; cf. Lat. rilscum (*roiscum 1), 

butcher's broom, Eng. rush. Sc. reesk, coarse grass, marshy 

land, is from G. 
riasglach, a mangled carcase (H.S.D., Dial.) ; from stem of 

riaspach, riasplach, confused, disordered ; see next word, 
riastradh, turbulance, confusion, wandering, E. Ir. riastrad, dis- 
tortion. For root, cf. riasail. W. rhyvjstro, obstruct (Hend.). 
riatach, wanton, illegitimate ; cf. Eng. riot. 
rib, hair, snare, Ir. ribe, ruibe, hair, whisker. See next words, 
ribeag, rag, tassel, fringe, ribean, riband, Ir. ribedg, rag, tassel, 

ribleach, a long line, anything tangled, ribin, riband ; from 

M. Eng. riban, 0. Fr. riban (Br. ruban). 
ribheid, a reed, bagpipe reed, musical note, Ir. ribheid ; from 

M. Eng. reod, now reed. 
ribhiim, rioghann, a nymph, young lady, quean, Ir. rioghan, 

queen, E. Ir. rigan, a derivative of righ, king. Gaelic leans, 

by proper etymology, on righ-bhean. 
i rideal, a riddle ; from the Eng. 
ridhe, field, bottom of a valley (H.S.D.) ; better righe. See 

ridir, a knight, Ir. ridire, E. Ir. ritire, W. rheidyr ; from Ag. S. 

ridere, horseman, ridda(n), knight, Ger. ritter, knight, Norse 

riddari, rider, knight ; from the verb ride (see reidK). 
righ, a king, Ir. righ, 0. Ir. ri, g. rig, W. rhi, Gaul, -rix, pi. -riges: 

*reks, g. regos ; Lat. rex, regis ; Got. reiks, ruler, Eng. rich, 

-ric ; Skr. raj, King, our rajah. 
righ, stretch (on a death bed), Ir. righim, stretch, reach, E. Ir. 

rigim, Lat, rego, etc., as under righinn. 
righil, a reel, dance ; see ruithil. 
righinn, tough, pliant, tenacious, Ir. righin : *reg-eni- ; root reg, 

stretch, Gr. opkyio, stretch, Lat. porrigo, rego, etc. See e'irich. 
rinn, a point, promontory, Ir. rind, 0. Ir. rinnd, rind, W. rhyn, 

penrhyn, cape. It has been analysed as ro-ind, " fore-end," 
E. Ir. ivd, end, Eng. end. Cf.' reannag, however, 
rinn, did, Ir. rinn, 0. Ir. rigni, fecit ; from ro and gni of ni, will 

do, q.v. See also griiomh. 


riochd, appearance, form, Tr. riochd, 0. Ir. richt, W. rhith : *riktu-, 

*rktu- (1) ; for root, see that of dorch. 
riodag, kind of sea-gull (Lewis) ; N. rytr, sea-gull. 
rioluinn, a cloud (Smith) : 
£ riof, the reef of a sail ; from the Eng. 
riofa, brimstone (Munro's Gr. ) : 
rlomhach, fine, costly, handsome, Ir. rimheighe, finery, delicate- 

ness : *rimo-, " measured " ; root rim of direamh 1 
rionnach, reannach, a mackerel : " streaked, spotted," from reann, 

star, constellation. See reannag. 
riopail, mangle, tear (H.S.D.) ; founded on Eng. rip. 
riplis, weakness in the back (Suth.) ; Sc. ripples. 
rireadh, a rireadh, really, in earnest, Ir. rireadh, da rlreadh or 

riribh, revera ; from *ro-fhir, very true % 
risteal, a surface plough, used in the Hebrides, drawn by one 

horse and having a sickle-like coulter, Sc. nstle ; from the 

Norse ristill, ploughshare, from rista, cut. 
rithisd, rithis, ris, a rithisd, etc., again, Ir. arts, 0. Ir. arithissi, 

afrithissi, rursus. Ascoli suggests *frith-eisse, from e'is, 

vestigium (see deis). Others have derived it from *ar-fithis, 

0. lr.jithissi, absidas, fithis, a circle, orbit. The a at the 

beginning is for ar- : *ar-frithissi, that is, air, by, on, q.v. 

The root may well be sta, stand, reduplicated to *sistio- : 

thus *frith(s/i)issi-, " resistere, backness." 
TO, very, Ir. rd, 0. Ir. ro-, W. rhy-, Br. re, 0. Br. ro-, ru-, Gaul. 

ro- (Bo-smerta, Eo-danos, etc.) : *ro-, *pro-, which is both a 

verbal and an intensive particle ; Lat. pro ; Gr. 7iy>d, before ; 

Eng. fore, for ; Skr. pra, before. 
r rdb, coarse hair ; founded on Eng. rope. 
V robair, a robber j from the Eng. The Ir. has robail for " rob." 
robhas, notification, information about anything lost ; cf. robhadh 

for root, the old form of rabhadh, q.v. 
robhd, a runt ; Eng. rout 1 
i roc, a rock ; from the Eng. roc, a tempest covered rock (Heb.), 

so M'K., who derives from N. rok. 
roc, a wrinkle, crease, Ir. rocdn, rug ; from the Norse hrukka, 

wrinkle, fold, Eng. ruck, fold (Thurneysen). See rug. 
rdc, a hoarse voice; founded on the Norse hiokr, rook, croaker, 

G. rocas, crow, Norse hrokr, rook. W. has rhoch, grunt, 

groan, Br. roc'ha, which Stokes refers to *rokka, Gr. pkyKw, 

rocail, tear, corrugate ; in the latter sense, it is from roc, wrinkle, 

and, probably, the first meaning is of the same origin. See, 

however, racadh. 


rocas, a crow ; from Norse hrokr, rook, M. Eng. rook, Ag. S. hroc. 

rdchd, a cough, retching (Dial.) ; see roc. 

rod, a way, road, Ii\ rod, E. Ir. rdd ; from Ag. S. rdd, M. Eng. 

rode, now road. 
r6d, a quantity of sea-weed cast on the shore ; cf. Ir. rod, a cast, 

shot (O'R.), E. Ir. rout. 
rdd, a rood (of land or mason-work) ; from the Eng. 
rodach, sea-weed growth on timber under water ; cf. rod, sea 

rodaidh, ruddy, darkish, M. Ir. rotaide : *rud-do-, root rud, roud 

of ruadh, q.v. 
rdg, rogair, a rogue ; from the Eng. 
roghainn, a choice, Ir. rogha, g. roghan, E. Ir. rogain, n. pi., 0. Ir. 

rogu : *ro-gu, root gu, gus of taghadh, q.v. Stokes gives the 

stem as *rogon and the root as rog, which (Bez. Beit. ls ) he 

correlates with Lat. rogo, ask. Bez. suggests Lit. rogduti, to 

r6ib, fifth, squalid beard, filth about the mouth ; cf. ropach for 

rdic, a sumptuous but unrefined feast ; seemingly founded on the 

Sc. rouch as applied to a feast — " plentiful but rough and 

rdic, tear (H.S.D. ; Sh. and Arm. have roic) ; see rocail. 
roid, bog myrtle, Ir. rideog (O'R.), M. Ir. raidleog, darnel, raideog, 

bogmyrtle (St.): *raddi. Cf. ras. 
roid, a race before a leap, a bounce or spring : *raddi-, *raz-di-, 

root ras, as in Eng. race 1 
roilean, snout of a sow ; really the " rolled " up part of the snout, 

and so possibly from Eng. roll. 
roileasg, a confused joy, roille, a fawning or too cordial reception ; 

cf. Ir. rdthoil, exceeding pleasure, from toil, will. Also G. 

roimh, before, Ir. roimh, 0. Ir. rem- : *(p)rmo- (Stokes), root per, 

as in ro ( =pro) ; in form, nearest allied to Eng. from, Got. 

fruma, Lit. pirm, before. In the pronominal compounds, 

where s begins the pronoun, the m and s develop an inter- 
mediate p coincident with the eclipse of the s : rompa = *rorn- 

p-shu, where su^sos (see sa). 
roin, roineag (also r6inn, r6inneag), Ir. rbine, roinne, a hair, 

especially a horse hair, W. rhawn, coarse long hair, Cor. men, 

Br. reun, a hair, bristle, Skr. roman, hair, etc. : *rdni- ; cf. Ir. 

ruain, hair of tail of cow or horse, ruainne, a hair, 
roinn, division, share, Ir. roinn, M. Ir. roinded, divided : *ranni-, 

an i stem from from rann, q.v. 


rdisead, rosin ; from the Sc. roset, Eng. rosin. 
roiseag, a small potato (M'D.) : 

roiseal, surge of a wave, the impetus of a boat, an assault, boast- 
ing ; from the Sc. roust, strong tide or current, Norse rost, a 

stream or current in the sea. In the sense of " boast," it is 

from Sc. rouse, roose, Norse rausan, boasting, 
rdisgeul, a romance, rhodomontade ; from ro, very, and sgeul, a 

tale, q.v. 
r6ist, roast, Ir. rdsdaim, W. rhostio ; from the Eng. roast, 0. Fr. 

rostir, from 0. H. G. rost, craticula. 
roithlean, a wheel, pulley, Ir. roithledn ; from roth, q.v. 
rol, rola, a roll, volume, Ir. rolla ; from M. Eng. rolle, 0. Fr. rolle, 

Lat. rotula ; now Eng. roll. 
rdlaist, a romance, exaggeration ; cf. Sc, Eng. rigmarole. 
rdmach, hairy, rough : 
romag, meal and whisky (Sutherland) : 
rdmhan, wild talk, raving, rigmarole (Dial.) ; from Eng. row 1 from 

Roman % Cf. W. rhamant, romance, Ir. ramas, romance, 
ron, the seal, lr. ran, 0. Ir. r6n (before 900), W. moelron : *rdno-; 

Lettic rohns, seal (W. Meyer, ZeitP 119). Stokes holds r6n 

as an old borrow from Ag. S hron or hrdn, hrdn, whale, while 

the Lit. riiinis, Lettic ronis, seal, must be from Teutonic. 

Zimmer suggests Norse hreinn, reindeer, Ag. S. hrdn. Cf. 

names Rdndn, Rdndc, Mac Ronchon. 
rong, a joining spar, rung, boat-rib, rongas, rungas (Dial.), Ir. 

runga ; from M. Eng. ronge, rung of a ladder, runge, Ag. S. 

hrung ; now Eng. rung ; N. rong, main rafter, pole. The 

words reang and rang or rangan, " boat-rib," are from the 

rong, the vital spark, life : 
rongair, a lounger ; cf. next word, 
rongair, rong, a lean person ; from rong, rung : u like a ladder." 

The Sc. has rung in this sense : " an ugly, big-boned animal 

or person." 
ronn, a slaver, a spittle, E. Ir. ronna, running of the nose : *runno-\ 

cf. Eng. run. 
rop, a rope, Ir. rdpa ; from M. Eng. rope, roop, Ag. S. rdp ; now 

Eng. rope. 
rdpach, slovenly, squalid, Ir. rupach, a young slut : *roub-tho- ; cf. 

Eng. rub. 
rdram, dealing extensively with a family in provisions, etc. ; 

liberality (M'A.) : 
ros, seed, ros lin, flax seed (Armstrong's only use for it), Ir. ros t 

flax seed, M. fr. ros, genealogy, E. Ir. ross lin, flax seed 


(Corm.), res, genealogy, to which Strachan compares Got. 
frasts, for fra-sst-s, from pro-sto (Stokes), a child. A usual 
word for seed is fras, which also means a " shower," but both 
are ultimately from * 'verso, flow, whence Gr. epcrrj, tpo-rj, dew, 
and apa-rjv, male. Dr. Cameron compared Gr. irpdo-ov, leek 
(*prso), Eng. furze. 

ros, a promontory, Ir. ros, promontory (North Ireland), wood 
(South Ireland ; its usual Ir. meaning), E. Ir. ross, promon- 
tory, wood ; in the former sense from *pro-sto-s, " standing 
out before," root sta, stand, Lat. sto, Eng. stand, etc. ; 
especially Skr. prastha, plateau. In the sense of "wood," ros 
is generally regarded as the same word as ros, promontory, 
explained as " promontorium nemorosum," with which is 
compared W. rhos, a moor, waste, coarse highland, Br. ros, a 

rds, rose, Ir, rosa, M. Ir. ros, W. rhosyn : from the M. Eng. rose, 
Ag. S. rose, from Lat. rosa. The word ros has also the meta- 
phoric meaning of " erysipelas." 

rds, knowledge (Carm.) : 

rosad, mischance, evil spell : *pro-stanto-, " standing before, 
obstruction," root sta. Cf. fa>>said. 

rosg", an eye, eyelid, Ir. rosg, 0. Ir. rose, oculus : *rog-sko-, root 
reg, rog, see, Ir. reil, clear (*regli-) ; Lit. regiu, I see (Bez. 
apud Stokes). See dorcfi. 

rosg, incitement (to battle), war ode, Ir. rosg, E. Ir. rose : *ro-sqo-, 
root seq, say, as in sgeid, co.s//, q.v. 

rot, a belch, bursting as of waves (H.S D., Dial.) ; from Fr. rot. 

rotacal, horse radish ; from Sc. rotcoll. 

rotach, a rush at starting, a running : 

rotach, rough weather, rdtach 1 (Lewis) ; N. rota, storm. 

rotach, a hand rattle to frighten cattle : 

rotach, a circle of filth on one's clothes (M'A. for Islay), rotair, a 
sloven : 

rotadh, cutting, dividing ; from Sc. rot, lines drawn on the ground 
to show the work to be done, to furrow, rut ; cf. Eng. mt. 

rotal, a ship's wake ; cf. Kng. rut, route, Lat. ruptd. 

roth, a wheel, Jr., O. Ir. roth, W. rhod (f.), Br. rod: *roto-, root 
ret, rot ; Lat. rota, wheel ; Ger. rad ; Lat, rdtas, Lett, rats ; 
Skr. rdthas, waggon. Same root as ruith, q.v. Hence 
rotha, a roll (of tobacco), rothaich, roll thou, swathe. 

rotha, a screw or vice : 

ruadh, red, ruddy, Ir. ruadh, E. Ir. rwul, W. rhudd, Corn, rud, Br. 
ruz : *roudo- ; Lat. ritfus, ruber ; Gr. kpvdpos ; Got. raufis. 
Ag. S. re'ad, Eng. red (Sc. reid, Reid) \ Lit. raudd, red colour. 


mag, pursue, maig, flight, Ir. ruaig (n.), E. Ir. ruaic : *rounko-, 

rouk, root rou, Lat. ruo, rush, fall. 
maim, a flush of anger on the face, Ir. ruaim, ruamnadh, redden- 
ing : *roud-s-men, from *roud of ruadh. 
ruaimhsheanta, hale and jolly though old (M'A. for Islay) : 
maimill, rumble (M'A.) ; from the Eng. 
ruaimle, a dry pool, muddy water (Sh.), Ir. ruaimle. In G. the 

word means also the same as ruaim above, whence indeed 

ruaimle as " muddy pool " may also be. Cf. Sc. drumblie. 
maimneach, strong, active, M. Ir. ruamach, E. Ir. ruamna (?) : 

*rous-men- ; Lat. ruo, rush, 
ruais, a rhapsody (M'A.) : 
ruamhair, dig, delve, Ir. romhairim, rdghmhar, digging, E. Ir. 

ruamor ; root rou, reu, rH, dig ; Lat ruo, dig, rata, minerals ; 

Lit. rduti, dig up. 
ruapais, rigmarole (M'A.) : 
ruathar, violent onset, skirmish, spell, so lr., E. Ir., ruathar, W. 

rhuthr, impetus, insultus : *routro-, root rou, to rush on ; 

Lat. ruo, rush. 
/ rub, rub ; from the Eng. 
v rubail, a tumult, rumbling (M'A.) ; formed on Eng. rumble. 

rue, rucan (H.S.D., M'A.), rue, mean (M'E., etc.), a rick of hay ; 

from Sc. ruck, Eng. rick, ruck, Norse hraukr, heap, 
rucas, jostling kind of fondness : 
ruchan, rucan, the throat, wheezing; cf. Sc. roulk ( = rouk), 

hoarse, Fr. rauque, hoarse, from Lat. raucus. 
ruchd, a grunt, belch, rumbling noise ; from Lat. ructo, belch, 

erugere, spit out, Lit. rifgiu, belch. Cf. Sc. ruck, belch, 
md, a thing, Dial, raod (Arg., Arran), rudach (Arran raodach), 

hospitable, Ir. rud (g. roda), raod, 0. Ir. ret, g. reto : *rentu-s ; 

Skr. rdtna, property, goods ; also root rd of rath, q.v. 
rudan, a knuckle, a tendon : *runto- : 
rudha, a promontory, Ir. rubha, E. Ir. rube : * pro-bio-, " being 

before ; " from root bu of the verb "to be ; see bi. 
mdha, a blush, E. Ir. ruidiud ; from root rud, a short form of 

roud in ruadh, q.v. 
rudhag", rudhag (Suth.), a crab, partan : 
rudhagail, thrift (M'A.) : 
rudhan, a small stack of corn (H.S.D., M'E.) ; see ruthan, peat 

heap, with which and with rucan this form and meaning are 

made up. 
rudhrach, searching, groping, Ir. rudhrach, a darkening : 
rug, wrinkle, Ir. rug ; from Norse hrukka, a wrinkle, fold, Eng. 

ruck, a crease. 


rug, caught, Ir. rug, E. Ir. rue, rucc, tulit, 0. Ir. rouic : *ro + ucc-, 

where ucc = *ud-gos-a, root ges, carry, Lat. gero, gestum. See 

ruga, rough cloth (M'A.) ; from Eng. rug, M. Eng. ruggi, hairy, 

Swed. ruggig. 
rugadh, a greedy grasping of anything ; from Sc. rook, deprive of, 

rookit, cleared out. 
rugaid, a long neck (H.S.D.) : 
rugair, a drunkard (H.S.D. says Dial., M'A. says N.) ; from the 

Eng. For phonetics, cf. rac, drake, 
rugha, a blush ; see rather rudha, but rucce (Corm.) shame, 

reddening (O'Cl.). 
ruic, undesirable fondness (M'D.) : 

ruicean, a pimple : *rud-ki-, from rud, roud, red, as in ruadh. 
ruidhil, ruidhle (Arg.;, a dance ; see ruithil. 
ruidhil, a yarn reel ; from M. Eng. reel, hreol, Ag. S. hreol. 
ruidhleadh, rolling ; from ruith, rath. 
ruidhtear, a glutton, riotous liver ; from Eng. rioter. 
ruididh, merry, frisky, Ir. ruideiseach, from ruideis, a sporting 

mood. Cf. ruidhtear. 
ruig, half castrated ram ; from Eng. rig, ridgeling. 
ruig, reach, arrive at, 0. [r. riccim, riccu ; from ro and iccim, for 

which see thig. Hence gu ruig, as far as, 0. G. gonice (B. of 

Deer), E. Ir. corrici. 
ruighe, an arm, forearm, Ir. righ, E. Ir. rig, forearm : *regit-, root 

reg, stretch, Lat. rego, etc. See ruigheachd. 
ruighe, the outstretched part or base of a mountain, shealing 

ground, E. Ir. rige, rigid, a reach, reaches ; from the root reg, 

stretch, as in the case of the foregoing words, 
ruigheachd, ruighinn, reaching, arriving, Ir. righim, I reach, inf. 

riachdain, rochdain, E. Ir. rigim, porrigo : *rego ; Lat. rego, 

erigo, porrigo, I stretch ; Gr. opkyoi, stretch ; further is Eng. 

right, etc. See eirich. 
ruighean, wool-roll ready to spin ; from the same root as ruighe. 
ruinn, a point ; see rinn. 

ruinnse, a long stick or stake, an animal's tail, rump : 
ruinn se, a rinsing, rinser ; from Eng. rinse. 
t uis, a rash ; formed from the Eng. Cf. Lit. russus, root rud. 
ruiteach, ruddy, E. Ir. rutech : *rud-tiko-, from rud, roud of 

ruadh. (Stokes Rev. Celt. 8 366) explained it as *rudidech, 

but this would give G. ruideach. 
ruith, run, Ir. riothaim, 0. Ir. rethim, perf. rdith, inf. rith 

^d. riuth), W. rhedu, to run, rhed, race, Br. redek, Gaul. 



petor-ritum, four wheeler : *reto ; Lit., Lett, ritii, I roll ; Lat. 

rota, wheel, rotula, Eng. roll, Lat. rotvndus, Eng. round. 

See roth. 
ruithil, a reel, dance, also righil, ruidhil : *retoli-, root ret, run, 

wheel, as in ruith ; Lat. rotula, little wheel, rotulare, revolve, 

Eng. roll. Hence Eng. reel (Skeat). The borrowing may be, 

however, the other way, and Eng. reel, dance, be the same as 

reel, a spindle or bobbin. *roteli ? 
rtim, a room, Ir. rUm, M. Ir. rum, floor (O'Cl.) ; from the Eng. 
rumach, a marsh : 

rumpull, the tail, rump ; from the Sc. rumple, Eng. rump. 
run, intention, love, secret, Ir., 0. Ir. riin, W. rhin : *rilnes- ; Got., 

0. H. G., Norse runar, Eng. runes ; Gr. ipewdo), seek out ; 

root revo, search, 
riisal, search, turn over things, scrape, rusladh, risleadh, rustling, 

moving things about (Perth) ; from Eng. rustle ; for ultimate 

root, see above word. 
rilSg, a fleece, skin, husk, bark, Ir. rusg, 0. Ir. ruse, cortex, W. 

rhisg, cortex, Cor. ruse, cortex, Br. rusgenn, rusk, bark : 

*rusko- ; whence Fr. ruche, beehive (of bark), 0. Fr. rusche, 

rusque, Pied, rusca, bark. Stokes thinks the Celtic is 

probably an old borrow from the Teutonic — M. H. G. rusche, 

rush, Eng. rush, rushes ; but unlikely. The Cor. and Br. 

vowel u does not tally with Gadelic u ; this seems to imply 

borrowing among the Celts themselves, 
ruta, a ram, ridgling ; from Norse hrutr, ram. 
rutachd, rutting : from the Eng. 
rutaidh, surly (Carm.) : rut, ram (Carm.). 
rutan, the horn of a roebuck : 
ruth, desire (Carm.) : 
ruthan (better rughan), a peat heap ( = dais) ; from the Norse 

hrugi, heap, 
rutharach, quarrelsome, fighting (H.S.D. marks it obsolete ; 

Arms.), Ir. riitharach (O'R.) ; from ruathar. 


-sa, -se, -san, emphatic pronominal particle attached to personal 
pronouns and to nouns preceded by the possessive pronouns : 
mi-se, I myself, thu-sa, sibh-se, i-se (she), e-san, iad-san ; 
mo cheann-sa, a cheann-san, his head. So also modern Ir., 
save that esan is esean : 0. Ir. -sa, -se (1st Pers.), -su, -so, pi. 
-si (2nd Pers.), -som, -sem (3rd Pers. m. and n., sing., and pi.), 
-si (3rd Pers./.). All are cases of the pronominal root so-, -se ; 
Gr. 6, the ( = <ro) ; Ag. S. se, the (m.), Eng. she. See so, sin. 


sabaid, a brawl, fight ; see tabaid : 

Sabaid, Sabbath, Ir. Sabdid, M. Ir. sapoit ; from Lat. sabbatum, 

whence Eng. sabbath ; from Hebrew shabbdth. 
sabh, sorrel, Ir. samh ; better samh, q.v. 
sabh, ointment, salve ; from Sc. saw, Eng. salve. 
sabh, a saw, Ir. sabh ; from the Eng. 
sabhail, save, Manx sauail, Ir. sabhailim (sdbhdlaim, O'B.) ; from 

Lat. salvare, to save. Kuno Meyer says from Eng. save. 
sabhal, a barn, so lr., M. Ir. saball, Ir. Lat. zabulum ; through 

Brittonic from Lat. stabulum, a stall, Eng. stable. Cf. M. Ir. 

steferus = zephyr, 
sabhd, a lie, fable (H.S.D., Dial.), straying, lounging; cf. saobk. 
sabhs, sauce, Ir. sabhsa ; from the Eng. 
sabhsair, a sausage ; founded on the English word. 
sac, a sack, Ir. sac, E. Ir. sacc, W. sach ; from Ag. S. sacc, Eng. 

sack, Got. sakkus, Lat. saccus. 
sac, a load, burden, Ir. sacadh, pressing into a sack or bag, Low 

Lat. saccare (do.) ; from Fr. mc, pillage, the same as Eng. 

sack, plunder, all borrowed from saccu*, a sack or bag. 
sachasan, sand-eel : 
sad, dust shaken from anything by beating, a smart blow, sada ; h, 

dusting, beating, 
sad, aught (M'D. : Cha V eil sad again, I have naught) : 
sagart, a priest, Ir. sagart, 0. Ir. sacai t, sacardd ; from Lat. 

sacerdos, whence Eng. sacerdotal. 
saidealta, soidealta, shy, bashful, Ir. soidta/ta, rude, ignorant ; 

from sodal, q.v. 
saidh, an upright beam, prow of a ship, a handle or the part of a 

blade in the handle : 
saidh, bitch ; see saigh : 
saidh, saidhean, the saith fish (Arg.) ; from N. sei&r, the gadus 

virens, now sei. 
saidhe, hay ; formed from the Eng. hay by the influence of the 

article {an t-hay becoming a supposed de-eclipsed say). 
saidse, tound of a falling body, a crash, noise (Badenoch Dial. 

doidse, a dint) : 
saigean, a corpulent little man : 
saigh, a bitch, Ir. saith (Con., Lane, etc.), sagh, saighin (O'Br.), 

M. Ir. sogh, sodh, E. Ir. sod, bitch, she-wolf : 
saighdear, soldier, archer, Ir. sdighdiur (do.), M. Ir. saigdeoir, 

Sagittarius, W. sawdwr, soldier ; from M. Eng. soudiour, 

sougeour, Sc. sodger, now soldier, confused in Gadelic with an 

early borrow from Lat. Sagittarius, archer, 
saighead, an arrow, so Ir., 0. Ir. saiget, W. saeth, Cor. seth, Br. 

saez ; from Lat. sagitta. For root see ionnsuidh. 


sail, a beam, Ir. sail : *spali-, allied to Ger. spalten, split, Eng. 

spill, split. 
sail, a heel, Ir., 0. Ir. sdl, W. sawdl, Br. seuzl : *sdtld. Ascoli 

has lately revived the old derivation from *std-tlo-, root sta, 

stand ; but st initial does not in native words became 8 in 

saill, fat or fatness, Ir. saill, fat, bacon, pickle : *saldi- ; Eng. 

salt, etc. ; Lit. saldiis, sweet. See salann further, 
saill, salt thou, Ir., 0. Ir. saillim, condio, *saldio, salt : *salni- ; 

see salann. 
sailm, a decoction, oak-bark decoction to staunch blood, a con- 
sumption pectoral ; founded on M. Eng. salfe, now salve ? 
saimhe, luxury, sensuality, Ir. sdimhe, peace, luxury, E. Ir. sdim, 

pleasant : *svadmi- ; Eng. sweet, Gr. r)8vs, etc. But cf. 

saimir, the trefoil clover (A. M'D.), Ir. seamar ; see seamrag. 
sainnseal, a handsel, New Year's gift ; from So. handsel, M. Eng. 

hansell, i.e. hand-sellan, deliver, 
saith, the back bone, joint of the neck or backbone, Ir. saith, 

joint of neck or backbone (Lh , O'B., etc.) : 
sal, also sail, saile, sea, Ir. sdile, E. Ir. sdl, sdile : *svdlos, root sval, 

svel ; Lat. solum, sea ; Eng. swell (Stokes, who also refers 

Br. c'hoalen, salt). Shrader equates Gadelic with Gr. aAs, 

salt, the sea, and Lat. solum, root sal. 
salach, dirty, Ir., so 0. Ir., salach, W. halowg, halog, Cor. halou, 

stercora, 0. Br. kaloc, lugubri : *saldko-s (adj.), root sal, to 

dirty ; Eng. sallom, 0. H. G. salo, dusky, dirty, sal, filth, 

is used. 
salann, salt, Ir., 0. Ir. salann, W. halen, Cor. haloin, Br. halenn 

(*salen-) : *salanno-s, salt ; Lat. sal ; Gr. aAs, salt, sea ; Eng. 

salt, Ger. salz ; Ch. SI. soli. 
salldair, a chalder ; from Sc. chalder, Eng. chalder, chaldron, from 

0. Fr. chaldron, a caldron, 
salm, a psalm, Ir., 0. Ir. salm, W. and Br. salm ; from Lat. 

psalmus, Eng. psalm. 
saltair, trample, Ir. saltoirim ; from Lat. saltare, dance, 
samh, the smell of the air in a close room, ill odour : 
samh, sorrel, Ir. samh : 
samh, a god, giant (Carm.) : 
samh, a clownish person ; cf. Sc. sow, one who makes a dirty 

appearance, " a pig." 
samhach, wooden haft, handle, Ir. samhthach, 0. Ir. samthach ; cf. 

0. Ir. samaiyim, pono (which Ascoli refers to *stam, root sta, 

stand). Cf. nam, together, of samhuinn. 


samhach, quiet, Ir. sdmhach (Coneys has samhach), still, pleasant, 
from sdmh, (samh), pleasant, still, E. Ir. sam, same, rest, quiet, 
sdim, mild, quiet : *sdmo-. Possibly allied to Eng. soft, 
0. H. G. samfto, softly, Got. samjan, please ; and the root mm 
of samhradh. Stokes suggests connection with Zend hdma, 
like, Ch. SI. samu, ipse, Norse, sbmr, samr, Eng. same ; or 
Gr. rj/jiepos, tame. Cf. sdimhe. 

samhail, samhuil, likeness, like, Ir. samhail, like, samhuil, like- 
ness, simile, W. hafal, similis, 0. W. amal, Corn kaval, avel, 
Br. haual : *samali- ; Gr. opxAos, like ; Lat. similis ; Eng. 

samhan, savin-bush, Ir. samhdn ; from Eng. savin, M. Eng. saveine, 
Ag. S. savine, Lat. sabina. 

samhnan, samhnachan, a large river trout (H.S.D., Dial.) : 

samhradh, summer, Ir. samhradh, samhradh, E. Ir. samrad, sam, 
W., Corn, haf, M. Br. hajf, Br. hanv : *samo- ; Skr. sdmd, 
year, Zend hama, summer, Arm. am, year; further Eng. 
summer, Gr. rj/J-^po., day. The termination rad = rado-n (n.). 

samhuinn, Hallow-tide, Ir. samhain, E. Ir. samuin, samain, sam- 
fhuin : usually regarded as for *samfuin, " summer-end," 
from sam, summer, and fuin, end, sunset, fuinim, I end, *vo- 
neso, root nes, as in comknuidh, q.v. (Stokes). For fuin, Kluge 
suggests *wen t suffer (Got. winnan, suffer) ; Zimmer favours 
Skr. van, hurt (Eng. wound) ; and Ascoli analyses it into 
fo-in-. Dr Stokes, however, takes samain from the root som, 
same (Eng. same, Gr. 6/xos, like, Lat. simul, whence Eng. 
assemble; see samhuil), and makes *samani- mean "assembly" 
— the gathering at Tara on 1st November, while Cet-shamain, 
our Ceitein, was the " first feast," held on 1st May. 

samplair, a copy, pattern, Ir. samplair, sampla ; from Eng. 
sampler, sample. 

-san, as in esan, ipse, iadsan ; see -sa. 

sanas, a whisper, secret, Manx sannish, whisper, Ir., E. Ir. sanas ; 
*sanastu-, root sven ; Lat. sonare, Eng. sound ; Skr. svdnati, 
to sound. 

sannt, desire, inclination, Ir., 0. Ir. sant, W. chwant, Cor. tv/ians, 
Br. c'hoant : *svand$td, desire, root svand, svad, desire, please: 
Gr. dvSavo), please, rjSvs, sweet ; Skr. svad, relish ; further 
Eng. sweet, etc. 

saobh, erroneous, apt to err, dissimulation, Ir. saobh (adj.), 0. Ir. 
sdib, soib, later saeb, falsus, pseudo- : *svoibo-s, turning aside, 
wavering, W. chwifio, turn, whirl ; Eng. sweep, swoop. 

saobhaidh, den of a wild beast, fox's den : 


saod, journey, intention, condition, good humour (Arg.), Ir. saod, 

send, journey, 0. Ir. set, way, journey, W. hynt, Br. Kent, 

0. Br. hint : *sento-s ; Got sinfis, journey, way, 0. H. G. 

sind, Eng snid. Hence saodaich, drive cattle to pasture : 

Cf. soad, drive animals slowly (Shet.), N. saeta, waylay, sat, 

saoghal, the world, an age, life, Ir. saoghal, 0. Ir. saigul, saegul ; 

from Lat. saeculum, race, age, from *sai-tlom, allied to W. 

hoedl, life. 
saoi, saoidh, a good, generous man, a warrior, a scholar, Ir. saoi, 

a worthy man, a scholar, pi. saoithe, E. Ir. sdi, sui, a sage, 

g suad : *su-vid-s, root vid of jios (Thurneysen). Stokes 

(Mart. Gorm.) prefers su-vet-, root vat, say (see faith). Rhys 

saoibh, foolish, perverse, Ir. saobh (do.) ; see saobh. 
saoibhir, rich, Ir. widkbhir, E. Ir. saidber, opposed to daidber : 

*su-adber, from *ad.-beri- (Lat. adfero), root bher of beir, 

bring, q.v. 
saoibhneas, peevishness, dulness; from saoibh, saobh. Ir. has 

saobhnds, bad manners ; but G. seems a pure derivative of 

saoidhean, young saith (Lewis) ; cf. N. seicSr. 
saoil, a mark, seal ; see seul. 
saoil, think, deem, Ir. saoilim, E. Ir. sdilim; cf. Got. saiwala, 

Eng. soul, which Kluge suggests may be allied to Lat. 

saeculum, root sai. 
saoitear, oversman, tutor (Suth.) ; see taoitear. 
saor, free, Ir. saor. E. Ir. sder, 0. Ir. sdir, soer : *su-viro-s, " good 

man," free ; from su ( = so-) and viro-s, fear, q.v. 
saor, a carpenter, Ir. saor, W. saer, Cor. sair : *sairo-s, from 

*sapiro-s, root sap, skill, Lat. sapio, sapientia, wisdom, Ag. S. 

sefa, understanding, sense (Stokes, who thinks the Brittonic 

may be borrowed), 
saothair, labour, toil, Ir. saothar, E. Ir. sdethar, 0. Ir. sdithar, g. 

sdithir : *sai-tro-n ; also E. Ir. sdeth, soeth : *sai-tu- ; root 

sai, trouble, pain; Got. sair, Ag. S. sdr, Eng. sore, Ger. sehr, 

*sai-ra- ; Lat. saevus, wild ; Lit. siws, sharp, rough, 
sapair, sapheir, sapphire, Ir. saphir ; from Lat. sapphirus, whence 

Eng. also, 
sar, oppression, saraich, oppress, Ir. sdruighim, 0. Ir. sdraigim, 

violo, contemno, sdr, outrage, contempt, W. sarhaed, con- 

tumelia : *sdro-n, *spdro-n, root sper, kick, spurn ; Lat. 

sperno ; Eng. spurn : Lit. spirti, kick ; Skr. sphur, jerk 

(Stokes). The W. has the a pretonic short ; is it borrowed 

from Ir. (Stokes) % 


sar, excellent, Tr., E. Tr., 0. Tr. sdr-, W. hoer, positive, stubborn, 
assertion, Ogmic Netta-sagru, Sagarettos, Sagramni : *sag?'0-s, 
strong, root seg ; Gr. 6x v P°% strong, fast, exw, have ; Ger. 
sieg, victory ; Skr. sdhas, might. 

sardail, a sprat ; from the Eng. sardel (Bailey), now sardine 

sas, straits, restraint, hold, K. Ir. sds, a trap, fixing ; from sdth, 
transfix, q.v. 

sasaich, satisfy, Ir. sdsaighim, 0. Ir. sdsaim ; from sdth, q.v. 

sath, plenty, satiety, Ir. sdth, sdith, E. Ir. sdith : *sdti- ; Got. soj?, 
satiety, Ger. satt (adj.) ; Lit. sdtis ; Lat. sat, enough, satur, 
full, whence Eng. satisfy, etc. 

sath, thrust, transfix, Ir. sdthalh, a thrust, push, M. Ir. sdthud, 
driving, thrusting, E. Ir. sddim (L. U.), 0. Ir. im-sadaim, 
jacio, W. hodi, shoot ; possibly from so, se, hurl, as in slot : 

sath, saith, bad (Dial, maith na saith, math na satf), M. Ir. sath 
(Lecan Glossary), saith, 0. Ir. saich (cid saim no maith) : 
*saki-s, root svak, svag, weak, Ger. schwach. 

Sathairn, Di-sathairn, Saturday ; see under di-. 

se, sea, sia, six, Ir. se, 0. Ir. se, W. chwech, Cor. wheh, Br. c'houec'h : 
*sveks ; Lat. sex ; Gr. e£ ; Got. saihs, Eng. six ; Skr. shash. 

seabh, stray (M'A.) : see seaohaid. 

seabhach, trim, neat (H.S.D., Dial.) : 

seabhag, a hawk, Ir. seabhac, E. Ir. sebac, 0. Ir. sebocc, W. hehog, 
E. W. hebaue ; from Ag. S. heafoc, now hawk, Ger. habicht, 
Norse haukr, root haf, I. E. qaj>, Lat. capus, hawk, allied to 

seabhaid, an error, wandering, Ir. seabhdid, error, folly, wandering: 
*sibo-, a short form of the root of saobh 1 

seac, wither, Ir. seacaim, E. Ir. seccaim, secc, siccus, W. sychu, to 
dry, sych, dry, Corn, seygh, Br. sec'h, dry ; from Lat. siccus. 
See further under seasg. 

seach, by, past, Ir. seach, 0. Ir. sech, ultra, praeter, W. heb, with- 
out, Corn, heb, Br. hep, without : *seqos ; Lat, secus, otherwise, 
by, sequor, I follow (Eng. prosecute, etc.) ; Gr. eVo/xat, I follow, 
Skr. has sdcd, with, together, Zend haca, out, for. Hence G. 
and Ir. seachad, past, G. and Ir. seachain, avoid. 

seachd, seven, Ir. seachd, 0. Ir. secht n-, W. saith, Corn, seyth, Br. 
seiz : *septn ; Lat. septem ; Gr. €7TTa ; Got., 0. H. G. siban, 
Eng. seven ; Lit. septyni ; Skr. saptd. 

seachduin, a week, Ir. seachdmhain, 0. Ir. sechtman, Corn, seithum, 
Br. sizun ; from Lat. septimana, from septem. 

seachlach, a heifer barren though of age to bear a calf ; cf. 0. Ir. 
sechmall, prseteritio ( = sechm, past, and ell, go, as in tadhal), 
Ir. seachluighim, lay aside. H. S. D. suggests seach-laogh, 
" past calf." seach-la, surviving, still spared (Suth.). 


seachran, wandering, error, Ir. seachrdn, E. Ir. sechrdn : *sech-reth- 

an, from seach and ruith, run ] 
seadh, yes, it is, Ir. 'seadh, for is eadh, it is ; see is and eadh, it. 
seadh, sense ; usual spelling of seagh, q.v. 
Seagal, rye, so Ir., M. Ir. secul ; from Lat. secale, whence also Br. 

seagh, sense, esteem, Ir. seagh, regard, esteem, strength, seaghdha, 

learned (O'Cl.), M. Ir. seg, strength, Gaul, sego- : *sego-, 

strength, pith ; Norse sigr, victory, Ger. sieg ; Skr. sdhas, 

might ; further Gr. exw, have; I. E. segh, hold, 
seal, a while, space, Ir. seal, 0. Ir. set, W. chwyl, versio, turning, 

Br. hoel, "du moins, root svel, turn. Bez. (apud Stokes) 

compares Lettic swalstit, move hither and thither ; to which 

cf. Gr. aaXevoi, 1 toss, 
sealbh, possession, cattle, luck, Ir. sealbh, E. Ir. selb, 0. Ir. selbad, 

W. helw, possession, ownership : *selvd, possession, root sel, 

take, E. Ir. selaim, I take, Gr. eAetV, take ; Got. sa/jan, offer, 

Eng. sell. Windisch has compared Got. silba, Eng. self 

(pronominal root sve). 
sealbhag, sorrel, Ir. sealbhdg ; usually regarded as for searbhag, 

" bitter herb " (cf. Eng. sorrel from sour). The change of r to 

/ is a difficulty, but it may be due to the analogy of mealbhag. 
sealbhan, the throat, throttle : *svel-vo-, Eng. swallow (*svel-ko-) 1 
sealg, a hunt, Ir. sealg, 0. Ir. selg, W. hela, hel, to hunt, 0. W. 

helgkati, venare, Cor. helhia, British Selgovae, now Solway : 

*selgd, a hunt, root sel, capture (see sealbh). 
sealg, milt, spleen, Ir. sealg, M. Ir. selg, Br. felc'h : *selgd, *spelgd ; 
' Gr. o-7rAayx va ? the higher viscera, a-irX-jv, spleen (*splgken) ; 

Lat. lien ; Skr. plihdn, spleen ; Ch. SI. slezena, Lit. bluznis : 

also Eng. lung. 
seall, look, E. Ir. sellaim, sell, eye, W. syllu, to gaze, view, Br. 

sellet ; cf. solus. Stokes gives the Celtic as *stilnad, I see, 

comparing the Gr. cttlXttvos, shining, 
seam, seum, forbid, enjoin : 
seaman (seaman, H.S.D.), a nail, small riveted nail, a small stout 

person, Ir. seaman, small riveted nail, E. Ir. semmen, W., M. 

W. hemin, rivet : *seg-s-men, root seg, segh, hold, as in seagh. 
seamarlan, chamberlain, M. Ir. seomuirlln ; from the Eng. 
seamh, mild, peaceful (seamh, Arms.), Ir, seamh ; see seimh, M'A. 

gives its meaning as an "enchantment to make one's friends 

prosper." See seamhas. 
seamhas, good luck, also seanns, good chance, seamhsail, 

seannsail, lucky ; from Eng. chance. 


seamlach, a cow that gives milk without her calf, an impudent 

or silly person ; Sc. shamloch, a cow that has not calved for 

two years (West Lothian) : 
seamrag, shamrock, seamair (M'A.), Ir. seamrog, M. Ir. semrack 

(adj.), E. Ir. semmor (B.L.) : 
v seamsan, hesitation, quibbling, delay, sham ; from the Eng. sham, 

Northern Eng. sham, a shame, trick? 
Sean, old, Ir. sean, 0. Ir. sen, W., Corn., and 0. Br. hen, Gaul. 

Seno- : *seno-s, old ; Lat. senex, g. senis, old man ; Gr. cVog, 

old ; Got. sinista, oldest, Eng. seneschal ; Lit. senas ; Skr. sdnas. 
seanachas, conversation, story, Ir. seanachas, seanchus, tale, 

history, genealogy, 0. Ir. senchas, vetus historia, lex, 0. W. 

hencass, monimenta. Stokes refers this to * seno-kastu-, "old 

story," from *kastu-, root leans, speak (see cainnt and Stokes' 

derivation of it). Regarded by others as a pure derivative of 

*seno- or its longer stem *seneko- (Lat. senex, Got. sineigo, old, 

Skr. sanakds, old), that is, *senekastu-. Hence seanachaidh, 

a reciter of ancient lore, a historian, Ir. seanchuidh, a form 

which favours the second derivation, 
seanadh, a senate, synod, Ir. seanadh, seanaidh, E. Ir. senod, W. 

senedd, Corn, sened, Br. senez; from the Lat. sy nodus, now 

Eng. synod. 
seanagar, old-fashioned, knowing : cf. Ir. senfha, W. henwr : 
seanair, a grandfather, Ir. seanathair, M. Ir. senathair, literally 

"old father." 
seang, slender, lean, Ir. seang, E. Ir. seng : *svengo-s ; Norse 

svangr, slender, thin, Sc. swank, swack, supple, Ger. schwank, 

supple, allied to Eng. swing. 
seangan, an ant (S. Inverness and Perthshire snioghan), Manx 

miengan, Ir. seangdn, M. Ir. sengdn, E. Ir. segon (Corm.) j cf. 

Gr. o-Kvi\p (t long), gen. o-kvi^o? or o-kvcttos, kvI\J/, root ikene, 

kene, scratch (see cnamK), Lit. skaniis, savoury (kittling), 

Stokes (Bez 18 65) refers it to * stingagno-, Eng. sting, Gr. 

<xti£(d, prick ; K. Meyer derives it from seang, slender, 
seanns, luck ; see seamhas. 
•6ap, slink, sneak off, flinch, Ir. seapaim : " turn tail f see next 

seap, a tail, an animal's tail hanging down (as a dog's when cowed : 
sear, eastern ; see ear. 
searadoir, a towel (Sh. se arbhadair) ; :■■. f rom Sc. serviter, servet, 

napkin, from Fr. servietta, from servir, serve, Lat. servio. 
searbh, bitter, Ir. searbh, 0. Ir. serb, W. chwerw, Corn, wherow, Br. 

c'houero : *svervo-s ; 0. H. G. sweran, dolere, Ger. sauer,' ^Eng. 

sour ; Lit. swariis, salty. 




searbhant, a servant maid : from the Eng. servant. 

searg, wither, Ir. seargaim, 0. Ir. sercim, serg, illness : *sergo- j 

Lit. sergii, I am ill ; O.H.G. swercan, 0. Sax. swercan, become 

searmon, a sermon, Ir. searmdin, M. Ir. sermon ; from Lat. sermo, 

sermonis, Eng. sermon. 
searr, a sickle, saw, E. Ir. serr, 0. W. serr j from Lat. serra. 
searrach, a foal, colt, so Ir., E. Ir. serrach : *serso- ; Gr. epcrai, 

young lambs ? 
searrag, a bottle ; founded on the Eng. jar ? 
sears, charge or load (as a gun) ; from Eng. charge. 
searsanach, a sheriff officer, estate overseer, seirseanach, auxiliary 

(Arm., Sh., O'B.) ; Gaelic is from the Sc. sergean, sergeand, an 

inferior officer in a court of justice, Eng. serjeant, from Fr. 

serjant, Lat. serviens, etc. M. Ir. has sersenach, foot soldier. 

searsaigeadh, charging, citation (Suth.). 
seas, stand, Ir. seasaim, E. Ir. sessim, 0. Ir. tair(sh)hsim, E. Ir. 

inf. sessom, G. seasamh : *sistami, I stand, *sistamo- (n.), 

root sta ; Lat. sisto, stop, sto ; Gr. f<m//uu, set ; Eng. stand ; 

Skr. sthd. The W. sefyll, stare, Cor., Br. sevell, Br. sa/", come 

from *stam (Stokes). 
seasg, barren, dry, Ir. seasg, E. Ir. sesc, W. hysp, Br. hesJc, hesp : 

*sisqo-s, from sit-s-qo-, root ^£, dry ; Lat. siccus ( = sit-cus), 

dry, sifa's, thirst ; Zend hisku, dry. 
seasgair, one in comfortable circumstances, comfortable, Ir.' 

seasgair, cosy, dry and warm, quiet ; from seasg. 
seasgan, a shock or truss of corn, gleaned land : 
seasgann, a fenny country, marsh, Ir. seisgeann, E. Tr. sescenn ; 

from *sesc, sedge, Ir. seisg, sedge, W. hesg (pl.)> Cor. hescen, 

Br. hesk, whence Romance sescha, reed ; cf. Eng. sedge, I. E. 

root seq, cut. Zimmer refers seasgann to seas<7, dry, though 

it denotes wet or marsh land, 
seat, satiety of food (Dial.) : see seid. 
seic, a skin or hide, peritoneum, brain pellicle ; see seich. 
seic, meal-bag made of rushes (Lewis) ; N. sekk, sack, 
seic, a rack, manger ; from Sc. heck, also hack. Seejnext. 
seiceal, a heckle (for flax) ; from Sc. and Eng. heckle. The W. is 

heislan, from Eng. hatchet. 
seich, seiche, a hide, skin, Ir. seithe, E. Ir. seche, g. seched : *seket-; 

Norse sigg, callus, hard skin. The root is I. E. seq, cut, Lat. 

seco, etc. ; cf. for force Gr. Sepfia, skin, from 8ei/>a>, flay, Eng. 

tear, Lat. scortum and corium, from sker, Eng. sAear, etc. 
seid, a belly-full, flatulent swelling, seideach, swollen by tympany, 

corpulent : 


seid, a truss of hay, a bed spread on the floor (especially seideag 

in the latter sense) : *seddi- : 
s6id, blow, Ir. se'idim, E. Ir. se'tim, W. chwyth, a blast, M. Br. 

hue'z, Br. c'houeza, blow, Cor. whythe, to blow : *sveiddo-, 

*sviddo-, from *sveizdho-, *svizdho- ; Ch. Slav, svistati, sibilare ; 

Lat. sibilus, whistling ( = sidhilus), Eng. sibilant. 
seidhir, a chair, from Eng. chair. 
seilcheag, a snail, Ir. seilide, seilchide, seilmide, slimide, 0. Ir. 

selige, testudo ; cf. Gr. crco-iAos (t long), crctnyAos, creo-iAir^s, a 

snail. Stokes gives the root as sel, allied to Lit. saleti, creep, 

sl'ekas, earthworm, 0. Pruss. slayx (do.). Stokes now, Lit. 

seleti, creep, 
seile, placenta (Carm.) : 
seileach, willow, Ir. sailedg, E. Ir. sail, g. sailech, \V. helyg, willows, 

Corn, heligen, salix, Br. halek (pi.) : *saliks ; Lat. salix ; Gr. 

ekiKT] (Arcadian) ; Eng. sallow. 
seileann, sheep-louse, tick : 

seiltfar, a cellar, Ir. seileir, M. W. seler ; from Eng. cellar. 
seilisdeir, yellow iris or yellow water-flag, ir. soileastar, feleastar 

(O'B.), elestrom (O'B.), M. Ir. soilestar, W. elestr, fleur de lys, 

iris, 0. Br. elestr. Cf. L. Lat. alestrare, humectare (Ernault, 

Stokes in R.C.* 329). 
seillea^, a bee, teillean (Perth), tilleag (Suth.), W. chwil, beetle ; 

root svel, turn, as in seal 1 W. telyn, harp 1 
seim, a squint : 

seimh, mild, placid, Ir. seimh (O'R., Fol), seimh (Con.) : 
seinn, sing, Ir. seinnim, M. Ir. sendim, 0. Ir. sennim, play an 

instrument, psallo, perf. sephainn (*sesvanva, Stokes) ; root 

sven, sound, as in Lat. sonare, sonus, Eng. sound, Skr. svdnati, 

seipeal, a chapel, so Ir., M. Ir. sepel ; from M. Eng. and 0. Fr 

chapele, now Eng. chapel. 
seipein, a quart, choppin ; from the Eng. choppin, from Fr. chopine s 

chope, a beer glass, from Ger. schoppen. 
seirbhis, service, Ir. seirbhis ; from the Eng. 
seirc, love, Ir. searc, seirc, 0. Ir. sere, W. strch, Br. serc'h, concubine, 

M. Br. sercli : *serkd, *serko- ; Got. saiirga, care, Ger. sorge, 

sorrow, Eng. sorrow ; Skr. surkshati, respect, reverence, take 

thought about something. The favourite derivation is to ally 

it to Gr. o-Tc/ayw, I love, which would give a G. teirg. 
seircean, burdoch (Carm.) : 
seirean, a shank, leg, spindle-shanked person ; for connections see 

seirm, sound, musical noise, ring as a bell, 0. Ir. sibrase, modu- 

labor ; Celtic root sver, sing, I. E. sver, sound ; Skr. svara, 



sound, music ; Eng, swear, answer, Got. svaran, swear ; Lat. 

sermo, speech, Eng. sermon. The W. chwyrnu, hum, snort, is 

also allied, 
seirsealach, robust (seirsealach, H.S.D.), Ir. seinean, a strong 

person (O'R.) ; cf. searsanach for origin, 
seis, one's match, a friend, sufficiency, Ir. seas, ship's seat, Lewis 

seis, bench, seat ; cf. Norse sessi, bench-mate, oar-mate, from 

sessa, a ship's seat (I. E. root sed, sit), 
seis, anything grateful to the senses, Ir. seis, pleasure, delight : 

*sved-ti-, root sveda, svdd, sweet ; Gr. e8avo<s, sweet, rj8v<s (do.) ; 

Lat. suavis, sweet ; Eng. sweet. 
seis, anus, the seat (Suth.) : 
^_ seisd, a siege ; formed from the Eng. siege. 

seisean, session, assize, Ir. seisvan ; from Lat. sessio, sessionis, a 

sitting, session, 
seisreach, a plough, six-horse plough, the six horses of a plough, 

Ir. seisreach, a plough of six horses, E. Ir. sesrech, plough 

team ; from seiseir, six persons, a derivative of se, six. 
S6"ist, the melody of a song, a ditty, M. Ir. se'is, a musical strain : 

*sven-s-ti-, root sven, seinn. 
sedc, seocan, a helmet plume, a helmet ; cf. Eng. shock. 
seochlan, a feeble person ; from the Sc. shochlin, waddling, infirm, 

shachlin, verb shackle, shuffle in walking, allied to Eng. 

shackle, shake. 
sedd, siad, a hero, a jewel, Ir. sebd, a jewel ; see send, jewel. 
v se6g, swing to and fro, dandle ; from Sc. shog, M. Eng. shoggin, 

M. Du. shocken. 
sedl, method, way, Ir. sedl, a method of doing a thing, sedlaim, I 

direct, steer ; E. Ir. sebl, course ; W. hwyl, course, condition. 

From sebl, sail, 
seol, a sail, Ir. seol, 0. Ir. seol, sebl, seol, g. siuil, W. hwyl, 0. W. 

huil : usually referred to *seghlo- (root of seagh) or to 
c Teutonic seglo-, sail (also from *seghlo-), borrowed into Celtic. 

In either case we should expect Ir. *sel, W. *hail, but we 

have neither. Strachan suggests that sedl is formed from 

gen. siuil on the analogy of cebl, etc. ; while W. hwyl may 

have been effected by a borrow from Lat. velum (Cor. guil, 

Br. goel). 
sedmar, a chamber, Ir. sedmra, M. Ir. seomra \ from M. Eng. and 

Fr. chambre, Lat. camera. 
seorsa, a sort, kind, Ir. s6rt ; from the Eng. 
seot, a short tail or stump, the worst beast, a sprout ; from Sc. 

shot, rejected sheep ("shot" from shoot), shoot, stern of a 

boat, from the root of Eng. shoot. Cf. Norse skott, fox's tail, 

skotta, dangle. 


seotal, shuttle of trunk (M'D.) : 

seth in gu seth, severally, neither (after negative) ; cf. Lat. 

se-cum ; "by one-self." 
seuchd, a tunic or leine (Oss. Ballad of lonmhuin) : 
seud, a jewel, treasure, hero, Ir. send, 0. Ir. sit, pi. s4uti, pretiosa, 

Med. Ir., Lat. sentis ; from *sent-, real, " being," I. E. sents, 

being, participle from root es, be ; Lat. -sens, prae.sews, etc. ; 

Gr. ets. 
seul, seula, saoil, a seal, Ir. seula, M. Ir. sela, W. set, 0. Br. siel ; 

from Lat. sigillum, M. Eng. and Fr. seel, Ag. S. sigle. 
seum, earnest entreaty ; see seam. 
seun, a charm, defend by charms, Ir. seun, good luck, E. Ir. sen, 

blessing, sign, luck, 0. Ir. sen, benedic, W. swyn, a charm, 

magic preservative ; from Lat. signum, a sign, " sign of the 

seun, refuse, shun, Ir. seunaim, seanaim, M. Ir. senaim ; probably 

from the above, 
seunan, sianan in breac-sheunain, freckles : 
seusar, acme or perfection (M'A. for Islay) ; from seizure, crisis 1 
sgab, scab, sgabach, scabbed ; from the Eng. 
sgabag, cow killed for winter provision (M'F.) : 
Sgabaiste, anything pounded or bashed (H.S.D.), Ir. sgabaiste, 

robbery : 
Sgaball, a hood, helmet, M. G. sgaball, a hood or cape (M'V.) ; Ir. 

scabal, a hood, shoulder guard, helmet, a scapular ; from Lat. 

scapulae, shoulder-blades, whence Eng. scapular. 
sgabard, scabbard ; from the Eng. 

sgabh, sawdust, Ir. sgabh (Lh.) ; Lat. scobis, sawdust, powder. 
Sg"ad, a loss, mischance ; from the Sc. skaith, Eng. scathe, scath 

(Shakespeare), Norse ska&i, scathe, Ger. schaden, hurt, 
sgadan, a herring, Ir. sgaddn, E. Ir. scatan (Corm.), W. ysgadan 

(pi.) ; cf. Eng. shad, "king of herrings," Ag. S. sceadda, Prov. 

Ger. schade. 
sgadartach, a set of ragamuffins (H.S.D.), anything scattered 

(M'A.) ; from Eng. scatter. 
Sgafair, a bold, hearty man (H.S.D., Arm., O'B.), a handsome man 

(H.S.D.), a scolding man (M'A.), Ir. sgafaire, a bold, hearty 

man, spruce fellow, a gaffer ; from the Eng. gaffer % 
Sgag", split, crack, winnow, filter, Ir. sgagaim, filter, purge j cf., for 

root, gag. 
Sgaipean, a ninny, dwarf : 
Sgail, a shade, shadow, Ir. sgdile, scdil, M. Ir. scdil, 0. Br. esceilenn, 

cortina, curtain : *skdli-, root skd of sgath, q.v. 
Sgailc, a smart blow, a slap, skelp, Ir. sgailledg ; root skal, make 

a noise by hitting j Norse skella, slap, clatter (skjalla), Ger. 


schallen, resound ; Lit. skaliu, give tongue (as a hunting dog). 

Cf. Sc. and M. Eng. skelp. Also sgailleag. 
Sgailc, a bald pate, baldness, Sgall, baldness, Ir. sgallta, bald, 

bare, scallach, bald : from Norse skalli, a bald head, Swed. 

skallig, bald, skala, peel, skal, husk, Eng. scale. The G. 

sgailc is possibly from M. Eng. scale, scalp ; but Sgall is 

clearly Norse. 
Sgain, burst, rend, Ir. sgdinim : *skad-no-, root skhad, sked, skha, 

split, rend, cat ; Gr. o-KtSdwvfxi, scatter ; Skr. skhddate, split, 
Sgainneal, a scandal, Ir. scannail, M. Ir. scandal ; from the Lat. 

Sgainnir, scatter, sganradh (n), Ir. scanruighim, scatter, scare ; 

cf. Eng. squander, allied to scatter. , 
Sgainnteach, a corroding pain, pain of fatigue ; from sgdin. 
Sgaird, flux, diarrhoea, ir. sgdrdaim, I squirt, pour out: *skardo- ; 

I. E. skerdo- ; Lat. sucerda, swine-dung, muscerda, mouse-dung 

= mus-scerda- ; Skr. chard, vomit ; Ch. SI. skar§du, nauseating ; 

Eng. sham. Another form is *skart, W. ysgarth, excrement, 

Br. skoarz, skarz, void, cleanse, Gr. ctk£>p, g. o-kcitos, Skr. cdkrt, 

Sgaireach, prodigal (Sh., etc.) ; from the root skar of sgar. 
sgaireag, one year old gull, young scart; from Norse skdri, a 

young sea-mew. 
Sgairil, howling of dogs, loud murmur ; see sgairt. 
Sgairneach, a continuous heap of loose stones on a hill side, the 

sound of such stones falling (sgairm, M'A.) ; cf. Sc. scarnoch, 

crowd, tumult, noise (Ayr). See sgairn. Badenoch Dial. 

Sgairt, a loud cry, Ir. sgairt : *s-gar-ti-, root gar % 
Sgairt, activity, Ir. sgairteamhuil, active : root skar, skip, spring ; 

Gr. o-Kaipui, skip, o-Kapos, a leap, run ; Zend $har, spring. 
Sgairt, midriff, intestine caul, Ir. scairt : " separater," from skar of 

sgar 1 
Sgait, a skate ; from the Eng. skate, Norse skata. 
Sgaiteach, sharp, edged, cutting, Sgait, a prickle, a little chip of 

wood in one's flesh (Dial.) ; from sgath, lop. 
Sgal, howl, shriek, yell, Ir. sgal, M. Ir. seal, root skal, sound, cry ; 

Norse skjalla, clash, clatter, skvala, squall, squeal, Ger. 

schallen ; Lit. skaliu, give tongue (as a dog) ; Gr. a-Kvka^, 

whelp : I. E. root sqel, make a sound, allied to sqel, split, hit 1 

Cf. W. chwalu, prate, babble, spread, root sqvel, sqval. 
Sgalag, a servant, Ir. sgoldg (fern.), husbandman, rustic, M. Ir. 

scoldc (=gille), E. Ir. scoloca ; from Norse skdlkr, servant, 

slave, Got. skalks, servant, Ger. schalk, knave, Eng. marshal, 


seneschal. It could hardly be from Lat. sckolasticus, as Skene 

(Celt. Scot. 1 448) thinks. 
Sgalain, scales for weighing, Ir. scdla, a balance, scali (B. of Dr.) ; 

from the early Eng. scale, Ag. S. scale, Norse skdl, a balance. 
Sgalan, hut, scaffold, Ir., M. Ir. scdldn ; from the Norse skdli, a 

hut, shed. Stokes (Bez. Beit. 18 65) refers it to a stem *scdnlo-, 

cognate with Gr. a-Krjvr] (Dor. a-Kdvd), a tent, roof, skhd, 

cover, shade. 
Sgald, burn, scald, Ir. sgall, scald, singe ; from the Eng. scald. 
sgall, baldness, Ir. sgallta, bald, bare ; see under sgailc. 
Sgalla, an old hat (M'A.) : 

sgalla, a large wooden dish cut out of a tree (M'A.) : 
sgallais, insult, contempt ; from the Norse skoll, mockery, loud 

laughter, skjal, empty talk, skjall, flattering (H.S.D. gives 

" flattery" as a meaning) : allied to sgal, q.v. 
Sgamal, a scale, squama, Ir. sgamal ; from Lat. squdmula, squama. 

In G. and Ir. Bibles, Acts 8 18, " Scales fell from his eyes" — 

Sgamal, effluvia, phlegm, Ir. sgamal : same as above. 
Sgamh, dross, dust ; see sgabh. 
Sgamhan, the lungs, liver, Ir. sgamhdn, lungs, M. Ir. seaman, W. 

ysgyfaint, lights, Cor. skefans, Br. skevent ; from Ir. seaman, 

levis, W. ysgafn, light, Cor. scaff, Br. skanv, light (cf. for 

force Eng. lights, Russ. legkoe, lungs, from legkii, light) : 

*skamrio- ; cf. Norse skammr, short, 0.*H. G. scam, short, 
sgann, a multitude, drove : 
Sgann, a membrane, Ir. sgann ; cf. Norse skdn, a thin membrane, 

film, skaeni, film, membrane ; *skad-no 1 
Sganradh, dispersing, terror ; see sgainnir. 
Sgaog, a foolish, giddy girl ; cf. Sc. skeich, skeigh,. _ skittish, Eng. 

sgaoil, spread, scatter, let go, Ir. sgaoilim, M. Ir., E. Ir. scdilim ; 

cf. W. chwalu, disperse, strew, root sqval, sqvol, allied to root 

sqel, split (as in sgoilt, q.v.). Rhys says W. is borrowed. 
Sgaoim, a fright, a start from fear, skittishness : for sgeum 1 If 

so, for sceng-men, E. Ir. scingim, I start ; Gr. o-Ka£w, I limp, 

o-Kinfia^u), limp; Ger. hinken (do.)'; Skr. khanj (do.). See sgeun. 
Sgaoth, a swarm (as of bees), Ir. scaoth, scaoith : *skoiti-, from 

skhnt, separate ; Ger. scheiden, Eng. shed ; further Lat. scindo 

(from root skheid, split), split. 
Sgap, scatter, Ir. scapaim : *skad-bo- (from skhad, divide, Gr. 

a-K&avwjii, scatter), developing into skabb, which, as skabb-th, 

becomes sgap 1 , But consider Eng. scape, escape. 
Sgar, sever, separate, Ir. sgaraim, 0. Ir. scaraim, W. ysgar, separ_ 

ate, 0. Br. scar at, di udicari : *skarao, root sker, eparat 


sunder ; Lit. skiriu, separate ; 0. H. G. seer an, Ger. scheren, 
shear, cut, Eng. shear ; further Gr. Ktipa), cut, etc. 

Sgarbh, cormorant; from the Norse skarfr, N. Sc. scarf (Shet., etc.). 

Sgarlaid, scarlet, Ir. sgdrlbid, M. Ir. scarloit ; from M. Eng. 
scarlat, scarlet, Med. Lat. scarlatum. Stokes and K. Meyer 
take it direct from Lat. 

Sgat, a skate (Dial.) ; see sgait. 

Sgath, lop off, Ir. sgathaim, E. Ir. scothaim ; I.E., root skath, cut ; 
Gr. do-Krjdrjs, unscathed, o"x«£w, cut ; Eng. scathe, Ger. schaden, 
hurt ; Skr. chd, lop. The root appears variously as skhe, ska, 
skhei, skhe (Gr. o-/ceSavi/v/u). It is possible to refer sgath to 
the root seq, cut, Lat. seco, Eng. section. See sgian. 

sgath, a shade, shadow, Ir. sgath, sedth, 0. Ir. sedth, W. ysgod, 
Cor. scod, umbra, Br. skeud : *skdto-s ; Gr. ctkotos, darkness ; 
Eng. shade, Got. skadus, shade, shadow, Ger. schatten ; Skr. 
chdya, shadow. 

Sgath (Sh., Arm., sgath, H.S.D.), a wattled door : 

Sgeach, sgitheag, hawthorn berry, Ir. sgeach, sweet-briar, haw, 
E. Ir. see, g. sciach, also g. pi. sciad, W. ysbyddad, hawthorn, 
Cor. spedhes, Br. spezad, fruit, currant : *skvijat- : 

Sgeadaich, dress, adorn, Ir. sgeaduighim, adorn, mark with a white 
spot, sgead, speck, white spot, sgeadach, speckled, sky- 
coloured ; also gead, spot : 

Sgealb, a splinter, Ir. sgealpdg, splinter, fragment, sgealpaim, 
smash, split, make splinters of; see sgolb. Cf. Sc. skelb, 
skelf, a splinter, skelve (vb.). 

Sgeallag, wild mustard, Ir. sgeallagach, M. Ir. scell, a grain, 
kernel ; root sqel, separate, Eng. shell, etc. Stokes equates 
Ir. scelldn, kernel, with Lat. scilla, squill, sea-onion, Gr. 

Sgealp, a slap ; from Sc. skelp, M. Eng. skelp. 

Sgeamh, yelp, Ir. sceamh, E. Ir. seem, scemdacht; cf. next word. 
Also G. sgiamh, sgiamhail, to which Ernault compares 
M. Br. hueual, cry like a fox. 

Sgeamh, severe or cutting language, Ir. sgeamhaim, I scold, 
reproach : *skemo- ; Norse skamma, to shame, to scold, Eng. 
shame, sham 1 The word Sgeamh also means " a disgust " in 
Gaelic ; also, according to M'A., "a speck on the eye," 
" membrane." Also Ir. (and G. V) sgeamh, polypody. 

Sgean, cleanliness, polish ; cf. for origin Norse skina, Eng. shine. 

Sgean, sudden fright or start, a wild look of the face ; see sgeun. 

Sgeanag, a kind of sea weed, so called from resembling a knife 
blade (Arg.). 

Sgeann, a stare, gazing upon a thing : 


Sgeap, a beehive ; from the Sc. skep, M. Eng. sheppe, a skep, 

carrying basket, Norse skeppa, a measure. 
Sgeig, mockery, Ir. sgige, M. Ir. scige : *sheggio- : 
Sgeigeach, having a prominent chin or a beard of strong, straight 

hair (Sutherland) ; from Norse skegg, a beard, from skaga, 

jut out, Eng. shaggy. 
Sgeilcearra, supple, active j cf. sgiolcarra. 
Sgelle, misery, pity, Ir. sceile (O'Cl., Lh. as obsolete, O'B.), sceile 

sgeileid, a skillet, Ir. sgilead ; from the Eng. 
Sgeileas, a beak, thin face, talkativeness (H.S.D.) ; see sgeilm. 
Sgeilm, boasting, prattling (H.S.D. , Arms.), a thin-lipped mouth, 

a prater's mouth (M'A.) ; also sgiolam, sgeinm. Root skel, 

as in sgal. 
Sgeilm, sgeinm, neatness, decency ; cf. sgean. 
Sgeilmse, a surprise, sudden attack : 
Sgeilp, a shelf ; from Sc. shelf, Ag. S. scylfe, now shelf. 
Sgeimh, beauty, Ir. sgeimh ; see sgiamh. 
Sgeimhle, a skirmish, bickering, Ir. sgeimhle : 
Sgelnnidh, twine, flax or hemp thread ; cf. Ir. sgainne, a skein or 

clue of thread. The Sc. shiny, pack thread (pronounced 

sheenyie) is apparently from G. ; Eng. shein is from M. Eng. 

sheine, 0. Fr. escaigne. Skeat derives the Eng. from Gaelic. 

The G. alone might be referred to *shein, from sghein, sghoin, 

rope, string, Lit. geinis, string, Lat. funis, Gr. trxotvos. 
Sgeir, a rock in the sea, skerry ; from Norse sher, a rock in the 

sea, whence Eng. sherry, scaur : " cut off," from root of Eng. 

shear, G. sgar. 
Sgeith, vomit, Ir. sceithim, E. Ir. sc6im, sceithim, W. chwydu, Br. 

c'houeda : *sqveti- ; cf. Gr. (martyr], thin excrement as in 

diarrhoea (Bez.). sgeithfeith, varicose vein. 
Sged, g. sgiach, haze, dimness (Heb.) : see ceo. 
Sgeoc, a long neck ; cf. geoc. 
Sgeop, a torrent of foolish words, also Sgeog : 
Sgeul, Sgial, a tale, Ir. sgeul, 0. Ir. seel, W. chwedl, Cor. whethl, 

Br. quehezl (que-hezl, que = ho-) : *sqetlo-n (sqedlo-n, Rhys), 

root seq, say : Lat. inseque, die, inquam ( = in-squam 1), say I ; 

Gr. €vv€7ro), I tell, evL-o-ire, dixit ; Ger. sagen, Eng, say ; Lit. 

sahyti, say. 
Sgeun, dread, disgust, look of fear, Ir. sgian, fright, wild look, 

M. Ir. seen, affright : *sheng-no-, from sheng, start, spring, 

E. Ir. scingim, start, spring (for root see sgaoim). Strachan 

refers it to *shahno-, root shah, spring, Lit. szohti, spring, Ch. 

SI, shahati, Norse shaga, jut^out. 



Sgiab, a snatch, sudden movement, Ir. sgiob ; see sgiobag. 
Sgiamh, beauty, Ir. sgiamh, 0. Ir. sciam : *skeimd ; cf. Got. 

skeima, a light, Ag. S. scima, Norse skimi, a gleam of light, 

further Eng. shine, shimmer. 
Sgiamh, a squeal, yell, mew ; see sgeamh. 
Sgian, a knife, Ir. sgian, E. Ir. scian, W. ysgien, slicer, scimitar, 

ysgi, cutting off, Br. skeja, cut : *skeend, vb. skeo, cut ; Skr. 

chd, cut off, Gr. a-\d^(i), cut, o-x«w ; I. E. root skhe, skha, 

split, cut. Lindsay refers Gadelic to *scend, allied to Lat. 

scena, a priest's knife, whose side-form is sacena, from seco, 

cut, Eng. section, saw. Others have compared Lat. scio, know, 

Gr. Keen), cut. 
Sgiath, a shield, Ir. sgiath, 0. Ir. sciath, W. ysgwyd, 0. W. scuit, 

0. Br. scoit, Br. skoued : *skeito- ; Ch. SI. stitu, shield ; 

0. Pruss. scaytan, Norse skib", firewood, billet of wood, tablet 

(Schrader) ; to which Bez. queries if Lat. scutum (*skoito- ?) 

be allied. 
Sgiath, a wing, Ir. sgiathdn, sgiath, E. Ir. sciath {sciath n-ete, 

shoulder of the wing), 0. Ir. sciath, ala, pinna, W. ysgwydd, 

shoulder, Cor. scuid, scapula, Br. skoaz : *skeito-, *skeidd, 

shoulder-blade J I. E. root sqid, Lat. scindo ; Gr. crx^w, split ; 

Skr. chid, cut ; further Ger. scheiden, divide (I. E. shheit), 

which agrees with the Gadelic form. 
Sgibeach, sgibidh, neat ; see sgiobalta. 
Sgid, a little excrement (M'A.) ; from the Eng. 
sgideil, a plash of water ; see sgiodar. 
Sgil, skill ; from the Eng. 
Sgil, unhusk, shell, Ir. sgiollaim, sgilc, shellings of corn, sgilice, the 

operation of the mill in shelling corn : *skeli-, I. E. sqel, 

separate ; Norse skilja, separate, Eng. skill, shell, etc. See 

scoilt. Cf. Sc. shillin, shelled or unhusked grain. 
Sgilbheag, a chip of slate (Arg.) ; from Sc. skelve, a thin slice, 

Eng. shelf. 
Sgilig, shelled grain (Dial.), from Norse, whence Sc. shillin, which 

see under sgil. Ir. sgilige, sgileadh, sgiolladh, shelling grain. 
Sgillinn, a penny, Ir. sgillin, shilling, M. Ir. scilling, scillic, from 

Ag. S. scilling, Norse skillingr, Ger. schilling. 
Sgilm, a mouth expressive of scolding aptitude (M'A.) ; see 

Sgimilear, a vagrant parasite, intruder ; from Sc. skemmel. Cf. 

Sginn, squeeze out, gush out, Ir. scinn, gush, start, E. Ir. scendim, 

spring ; Skr. skand, leap ; Lat. scando ; Gr. a-KavSaXov, Eng. 

scandal. Arm. has Sginiohd, squeezing ; Badenoch Dial, has 


Sging, a squeeze, hardship. There is an E. Ir. scingim, I 

spring, from skeng, discussed under sgaoim. 
Sgioba, ship's crew ; from the Norse skip, a ship. 
Sgiobag, a slap given in play, a hasty touch or snatch, sgiob, 

Sgiab, snatch, Ir. sgiobaim, I snatch, W. ysgip, ysgipiol ; cf. 

Manx skibbag, skip, hop, from Eng. skip. 
Sgiobair, a skipper ; from the Sc. skippare, Eng. skipper, Norse 

skipari, a mariner, 
sgiobal, sgiobal (Suth.), a barn, Ir. sgiobdl : 
Sgioball, loose folds or skirts of a garment : 
Sgiobalta, clever, neat, Manx skibbylt, active, a skipping, Ir. 

sgiobalta, active, spruce ; also G. sgioblaich, adjust the 

dress, etc., tidy up. Cf. Norse skipulag, order, arrangement, 

skipa, put in order, Eng. skip shape. The Gadelic is borrowed. 
Sgiodar, a plashing through bog and mire, diarrhoea ; from Sc. 

scutter, skitter. 
Sgiogair, a jackanapes, Ir. sgigire, a buffoon, mocker ; see sgeig. 
sgiolam, forward talk, also sgeilm ; also giolam. See sgeilm. 

sgiol (Lewis), empty talk ; N. skjal. 
Sgiolc, slip in or out unperceived ; cf . Eng. skulk. 
sgiolbhagan, fibs (Wh.) : 
Sgiomalair, an instrument to take the suet off a pot (M'A.) ; 

from Eng. skim ? 
Sgionabhagail, " smithereens" (Arg.) ; from sgian ? 
Sgionnadh, starting, eyes starting with fear ; see sginn. 
/ Sgionn-shuil, a squint eye ; from Eng. squint, with a leaning on 

G. sgionn, sginn, start, protrude. 
Sgiord, squirt, purge, Ir. sgiordadh (n.), sgiurdaim (O'R) ; either 

cognate with or borrowed from Eng. squirt (Stokes' Lis.). 
Sgiorr, slip, stumble, Ir. sciorraim : 
*. Sgiort, a skirt, edge of a garment, Ir. sgiorta ; from Eng. skirt. 

O'Cl. has Ir. sguird for tunic or shirt. 
Sgiot, scatter; from Norse skjota, shoot, skyti, shooter. M'A. 

says the word belongs to the North Highlands ; Arm. does 

not have it. Ir. has sgiot, a dart, arrow : " something shot." 
Sglre, a parish ; from Ag. S. scir, county, now shire, O.H.G. scira, 

Sgirteail, a disease in cattle — black spauld or quarter-ill (H.S.D.) : 

" stumbling disease," from sgiorr adh 1 
Sgith, tired, Ir. sgith, weariness, 0. Ir. scith, Corn, sqwyth, skith, 

Br. skouiz, skuiz : *skito-, *skitto- (Brittonic *skvitto-, accord- 
ing to Stokes) ; root skhei beside khsei, decay, destroy, Gr. 

<pOiio, decay, $di<Tis, phthisis, Skr. kshi, destroy, kshitds, 

exhausted (Strachan, Bez. Beit. 11 300). 


Sgi thiol, a shealing hut (Carmichael) ; from Norse skyli, a shed, 

skjol, a shelter, Dan. and Swed. skjul, shed, Eng. sheal. 
sgiucan, sgiuchan, the cackling or plaint of a moorhen : 
sgiugan, a whimper ; cf. the above word. 

sgiunach, a charm for getting all the fish about a boat or head- 
land into one's own boat amidst the amazement of the 
neighbours (M'A.) : 
Sgiunach, a bold, shameless woman (H.S.D.) : 
Sgiurdan, a squirt ; from the Eng. 
Sgiurs, scourge, Ir. sgiursaim, W. ysgors ; from M. Eng. scourge, 

Lat. excoriare. 
sgiuthadh, a lash, stroke with a whip (H.S.D. says Dial. ; M'A. 

says North) : 
Sglabhart, a blow on the side of the head ; from Sc. sclaffert (do.), 
sclaff a blow, Prov. Fr. esclaffa, to beat (Ducange), Med. Lat. 
Sglaib, ostentation (Hend.) : 
Sglaim, questionably acquired wealth, sglaimire, usurper (M'A.) ; 

see glam. 
Sglamhadh, a seizing greedily upon anything, Ir. sclamhaim, I 

seize greedily, scold ; also G. sglamadh (M'E.) ; see glam. 
sglamhruinn, a scolding, abusive words ; cf. Sc. sclourie, vilify, 
abuse, bedaub. Ir. sglamhadh means also " scold," and G. 
sglamhadh, scold of a sudden (M'A.). Sc. has sklave, to 
Sglamhradh, clawing one's skin for itch (M'A.) ; see clamhradh. 
sgleamhas, meanness, sordidness, sgleamhraidh, a stupid or mean 

gleamaic, plaster (vb.), daub filthily (M'A.), sgleamaid, snotters 

(M'A.) : 
Sgl&ap, ostentation, Ir. sgleip ; M'A. gives the force of " to flatter, 

stare open-mouthed at one." 
Sgleo, dimness of the eyes, vapour : 

Sgled, boasting, romancing, Ir. scleo, boasting, high language : 
Sgleo, misery, Ir. scleo (O'Cl.) : 
sgleobach, sluttish : 
Sgleobht, a chunk (M'D.) : 
Sgleog, a snot, phlegm, a knock : 
sgleogair, a troublesome prattler, liar : 
Sgle6id, a silly person, slattern, Ir. scleoid ; also gledid : 
sgliamach, slippery-faced (M'L.) : 
Sgliat, slate, Ir. scldta ; from M. Eng. sclat, now slate. 
sglimeach, troublesome, as an unwelcome guest : 
sgliobhag, a slap (Dial.) ; cf. Sc. sclaff, sclaffert. 


sgliurach (sgliurach, H.S.D.), a slut, gossip, Ir. sgliurach. The 
G. also means " young of the sea-gull till one year old," when 
they become sgaireag. 
sglongaid, a snot, spit ; see glong. 

Sgob, snatch, bite, sting, Ir. sgoballach, a morsel, piece ; also G. 
Sgobag, a small wound, a small dram. Seemingly formed 
from gob, a bill, mouth (cf. 0. Fr. gobet, morsel, gober, 
devour, Eng. gobble). 

Sgoch, gash, make an incision ; for scotk ; see sgath. 

Sgdd, the corner of a sheet, the sheet of a sail, a sheet-rope, M. Ir. 
scoti, sheets ; from Norse skaut, the sheet or corner of square 
cloth, the sheet rope, a hood, Got. skauts, hem, Eng. sheet. 

Sgog, a fool, idler, sgogach, foolish, Ir. sgogaire (O'R. ), W. ysgogyn, 
fop, flatterer : 

Sgoid, pride, conceit, Ir. sgoid ; G. sgoideas, pageantry, ostenta- 
tion : 

Sgoid, drift-wood (Lewis) ; N. skib"a. 

Sgoil, school, Ir. sgoil, E. Ir. scol, W. ysgol, Br. skol ; from Lat. 
schola, whence Eng. school. 

Sgoileam, loquacity ; see sgiolam. 

Sgoilt, split, Sgoltadh, splitting, Ir., M. Ir. scoiltim, inf. scoliad, 
0. Ir. diuscoilt, scinde (St. Gal. Incant.), Cor. felja, Br. 
faoutOj split : *sqolto, split, root sqvel ; Lit. skelto, split, 
skillu, split; Norse skiljan, separate, Ger. schale, shell, Eng. 
shale, skill ; Gr. o-/caAAw, hoe, o-k^AAw, tear. 

Sgoim, wandering about, skittishness (Hend.) ; cf. sgaoim. 

sgoinn, care, efficacy, neatness : 

Sgoirm, throat, lower parts of a hill (M'P. Ossian) ; for latter 
force, see under sgairneach. 

Sgoitich, a quack, mountebank : 

Sgol, rinse, wash ; from Norse skola, wash, Swed. skolja, rinse, 
wash, Dan. skylle. 

sgolb, a splinter, Ir. sgolb, M. Ir. scolb, a wattle, W. ysgolp, 
splinter, Br. skolp : *skolb-, root skel, skol, split (see sgoilt), 
fuller root skel-g ; Gr. koXo/36<s, stunted, o-Kokoxp (o-koXottos), 
stake ; Swed. skalks, a piece, also Got. halks, halt, Eng. shelf, 
spelk (Perrson ZeitP 290 for Gr. and Teut.). 

sgonn, a block of wood, blockhead ; sgonn-balaich, lump of a 
boy : *skotsno-, "section " ; from the root of sgath. 

Sgonsair, an avaricious rascal (M'D.) : 

Sgop, foam, froth (M'D.) : 

Sgor, a mark, notch, Ir. sgdr ; from Eng. score, Norse skor, mark, 
notch, tally (G. is possibly direct from Norse). 


< Sgor, Sgdrr, a sharp rock ; from Sc. scaur, Eng. scar, cliff, of 

Scandinavian origin, Norse sker, skerry; 0. H. G. scorra, 

rock ; further Eng. shore, Ag. S. score. See sgeir further. 
Sgdrnan, a throat, Ir. scorndn : 
Sgot, a spot, blemish, small farm ; cf. Sc. shot, a spot or plot of 

Sgoth, a boat, skiff, a Norway skiff; from Scandinavian — Dan. 

shude, Norse skuta, a cutter, small craft, 
f Sgoth, a flower, Ir. sgoth ; Lat. scateo, gush (St. ZeitP). 
Sgrabach, rough, ragged, Ir. sgrabach, sgrabach (Lh.) ; from Eng. 

scrap, scrappy, Norse skrap, scraps. 
Sgrabaire, the Greenland dove ; hence Sc. scraber. 
sgragall, gold-foil, spangle (Sh., Lh., etc.; not M'A. or M'E.), Ir. 

sgragall : 
Sgraideag, small morsel, diminutive woman, Ir. sgraidedg. M'A. 

gives sgraid, a hag, old cow or mare, and H.S.D. sgraidht 

(do). Cf. Sc. scradyn, a puny, sickly child, scrat, a puny 

person, Norse skratti, wizard, goblin, 
sgraig, hit one a blow : 
sgraill (sgraill, H.S.D.), rail at, abuse : 
Sgraing, a scowling look, niggardliness ; I. E. sqrengo-, shrink ; 

Eng. shrink ; Gr. Kpdfi/3os, blight, 
sgraist, a sluggard, Ir. scraiste (Lh., etc.) : 
sgrait, a shred, rag : 
Sgral, a host, a large number of minute things (Heb.) ; cf. 

Sgrath, outer skin or rind, turf (for roofing, etc.), Ir. sgraith, 

green sward, sod, sgraithim, I pare off the surface, W. ysgraf, 

what pares off, ysgrawen, hard crust ; cf. Norse skrd, dry 

skin, scroll (*skrava), Sc. sera, a divot (Dumfries). 
Sgrathail, destructive, Ir. sgraiteamhull (O'R.) : 
Sgreab, a scab, blotch, crust, Ir. sgreabdg, a crust ; from Eng. 

scrape ? 
Sgread, a screech, cry, Ir. sgread, M. Ir. scret : *skriddo-, W. ysgri, 

root skri, skrei ; 0. H. G. scrlan, cry, Ger. schrei, Eng. scream, 

screech ; Lat. serf 6 ( = sere jo), a hawk. 
Sgreag, dry, parch ; from the Scandinavian —Norwegian skrekka, 

shrink, parch, Swed. skraka, a great dry tree, Eng. shrink^ 

scraggy (from Scandinavian). 
Sgreamh, abhorence, disgust, Ir. screamh : *skrimo-, root skri, 

skrei ; Norse skr&ma, scare away, Swed. skrdma, Dan. 

Sgreamh, thin scum or rind, ugly skin (M'A.) ; root skr of sgar. 
Sgreang, a wrinkle : *skretigo-, I. E. sqreng, shrink ; Eng. shrink 

(Dr Cameron). See sgraing. 


Sgreataidh, disgusting, horrible : *skritto-, root skri of sgreamh, 

q.v. Cf. N. skrati, a monster, " Old Scratch." 
sgreubh, dry up, crack by drought, sgreath (M'A., who has 

Sgreoth, parch as cloth); cf. Eng. shrivel, from a Scandinavian 

source — base skriv-, 0. Northumbrian screpa, pine, Norwegian 

skrypa, waste ; or Sc. seme, dry, withered person, old withered 

shoe, Norwegian skrae. 
Sgreuch, sgriach, a scream, screech, Ir. sgreach, E. Ir. screch : 

*skreik&, root skrei, as in sgread, q.v. Eng. screech, shriek are 

from the same root (not stem). W. ysqrech seems borrowed 

from the Eng. 
Sgreunach, shivering (Arran), boisterous (of weather, Arg.) : 

*sqreng-no- ; see sgraing. 
Sgriach, a score, scratch (Dial.) ; cf. strioch. 
Sgribhinn, rocky side of a hill or shore (Arm., M'A.); for sgridhinn, 

from the Norse skri&a, pi. skriftna, a landslip on a hill-side. 

See sgriodan. 
^grid, breath, last breath of life : *skriddi-, root skri of sgread. 
Sgriob, a scratch, furrow, line, Ir. scriob, E. Ir. scrib, mark, scripad, 

scratching ; from Lat. scribo, write, draw lines, whence also 

Norse skrifa, scratch, write, W. ysgrif, a notch. 
Sgriobh, write, Ir. sgriobhaim, 0. Ir. scribaim, W. ysgrifo, Br. 

skriva, skrifa ; from Lat. scribo, write. 
Sgriodan, a stony ravine on a mountain side, track of a mountain 

torrent, a continuous run of stones on a mountain side ; from 

Norse skrifta, pi. skritSna, a landslip on a hill-side, skrifta, to 

glide, Ger. schreiten, stride ; Pro v. English screes, sliding 

stones, Sc. scriddan (from the Gaelic). 
Sgrios, destroy, Ir. scriosaim, M. Ir. scrisaim : *skrissi- for 

*skr-sti-, root skar of sgar, q.v. 
sgriotachan, a squalling infant ; from scread. 
Sgrioth, gravel (Islay), sgriothail, a lot of small items (Badenoch) 

(do.) as of children (Wh.) : *skritu-, root sker ; cf. Eng. short, 

I. E. skrdh, little, short. 
Sgr6b, scratch, Ir. scrobaim : *skrobbo-, from skrob, scratch ; Lat. 

scrobis, a ditch, scrofa, a pig ("scratcher up"); Eng. scrape; 

Lettic skrabt, scrape, Ch. SI. skreb, scrape. 
Sgr6ban, a bird's crop, Ir. scrobdn ; cf. Eng. crop, Ger. kropf. 
Sgrobha, a screw, so Ir. ; from the Eng. 
sgrog, the head or side of the head (in ridicule), a hat or bonnet ; 

vb. Sgrog, put on the bonnet firmly, scrog ; from the Sc. 

scrog, scrug, Eng. shrug. In the sense of " head " compare 



sgrog, sgrogag, anything shrivelled, a shrivelled old woman, old 

cow or ewe, sgrog, shrivel ; from the Sc. scrog, a stunted 

bush, scroggy, stunted, Eng. scraggy, Dan. skrog, Swed. skrokk, 

anything shrunken, Norse skrokkr. 
Sgroill, a peeling or paring, anything torn off; from Scandinavian 

— Dan. skrael, peelings or parings of apples, potatoes, Norse 

shrill, a mob. 
sgrub, hesitate, sgrubail, a hesitating, Ir. scrub, hesitate, sgrub- 

alach, scrupulous ; from Eng. scruple. 
Sgrud, examine, search, Ir. scritdaim, 0. Ir. scrittaim ; from Lat. 

servitor, Eng. scrutiny. 
Sgruigean, neck of a bottle, the neck (in ridicule), Ir. sgruigin, 

neck of a bottle, short-necked person ; cf. sgrog. 
Sgruit, an old shrivelled person, a thin person, Ir. sgruta, an old 

man, sgrutach, lean, sgrut, a contemptible person ; cf. Norse 

skrudda, a shrivelled skin, old scroll, 
sgruthan (sgrti'an), a shock of corn (Assynt) ; from Norse skruf, 

Sguab, a broom or besom, Ir. sguab, E. I. scuap, 0. Ir. sedptha, 

scopata, W. ysgub, Br. skuba ; from Lat. scopa. 
Sguaigeis, coquetry ; of. guag. 
Sguainseach, hussy, hoyden (Arg.) ; possibly from Sc. quean: 

* s-quean-seach ; cf. siiirsach. 
Sguan, slur, scandal (Carm.) : 
Sguch, sprain, strain a joint : " spring " ; cf. E. Ir. scuchim, I 

depart, root skak, Lit. szdkti, jump, spring (see sgeun). 
Sgud, lop, snatch ; cf. W. ysgHth, scud, whisk, Eng. scud, Sc. scoot, 

squirt, etc. G. is borrowed. 
Sgud, a cluster : 
Sgud, a scout ; from the Eng. 
Sgudal, fish-guts, offal ; cf. cut. 
Sguga, coarse clumsy person, sgugach, a soft boorish fellow ; see 

§ guy*- 

Sguidilear, a scullion ; from the Sc. scudler, scudle, cleanse. 
Sguids, thrash, dress flax, Ir. sguitsim ; from Eng. scutch. 
Sguillear, rakish person (Glenmoriston) : 
Sguir, cease, stop, Ir. sguirim, 0. Ir. scorim, desist, unyoke : 

*$korio, root sker, skor, separate ; see sgar. 
Sguird, Sguirt, the lap, a smock, apron, Ir. sguird ; from Eng. 

skirt, Norse skirta, a shirt. 
Sguit, the footboard in a boat : 
Sguit, a wanderer (scuite, Shaw) : Macpherson's scuta, whence he 

derives Scotti — an invention of his own ? 


Sgulan, a large wicker basket ; from Scandinavian— Norse skjola, 

a bucket, Sc. skeil, tub, skull, shallow basket of oval form. 

In Sutherland, Sgulag means " a basket for holding the 

Sgulanach, flippant, evil tongued (Carm.) : 
Sgum, scum, foam ; from Norse skum, foam, M. Eng. scum, now 

scum, Ger. schaum, foam. 
Sguman, a skirt, tawdry head-dress, corn rick; from sgum, 

" skimmer" 1 sguman (Arran). 
Sgumrag, a fire-shovel, a Cinderella : 
Sgur, scour, Ir. sguraim ; from the English. 
Sgurr, sharp hill ; Heb. for sgorr. 
si, she, Ir., 0. Ir. si ; see i. 
sia, six, Ir. se ; see se. 
siab, wipe, sweep along, puff away, Ir. siobadh, blowing into 

drifts ; *sveibbo-, root sveib, Eng. sweep ; Norse sveipr, sweep, 

Eng. sweep. Also siabh. Hence siaban, sand drift, sea- 
siabh, a dish of stewed periwinkles (Heb.) : 
siabhas, idle ceremony : 
siabhrach, a fairy, siobhrag (Arran), siobhrag (Shaw), sibhreach 

(M'A.), Ir. siabhra, E. Ir. siabrae, siabur, fairy, ghost, W. 

hwyfar in Qwenhwyfar, Guinevere (1) : *seibro- : 
siabunn, siopunn, soap, Ir. siabhainn (Fol.), W. sebon ; from Lat. 

sapo(n), from Teut. saipo, whence Eng. soap, Ger. seife, Norse 

siach, sprain, strain a joint : 

siachair, a pithless wretch ; another form of siochair. 
siad, a stink : *seiddo-, blow ; see seid. Cf. Eng. shite. 
siad, sloth, Ir. siadhail, sloth : 
sian, a scream, soft music (Carm.), Ir. sian, voice, shout, sound, 

E. Ir. sian : *sveno-, which Stokes (Zeit. 2s 59) explains as 

^sesveno-, root sven, sound (see seinn). 
sian, a pile of grass, beard of barley, Ir., E. Ir. sion, foxglove, W. 

flion, digitalis, ffuon, foxglove, 0. W. fionou, roses, Br. 

foeonnenn, privet. Stokes gives the Celtic as *s(p)edno-. 

Gadelic might be allied to Lat. spina, thorn, 
sian, a charm ; see seun. 
sian, storm, rain, Ir. sion, weather, season, storm, 0. Ir. sin, 

tempestas, W. hin, weather, M. Br. hynon, fair weather: 

*send ; root se (sei) as in sin, sior ; Norse seinn, slow, late, 

M. H. G. seine, slowly, Eng. sith, since. 
sianan, breac-shianain, freckles ; from sian, foxglove 1 See 





siar, westward, aside, Ir. siar, 0. Ir. siar ; from s-iar, see iar, 

west, and s- under suas. 
siaranachadh, languishing, siarachd, melancholy (Dial.) ; from 

siar, " going backwards " *? 
siasnadh, wasting, d wining (Suth.) : 
siatag, rheumatism ; from Lat. sciatica. 
sibh, you, ye, Ir. sibh, 0. Ir. sib, si, W. chivi, 0. W. hui, Cor. ivhy, 

Br. choui : *sves, for s-ves (Brug. ; Stokes has *sves) ; Gr. 

cr<f)(OL, you two, Got. izvis (iz-vis) ; the ves is allied to Lat. vos. 

The form sibh is for *svi-svi. 
sic, the prominence of the belly (H.S.D.), peritoneum (M'A.) : 
sicear, particle, grain (Carm.) : 
sicir, wise, steady; from Sc. sicker, M. Eng. siker, from Lat. 

securus, now Eng. sure. W. sicr is from M. Eng. 
Sid, weather, peaceful weather after storm, tide : *sizdi-, 

" settling," root sed, sit "? Ir. has side in the sense of "blast," 

from seid. Also tid, which suggests borrowing from N. tib", 

tide, time, Eng. tide. 
sil, drop, distil, Ir. silim, perf. siblais, stillavit, Br. sila, passez : 

*svilio. Stokes gives the root as stil, Lat. stillo, drop, Gr. 

a-rtX.7] (do.). Hence silt, a drop. Cf. Eng. spill; *spild, 

destroy, spoil. 
sile, spittle, saliva, Ir. seile, 0. Ir. saile, W. haliw, Br. hal, halo : 

*salivd (Stokes) ; Lat. saliva. Stokes says that they appear 

to be borrowed from Lat., while Wharton thinks the Lat. is 

borrowed from Gaulish. 
slliche, a lean, pithless creature : " seedy," from s\ol 1 
simid, a mallet, beetle, Ir. siomaide : 
similear, a chimney, Ir. seimileur, simnear, simne ; from Eng., Sc. 

chimley, Eng. chimney. 
simleag, a silly woman ; from* the next word, 
simplidh, simple, Ir. simplidhe, silly, simple ; from Lat. simplex, 

whence Eng. simple, W. syml. 
sin, that, Ir., 0. Ir. sin, 0. W. hinn, W. hyn, hwn, hon, Corn, hen, 

hon (fern.), Br. hen, Gaul, sosin ( = so-sin) ; from root so (sjo), 

as in -sa, so, q.v. 
Sin, stretch, Ir., 0. Ir. sinim : *seno-, root se, mittere, let go ; Lat. 

sino, situs ; Gr. 'IrjfXL, send. Cf. sir (from *sero-, long). 

Allied is root sei, sei, si, mittere, Norse si b"r, long, seinn, slow, 

Lit. seinyti, reach, 
sine, a teat, Ir., E. Ir. sine, triphne, three-teated : *svenio- for 

*spenio-, root spen of Lit. spenys, udder teat, 0. Pruss. 

spenis, teat, Norse speni, teat, Du. speen, udder, Sc spain, wean 
sineubhar,fgin, juniper tree (Suth.) ; Fr. genievre. 


Sinn, we, us, Ir. sinn, E. Ir. sinn, sinne, 0. Ir. ni, sni, snisni, sninni, 
W. ni, nyni, Cor. ny, nyni, Br. ni : *nes (Brug. ; Stokes gives 
nes), accusative form, allied to Lat. nos, Skr. nas, Gr. vw. The 
s of sni is due to analogy with the s of sibh, or else prothetic 
(cf. is-se, he is). 

sinnsear, ancestors, Ir. sinnsear, ancestors, an elder person, E. Ir. 
sinser, elder, ancestor : *senistero-, a double comparative form 
(like Lat. minister, magister) from sean, old, q.v. 

Sinte, plough traces, from sin. 

sinteag, a skip, pace ; from sin. 

siob, drift as snow (M'A.) ; see siab. 

siobag, a blast of the mouth, puff, Ir. siobdg ; cf. siab. 

sioban, foam on crest of waves ; see siaban. 

siobail, fish, angle (M'A.), sioblach, fishing : 

siobhag, a straw, candle wick : 

sioblach, a long streamer, long person (M'A.) ; from siab 1 

Siobhalta, civil, peaceful, Ir. sibhealta, from Ir. siothamhuil, peace- 
able, E. Ir. sidamail. Borrowing from Eng. civil has been 
suggested (Celt. Mag. 12 169). 

Siochaint, peace, Ir. siochdin, peace, siothchdnt i, peaceful, 
siodhchan, atonement, M. Ir. sidchauta, peaceful ; from sith. 

siochair, a dwarf, fairy, M. Ir. sidhcaire, fairy host, sithcuiraibh 
(dat. pi.), E. Ir. sitkchaire ; from sith, fairy, and cuire, host 
(Ger. heer, army, Eng. herald). 

Sioda, silk, Ir. sioda, E. Ir. sita, W. sidan ; from L. Lat. seta, silk, 
from Lat. seta, a bristle, hair ; whence Ag. S. side, silk, Eng. 

siogach, pale, ill-coloured, Ir. siogach, streaked, ill-coloured, siog, a 
streak, a shock of corn : 

siogach, greasy (M'A.), lazy (M'F.) : 

siogaid, a starveling, lean person ; from Lat. siccus 1 

Siol, seed, Ir. siol, 0. Ir. sil, semen, W. hit : *selo-n, root se, sow ; 
Lat. semen ; Eng. seed, Ger. saat ; Lit. pa-s'elys, a sowing. 

siola, a gill ; from the Eng. 

siola, a wooden collar for a plough horse ; from Scandinavian — 
Swed. sela, a wooden collar, Norse seli, harness, sili, a strap, 
Sc. sele, a wooden collar to tie cattle to the stalls. 

siola, a syllable, Ir. siolla, E. Ir. sillab ; from Lat. syllaba, whence 
Eng. syllable. 

sioladh, straining, filtering, Ir. siolthughadh, E. Ir. sithlad, W. 
hidlo, hidl, a filter ; also 0. Ir. sithal = Lat. situla, a bucket ; 
from Lat. situla (Stokes Lismore). G. sioladh, also means 
" subsiding," and leans for its meaning, if not its origin, upon 
sith, peace. 


slolag, a sand-eel : 

siolc, snatch, pilfer : 

siolgach, lazy, dwarfish : 

sioll, a turn, rotation (M'A.), W. chwyl ; see seal. Cf. Ir. siolla, 

whiff, glint, syllable ; root of seal. 
siolp, slip away, skulk (Skye) : 
siolta, a teal, small wild duck ; from Eng. teal ? 
sloman, a rope of straw or hay ; from the Norse sima, g. pi. sim?ia f 

a rope, cord, Sc. simmonds, heather ropes (Orkney), Teut. 

*simon-, Ag. S. sima, fetter, Shet. simmen ; Gr. t/xovia (i long), 

well rope ; I. E. simon-, a bond, band, seio-, bind, 
siomlach ; see smmlach. 
Sion, something, anything ; also " weather," for sian, whence 

possibly this meaning of " anything" comes. 
Sionadh, lord (M'Pherson's Fingal 1 , 341) : if genuine, the root 

may be sen, old ; cf . Lat. senior, now Eng. sir. 
sionn, phosphorescent, solus sionn, phosphorus, also teine-sionn- 

achain. For root see next. 
sionnach, valve of bellows, pipe-reed, piob-shionnaich, Irish bag- 
pipe. From root spend, swing, play, Skr. spand, move 

quickly. Gr. o-faSovrj, sling, Lat. pendeo, hang, Eng. 

sionnach, a fox, so Ir., E. Ir. sinnach, sindack, 0. Ir. sinnchenae, 

vulpecula : 
sionnsar, bagpipe chanter, Ir. siunsoir ; from the Eng. chanter. 
siop, despise ; cuir an siop, turn tail on (Hend.) ; see seap. 
siopunn, soap j see siabunn. 
sior, long, continual, Ir. star, 0. Ir. sir, comparative sia, W. hir, 

compar. hwy, Cor., Br. hir : *sero-s ; Lat. serus, late, Fr. soir, 

evening, Eng. soiree ; Skr. sdyd, evening. See sian, sin. 
* siorra (M'A., M'E.), siorraimh, siorram (H.S.D.), a sheriff, 

siorrachd, siorramachd, county, Ir. sirriamh, M. Ir. sirriam ; 

from M. Eng. shirr eve, now sheriff, " shire-reeve." The Sc. is 

shirra usually. 
siorradh, a deviation, onset : *sith-rad, from sith % 
slorruidh, eternal, Ir. siorruidhe ; from *sir-rad, eternity, sior. 
Sios, down, Ir. sios, 0. Ir. sis : *s-ts, from s- (see suas) and is, or 

tos, q.v. 
/ siosar, a scissors, Ir. siosur ; from the Eng. 
siota, a blackguard, a pet ; from Sc. shit. 
sir, search, Ir. sirim (sirim, Con.), E. Ir. sirim : *s(p)eri-, root sper, 

foot it ; Norse spyrja, ask, track, Sc. spere, ask after, Ger. 

spuren, trace, track, also further Eng. spur; Lat. sperno 

(Eng. spurn allied), etc. The vowel of sir is short (otherwise 


Stokes' Diet., Rhys Manx Pray. 2 71, who compares W. 

siris, sirist, a cherry, Ir. siris, W. ceirios ; from M. Eng. *cheris, 
from 0. Fr. cerise, Lat. cerasus, Gr. Kcpao-os. 

siteag, a dunghill ; from the Eng. Cf. N. saeti. 

sith, a stride, onset, a dart to, Ir. sidhe, gust, M. Jr. sitk, onset ; 
cf. Ir. sith-, intensive prefix (O'Don. Gr. 277), *setu-, seti-, 
maybe root es, ervfxos (Bez. 21 123), E. Ir. sith, long, W. hyd, 
to, as far as, 0. W. hit, longitudo, usque ad, Br. heel, length, 
during : *seti, root se, as in sior, long (Stokes). Cf. N. siftr, 
long, Eng. sith ; root sit. 

sith, peace, Ir. sith, sioth, E. Ir. sith, 0. Ir. sid : *sedos (neut. s 
stem), root sed (sed) of suidhe, q.v. ; Lat. sedo, settle ; Lit. 
seddti, sit. W. hedd, peace, is from sed. 

Sith, a fairy, sithich (do.), Ir. sidh, a fairy hill, sigh, a fairy, 
sigheog (do.), 0. Ir. side, dei terreni, whose dwelling is called 
sid j in fact, side, the fairy powers, is the pi. (gen. s. 1) of sid, 
fairy dwelling or mound, whild its gen. sing, appears in mnd 
sid?, fir side : *sedos, g. sedesos, as in the case of sith, peace, 
which is its homonym (Stokes) ; root sed, sed, Gr. e8o<s, a 
temple or statue, literally an " abode" or " seat ;" Lat. noven- 
sides, noven-siles, the new gods imported to Rome. Thurney- 
sen has compared Lat. sidus, a constellation, "dwelling of 
the gods." Hence sithean, a green knoll, fairy knoll. 

sithionn, venison, Ir. sidh and sidheann (O'R.), M. Ir. sieng, sideng, 
deer, W. hyddgig ( = " stag's flesh"), from hydd, stag, red 
deer : *sedi-, deer ; to which is to be referred M. Ir. segh 
( = agh allaidh, O'CL), E. Ir. seg ( = oss allaidh, Corm.). 

sitig, the rafter of a kiln laid across, on which the corn is dried : 

sitinn, roller for a boat : 

sitir, sitrich, neighing, Ir. sitreach : cf. se'id, blow (*svid-tri-). 

siubhal, walking, so Ir., M. Ir. siubal, for *siumal, W. chwyf, 
motus, chivy fu, move, stir, M. Br. fifual, now finval, stir ; root 
svem, move ; O.H.G. Ag. S. swimman, Eng. swim. Cf. W. 
syfiyd, move, stir. 

siubhla ; see luighe-siubhla. 

siuc, a word by which horses are called : 

siucar (siucar, H.S.D.), sugar, Ir. siucra, W. sugr ; from M. Eng. 
sugre, Fr. sucre. 

siudadh, swinging ; from Sc. showd, swing, waddle, 0. Sax. 
skuddian, shake, 0. Du. schudden (do.), Eng. shudder. 

slug, call to drive away hens ; cf. Eng. shoo ! 

siunas, lovage plant; see simais. 

siup, a tail, appendage ; cf. seap. 


siursach, a whore; from the Eng., with the G. fern, termination 
-seach (see binnseach). 

siuthad, say away, begin, go on : *seo-tu, " here you," from so and 
tu% Cf. trobhad, thugad. 

slabhag, pith of a horn : Sc. sluck 1 

slabhagan, a kind of reddish sea-weed, sloke, Ir. slabhacdn \ from 
Eng. sloke, Sc. sloke, slake. 

slabhcar, a slouching fellow (Suth.), a taunter ; from Norse sldkr, 
slouching fellow, whence Eng. slouch. 

slabhraidh, a chain, Ir. slabhra, 0. Ir. slabrad : *slab-rad, from 
slab, root lag. of Gr. Aa//,/3ava>, I take, catch, Eng. latch. 

slachd, thrash, beat, Ir. slacairim ; root slag, sleg, or slg, E. Ir. 
sligim, beat, strike, slacc, sword : *slego, beside I. E., slak, as 
in Got. slaha, strike, Ger. schlagen (do.), Eng. slay (Stokes 
for sligim) ; further Lat. lacerare, lacerate, Gr. Aa/a£a>, tear 
(Kluge). Hence slachdan, beetle, rod. 

slad, theft, Ir. slad, M. Ir. slat : *sladdo-. Stokes gives the Celtic 
as *stlatto-, allied to Lat. stldta (stlatta), pirate ship, and 
Eng. steal. The modern forms point to Gadelic *sladdo-, for 
*stl-ddo-, allied to Eng. steal 1 

sladhag, a sheaf of corn ready to be thrashed (H.S.D.) : 

sladhaigeadh, a kind of custard spread over bread (M'D.) : 

slag, a hollow (Lewis) ; N. slakki, slope, North Eng. hollow. 

slaib, rnire ; see laban. Skeat refers Eng. slab, slime, but it is 
likely native (cf. slop, etc.). 

slaid, a munificent gift : 

slaightear, slaoightear, a rogue, Ir. sloitire, rogue, sloitireachd, 
roguery, M. Ir. sleteoracht, theft (O'Cl.) ; from slad (Ir. sloit), 

slaim, great booty, a heap : from the Sc. slam, a share or posses- 
sion acquired not rightly, slammach, to seize anything not 
entirely by fair means, Swed. slama, heap together. 

slais, lash ; from the Eng. 

slam, a lock of hair or wool, Ir. slam, E. Ir. slamm : ^slags-men, 
Gr. Xdxvos, wool, Xd\v^, down (otherwise Prellwitz, who 
refers Gr. to *vlk-snd, root vel of olann, q.v.). 

slaman, curdled milk, Ir. slamanna, clots, flakes (O'CL), E. Ir. 
slaimred (na fola). Cf. lommen, gulp. _ 

slan, healthy, whole, Ir., 0. Ir. sldn : *sl-no- (Brug.), *ss>ldno-s 
(Stokes); Lat. salvus ( = sl-vo-, Brug.), safe, solidus, firm, 
Eng. solid ; Gr. oAos, whole ( « <roAFos) ; Eng. silly, originally 
meaning " blessed," Ger. selig, blessed ; Skr. sdrvas, whole, 
all. W., Br. holl is referred here by Stokes, etc., more 
immediately allied to Lat. sollus, whole, all. 


slaod, drag, trail, Ir. slaodaim, draw after, slide, slaod, a raft, 
float, E. Ir. sldet, a slide : *rtoiddo-, Celtic root skid, slid ; 
W. litthro, Eng. slide, Ag. S. s/idan, Ger. schlitten, slide, 
sledge (n.) ; Lit. slidks, smooth, Gr. oXurdavm, *slid-d-. Stokes 
explains the d of slaod as for dd, from -dno- : *slaidh-no-. 

slaop, parboil, slaopach, parboiled, slovenly, Ir. slaopach, luke- 
warm (O'R.) ; also slaopair, a sloven, for which see next. 

slapach, slapach, slovenly, Ir. slapach, slovenly, slapar, a trail or 
train ; from Scandinavian — Norse sldpr, a good-for-nothing, 
slaepa, \estis promissa et laxa (Jamieson), sloppr, Eng. slop, 
Sc. slaupie, slovenly, Dutch slap, slack, remiss, Ger. schlaff. 
\ slapraich, din, noise ; from Eng. slap. 

slat, a rod, twig, Ir. slat, M. Ir. slat, slatt, W. Hath, yslaih, Br. 
laz : *slatt&; Eng. lath is from W. M. Eng. latte, Ag. S. 
laHta, 0. H. G. latta, Ger. latte are also Celtic borrows, Fr. 
latte (Thurneysen), but Kluge regards them as cognate. 

sleabhag', mattock for digging up carrots, etc. (Carm.) ; sleidheag, 
kind of ladle (Lewis) ; cf. N. sleif. 

sleagh, a spear, so Ir., E. Ir. sleg : *slgd ; Skr. srj, hurl, sling. 

sleamacair, sly person (Lewis) : cf. N. slaemr, bad. 

sleamhan, stye (Carm.) : 

sleamhuinn, slippery, smooth, Ir. sleamhuin, 0. Ir. slemon, W. 
Uyfn, smooth, 0. Br. limn (in compounds) : *slib-no-s, root 
slib, sleib ; Norse sleipr, slippery, Eng. slip, slippery ; Gr. 
6X.LJ3p6<s, \i/3p6s, slippery. See sliabh also. 

sleigeil, dilatory, sleugach, drawling, slow, sly ; also leug, 
laziness ; from the Sc. sleek ? 

sl^isneadh, back-sliding (Heb.) : *sleift-s-, root of slaod and Eng. 
slide ? 

sleuchd, kneel, Ir. sleachdain, 0. Ir. slechtaim ; from Lat. flecto. 

sliabh, a moor, mountain, Ir. sliabh, mountain, 0. Ir. sliab : 
*sleibos, root sleib, slib, glide, down, I. E. sleigo- ; Eng. slope, 
from slip, Norse sleipr, slippery ; see sleamhuinn. W. llwyf, 
platform, loft, seems allied to G. sliabh. 

sliachdair, spread any soft substance by trampling, daub : 
*sleikto-, sleig, Norse slikr, smooth, Eng. sleek, Ger. schlick, 
grease, the original idea being " greasy," like soft mud. Cf. 
E. Ir. sliachtad, smoothing, preening. 

sliasaid. sliasad (sliaisd, Dial.), thigh, Ir. sliasad, 0. Ir. sliassit, 
poples : a diphthongal form of the root of slis, q.v. 

slibist, a sloven ; cf. Ir. sliobair, drag along ; from Eng slip, 

slige, a scale of a balance, a shell, Ir. slige, a grisset, shell, 0. Ir. 
e, lanx, ostrea : *sleggio-, root sleg, for which cf. slachd. 


slighe, a way, Ir. slighe, E. Ir. slige, g. sliged : *sleget-, root sleg of 
Ir. sligim, I strike (ro sligsetar, ro selgatar rotu, they hewed 
out ways). See slachd further. 

slinn, a weaver's sley or reed, Ir. slinn, a sley, M. Ir. slind, pecten, 
also slige, pecten, which suggests for slinn a stem : *sleg-s-ni-, 
sleg being the same root as that of slighe and slachd. Cf. 
Eng. sley allied to slay, smite. Stokes refers both 0. Ir. 
slind, tile and weaver's sley, to the root splid, splind, Eng. 
split, splint. See slinnean and sliseag further. 

slinnean, shoulder blade, shoulder, Ir. slinnean, M. Ir. slinden : cf. 
0. Ir. slind, imbrex, tile, Ir. slinn, slate, tile, also E. Ir. slind- 
ger, smooth-sharp, slate-polished (!), slind-glanait, whetstone- 
cleaned : *slindi-, root slid, sleid, smooth, glide, Eng. slide, 
Lit. slidiis, smooth. Stokes refers slind, imbrex, to the root 
splid, splind, split, Eng. split, splint ; see sliseag. 

sliob, stroke, rub, lick, Ir. sliobhaim, polish, M. Ir. slipihe, 
whettened, slibad, whetting, W. yslipan, burnish ; from 
Norse or Ag. S. — Norse slipa, whet, make sleek, Ag. S. 
slipan, slip, glide, M. L. Ger. slipen, sharpen, M. Du. slijpen, 
polish, sharpen. 

sliochd, posterity, tribe, Ir. sliochd, M. Ir. slicht, trace, track, 
0. Ir. slid, vestigium : *slektu-, root sleg of slighe and slachd. 
For similar origin, cf. Ger. geschlecht, race, lineage. 
I sllogach, sly, Ir. sliogach, sleek, fawning, sligtheach, sly; from 
Eng., Sc. sleek, Norse slikr, smooth ; I. E. sleig, glide (see 

sliom, sleek, slippery, slim, the buttercup (Carm.), Ir. sliomaim 
flatter, smooth, gloss over ; from Eng. slim, sly, crafty, 
slender, now " slim," Sc. slim, naughty, slim o'er, gloss over, 
0. Du. slim, awry, crafty, Ger. schlimm, bad, cunning. 
Hence G. sliomaire, weakling, craven. 

sliop, a lip, blubber lip ; from Eng. lip. 

slios, the side of a man or beast, flank, Ir. slios, 0. Ir. sliss, pi. 
slessa, W. ystlis : *stlisti-, root stel, extend, Lat. stldtus, Idtus, 
wide, Ch. SI. stelja, spread. 

slis, sliseag, a chip, Ir. dis, slisebg, E. Ir. sliss : *slissi-, from 
*splid-s-ti-, root splid. Eng. split, splice, splint, Ger. spleissen, 
etc. Eng. slice has been compared, Eng. slit, root slid, which 
could also produce the Gadelic forms. 

slisneach, a plant like the slan-lus (Carm.) : 

sloe, a pit, slough, Ir. sloe : *slukko-, for *slug-ko-, root slug, 
swallow, as in slug, q.v. Skeat derives hence Ag. S. slbh, 
Eng. slough. Ger. schlucht, hollow, ravine, is referred by 
Kluge to the root slup, lubricus. 


slod, a puddle, Ir. slod ; see lod. 

sldcan, sloke ; from the Sc. or Eng. sloke. 

sloinil, surname, Ir. doinnim, I name, 0. Ir. slondim, name, 

signinco, slond, significatio, 0. W. istlinnit, profatur, M. W. 

cy-stlwn, family and clan name, W. ystlyned, kindred, ystltn, 
. sex : *stlondo-, *stlondio, 1 speak, name, 
sloisir, dash, beat against sea-like, daub ; from Sc. slaister, 

bedaub, a wet liquid mass, to move clumsily through a miry 

road, also slestir (Badenoch Dial, sleastair, bedaub), 
sluagh, people, Ir. sluagh, 0. Ir. sluag, slog, W. llu, Corn, lu, 

Gaul, sldgi in Gatu-slogi : *slougo-s ; cf. Slav, sluga, a servant, 

Lit. slauginti. 
sluaisreadh, act of mixing (lime, etc.) with a shovel ; see next 

word. Cf. Eng. slubber. 
sluasaid, a shovel, Ir. sluasad, a paddle, a shovel : 
slug, swallow, slugadh (inf.), Ir. slugaim, E. Ir. slucim, slocim : 

*sluggo, root slug, lug, swallow ; Ger. schlucken, to swallow, 

M. H. G. slucken : Gr. Xvfa, kvyyatvu, have the hiccup. W. 

llwnc, gullet, a gulp, llyncu, to swallow, 0. Br. ro-luncas, 

guturicavit, M. Br. lloncaff are allied to E. Ir. longad, now 

longadh, eating, which is a nasalised form of the root slug, 

smachd, authority, correction, Ir. smachd, 0. Ir. smacht, M. Ir. 

smachtaigim, I enjoin, smacht, fine for breaking the law : 

*smaktu-, from s-mag, root mag, I. E. magh, be strong ; Eng. 

may, Got. magan, be able j Gr. p?x o? > means (see mac). 
smad, a particle, jot : " spot, stain" (see smod). From Sc. smad, 

smot, a stain, Eng. smut. Ir. has smaddn, soot, smut. Cf. 

also M. Ir. smot, a scrap, Ir. smotd/i, a block, W. ysmot, patch, 

sm&d, threaten, intimidate, boast : 
smag, smog, a paw ; see smog. 
smal, dust, spot, blemish, lr. smdl, smdl ; root smal, mal (srnel, 

mel), Lit. sindlkas, dust, smelynas, sand field, smelalis, sand, 

Lettic smelis, water sand, Got. mdlma, sand, Norse melr, sand 

hill, Eng. mole. 
sm&l, snuff 1 a candle, Ir. smdl, embers, snuff of candle; cf. the 

above word, 
smalag, the young saith or cuddie : 
smaoin, think ; see smuain. 
smarach, a lad, a growing youth (Badenoch) j root smar, from 

mar, mer, Gr. /xei/oa£, boy, Skr. maryakds, a mannie, mdryas, 

young man, Lit. marti, bride ; also W. morwyn, girl, merch, 



daughter, Br. merc'h. Cf. Aran Ir. mar lack, child of two to 

five years, either sex. 
smarag, an emerald, Ir. smaragaid ; from Lat. smaragdus, whence 

through Fr. comes Eng. emerald. 
smeachan, the chin, Ir. smeack, smeachan, E. Ir. smech : *smckd ; 

Lit. smakra, Lettic smakrs, chin, palate ; Skr. cmacru, mous- 
smeadairneach, a slumber, light sleep : 
8meallach, smealach, remains, offals, dainties : 
smeid, beckon, nod, Ir. smeidim, beckon, nod, hiss : *smeiddi-, 

root smeid, smile, Gr. fxeiSdo), smile, Pruss. smaida, a smile, 

Eng. smile. W. amneidio, beckon, nod, 0. W. enmeituou, 

nutus, 0. Br. enmetiam, innuo, do not agree in vowel with 

smeileach, pale, ghastly, smeilean, a pale, puny person ; cf. 

smedirn, the end of an arrow next the bowstring, smeoirne, back 

end of arrow head (Wh.), Ir. smeirne, a spit, broach (Sh., 

O'R.) : 
smeorach, a thrush, Ir. smdlach, sm6l, M. Ir. smolach; W. 

mwyalch, blackbird, Corn, moelh, Br. moualch : *smugal-, 

*smugl-, from mug (see much) 1 Stokes derives W. mwyalch, 

blackbird, from *meisalko-, Ger. meise, Eng. tit-mouse. 
smeur, smiar, anoint, smear, Ir. smearaim, grease, smear ; from 

the Eng. For root see smior. 
smeur, smiar, a bramble berry, Ir. smeur, E. Ir. smer, W. mwyaren, 

Br. mouar (pi.) : 
smeuraich, grope ; from meur. 
smid, a syllable, opening of the mouth, a word, Ir. smid : *smiddi-, 

root smid, smeid, smile, laugh, as in smeid 1 
smig, the chin, Ir. smig, M. Ir. smeice (O'C.) : *smeggi-, for 

*smek-gi, root smek, as in smeachan % 
smigeadh, a smile, smiling, Ir. smig, smigeadh : *smiggi, root 

smi, smile, for which see smeid. Also miog, q.v. 
smiodan, spirit ; from Sc. smeddum. 
smiolamus, refuse of a feast (M'A.) ; see smolamas. 
smior, smear, marrow, Ir. smior, E. Ir. smir, g. smera, W. mer : 

*smeru- ; 0. H. G. smero, grease, Ag. S. smeoru % lard, Eng. 

smear, Norse smjarr, butter. 
X smiot, throw in the air with one hand and strike with the other ; 

formed on Eng. smite. 
smiotach, crop-eared, short-chinned (R.D.), Ir. smiot, ear : 
\/ smidr, smear ; from the Sc. smear, Eng. smear. See smeur. 
y smod, dirt, dust, also (according to M'A.) drizzling rain ; from Sc. 

smot, Eng. smut. See smad. 


smodal, sweepings, crumbs, fragments, smattering, M. Ir. smot, a 

scrap ; cf. above word, 
smog, smag, a paw : cf. Norse smjitga, creep through a hole, 

Ag. S. smugan, creep, Eng. smuggle. For smag, see also 

smolamas, trash, fragments of victuals ; cf. strolamas, brolamas. 
smuain, a thought, Ir. smuaineadh, M. Ir. smuained : *smoudn-, 

root smoud, moud ; Got. gamaudjan, remind, cause to 

remember; Ch. SI. myslx-, thought (Strachan). Cf. M. Ir. 

muaidnig, thought, 
smuairean, grief, dejection : *smoudro-, root smoud of above *? 
smuais, marrow, juice of the bones, Ir. smuais, marrow, E. Ir. 

smuas : 
smuais, smash, Ir. smuais, in shivers, in pieces ; from Eng. smash. 
smuc, a snivel, a nasal sound (smuch, M'A.) ; for root, see smug 

smucan, smoke, drizzle ; from Eng. smoke. 
smudan, a particle of dust ; see smod. 

smudan, a small block of wood, Ir. smotan, stock, block, log : 
smudan, smoke ; see smuid. 
smug, snot, spittle, smugaid, spittle, lr. smug, smugaid : *smuggo-, 

root smug, mug, mucus ; Lat. emungo, wipe the nose. The 

root mug is a by-form of muq, mucus, seen in Lat. mucus, etc.; 

for which see muc. 
smuid, smoke, Ir. smuid, E. Ir. smuit, smutgur, smutcheo : 

*smuddi-, root smud. Cf. Eng. smut, Ger. schmutz, dirt ; 

which Zim. thinks the Gadelic borrowed from, though the 

meaning makes this unlikely. There are three allied roots 

on European ground denoting " smoke" — smUgh (Gr. o-/a«zx w > 

smoulder), smug or smaug (Eng. smoke) and sm&d (G. smuid). 
smuig, a snout, the face (in ridicule) : from the Eng. mug, ugly 

smuilc, glumness, dejection ; M. Ir. smuilcin, a small snout : 

" snoutyness." 
smurach, dross, peat dross, smuir, dust, a particle of dust, 

smuirnean, a mote ; cf. Sc. smurach, peat dross, smore, smurr, 

a drizzling rain, M. Eng. smdre, dense smoke, Eng. smother 

( = smorther), 0. Du. smoor. O'R. has smur from Sh., and K. 

Meyer translates M. Ir. smur-chimilt as "grind to dust." 
smusach, extracting the juice from (Suth.) : 
smut, a bill, snout, Ir. smut, a large flat nose, snout : 
snag, a little audible knock, a wood pecker (snagan-daraich), Ir. 

snag, hiccup ; cf. Eng. snock, a knock, and the next word. Ir. 

snag, snagardarach, snaghairdara, a wood pecker, seems from 



snagaireachd, cutting or hacking wood with a knife ; from Dial. 
Eng. snagger, a tool for sriagging or cutting off' snags, that is 
branches, knots, etc., Sc. snagger-snee, a large knife, snicker- 
snee, sneg, snag, cut off branches. 

snagarra, active ; from the above roots ; cf. snasmhor. 

snaidh, hew, chip, shape, Jr. snoighim, snaidhim (O'D.) E. Ir. 
snaidim, snaisi, peeled, W. naddu, hew, chip, cut, 0. Cor. 
nedim, ascia (W. neddyf, neddai, adze, Br. eze, neze), M. Br. 
ezeff: *snado ; Ger. schnat, border, schnate, a young twig, 
Swiss schndtzen cut, Swab, schnatte, an incision in wood or 
flesh (Bez. apud Stokes). Strachan suggests the root sknad, 
Gr. KvaSdXkw, scratch, kvwSwv, tooth (see cnamh). Hence 
snas, regularity. 

snaig, creep ; from Sc. snaik, sneak in walking, etc., snaikin, 
sneaking, Eng. sneak, snake. Cf. Ir. snaighim, I creep. 

snaim, a knot, Jr. snaidhm, E. Ir. snaidm, d. snaidmaimm, naidm, 
bond, nexus : *nadesmen, root ned, bind, I. E. nedh ; Skr. 
nah, tie, naddha-s, tied ; Ger. nestel, lace, 0. H. G. nestila, a 
band ; Lat. nodus, for noz-dos, a knot. See nasg. 

snamh, swim, Ir. sndmhaim, E. Ir. sndm (inf.), ro sno, swam, W. 
nawf, natatio, nofio (vb.), M. Br. neuff, Br. neunv : *sndmu, 
(n.), sndo, I swim ; Lat. no, ndre ; Gr. vdw, flow ; Skr. sndti, 
bathe, float. 

snaodh, head, chief ; ceann-snaodli, head chief (Carm.) : 

snaois, a slice, piece ; cf. E. Ir. snaisse, cut, caesus, from snaidh. 

snaoisean, snuff, Ir. snaoidn, snhin ; from Eng. sneezing in sneesing 
pouder, the old name for snuff", Sc. sneeshin, sneezm. 

snaomanach, a strong, robust fellow, Ir. snaomdnach, stout, jolly 
fellow, hearty : " knotty," from *snadm- of snaim 1 

snaoidh, a bier, lr. snaoi : 

snap, the trigger of a gun ; from the English snap. 

snas, regularity, elegance, Ir. snas : " good cut," from snad of 
snaidh ; E. Ir. snass, a cut. 

snath, thread, Ir. snath, 0. Ir. snathe, W. ysnoden, lace, fillet, 
noden, thread, Corn, noden, snod, vitta, Br. neudenn : *sndtio-, 
*sndto-n, root snd, sne, wind, spin ; Skr. sndyu, sinew, bow- 
string ; Gr. evvvrjTos, well-spun ; Ger. schnur, lace, tie. See 
the allied sniomh and the next word below. 

snathad, a needle, Ir. sndthad, 0. Ir. sndthat, W. nodwydd, 0. Corn. 
notuid, Br. nadoz, nadoez ; *snata?itd, sndteijd, from sndt of 
snath above ; cf. Eng. needle, Goth, nefila, 0. H. G. nddala, 
Ger. nadel. 

sneachd, snow, so Ir., 0. Ir. snechta, pi. snechti, nives, W. nyf: 
*sniqtaio-, *snibi- (Welsh), I. E. snigh, sneigh ; Got. snaiws, 


Eng. snow, Ger. schnee ; Lat. nix, nivis ; Gr. vi<f>a (ace), 

v€i<f>ec, it snows ; Lit. sninga (vb.), snegas, snow ; Zend, gnizh. 
sneadh, a nit, Ir. sneagh, 0. Ir. sned, W. nedd, nits, Corn., nedhan, 

Br. nezenn : *sknidd ; Ag. S. hnitu, Eng. tw.$, Ger. nws ; Gr. 

KoviSes, nits. 
snicean, a stitch of clothing (Arg.) : 
Singh, drop, fall in drops, ooze through in drops, Ir. snidhim, 

E. Ir. snigim, W. di-n'eu, effundere, Br. di-nou, melt, thaw, 

I. E. sneigho-, wet ; Skr. snih, sne'hati, to be humid. Allied 

to sneachd. 
Sniomh, spin, wind, twist, Ir. sniomhaim, M. Ir. snimaire, a spindle. 

snim, spinning : *snemu-, root, sne, ne ; Gr. vrj/xa, yarn. See 

snath further. W. has nyddu, nere, Corn, nethe, Br. nczaft. 

In the sense of " sadness," there is E. Ir. snim, distress, Br. 

niff, chagrin, 
snod, affix a fishing hook to the line, Manx snooid ; from Sc. snood, 

the hair line to which the hook is attached, a fillet, Ag. S. 

snod, fillet, Eng. snood. 
snodan, rapid motion of a boat : 
snodha, snodha gaire, a smile ; see snuadh. 
snodhach, sap of a tree ; root mu, flow, Ir. snuadh, a stream, Gr. 

veto, swim, Eng. mot, Norse snua, turn, Got. sniwan, go. 
snoigeas, testiness ; from Sc. snog, snag, snarl, flout, 
snot, smell, snuff the wind, turn up the nose in smelling ; founded 

on Eng. snout. 
snuadh, hue, appearance, beauty, Ir. snuadh, M. Ir. snuad ; root 

snu, flow, as in E. Ir. snuad, hair, head of hair, Ir. snuadh, 

stream (see snodhach). 
SO, here, this, Ir. so, E. Ir., 0. Ir. seo, so : *sjo- (beside *so, as in 

-sa, -se), Skr. syd, sd, the, this, Ger. sie, she, they, 0. H. G. 

siu, she ( = Skr. syd, G. si). 
SO-, a prefix denoting good quality, Ir. so-, 0. Ir. so-, su-, W. hy, 

Br. he- ; Skr. su-, good, Zend. hu-. 
sdbhaidh, so'aidh, turn, prevent, 0. Ir. sdim, inf. sood, root sov, 

discussed under iompaidh. 
sobhrach, sdbhrach, (M'L.), primrose, Ir. sobhrog (Fol.), somhaicin 

(O'B.), sobhrach (O'K.), E. Ir. sobrach, g. sobarche : 
SOC, forepart of anything, ploughshare, snout, Ir. soc, E. Ir. socc, 

W. sweh (f.), Cor. soch, Br. soc'h, souch (m.; : *sncco-, snout, 

pig's snout, *sukku-, a pig, W. hivch, Cor. hoch, Br. hm'ch 

(Ag. S. sugu, Eng. sow, Lat. sUs, etc.). So Thurneysen {Rom., 

112), who clinches his argument by E. Ir. corr being both 

"crane" and "beak." Fr. soc, ploughshare, Eng. sock are 

from Celtic. Stokes suggests the possibility of Celtic being 


from Med. Lat. soccus, vomer, or allied to 0. H. G. seh, vomer, 

Lat. secare. 
socair, ease, easy, Ir. socair, easy, secure, M. Ir. soccair ; opposite 

is deacair, 0. Ir. deccair : *di-acair, *so-acair, from *acar, 

convenience, root cor, place, as in cuir. Hence acarach. 
SOChair, a benefit, emolument, Ir. sochar, emolument, wealth, 

ease, M. Ir. sochor, good contract {Sench. Mbr) ; from so- and 

cor, q.v. 
sochar, silliness, a yielding disposition, socharach, simple, com- 
pliant, Ir. socharach, obliging, easy, W. hygar, amiable, Br. 

hegar, benignus ; from so- and car, dear. The Ir. is also 

from sochar, ease, 
sochd, silence, Ir. sochd (O'R., Sh.), M. Ir. socht : *sop-tu-, root svop 

of suain (Dr Cameron). 
sod, noise of boiling water, steam of water in which meat is 

boiled, boiled meat, Ir. sod, boiled meat (O'B.) ; from Norse 

sob", broth or water in which meat has been boiled, Eng. 

sodden, seethe, sod, Sc. sotter, boil slowly, sottle, noise of 

boiling porridge, etc. 
sod, an awkward person, a stout person ; from Sc. sod, a heavy 

person, sodick, soudie, a clumsy heavy woman, 
sodag, a pillion, clout ; from Sc. sodds, a saddle made of cloth, 
sodal, pride, flattery, Ir. sodal, sotal, sutal, 0. Ir. sotla, pride, 

insolence, sotli, animositates ; this has been adduced as the 

source of Eng. sot, Fr. sot. According to Stokes *&put-tlo-, 

W. ffothyll, pustula, Lat. pustula, Skr. phutkar, puff (Stokes), 
sodan, caressing, joy, joyous reception : 

sodar, trotting, a trotting horse (Sh., Lh., etc.), Ir. sodar, trotting : 
sog, sogan, mirth, good humour, tipsiness ; from *sugg, a short 

form of the root of sugradh. 
sdgh, luxury, riot, Ir. sdgh, M. Ir. sodh, E. Ir. suaig, prosperous : 

*su-ag-, root ag of aghaidh, agh. 
soidealta, bashful, ignorant ; see saidealta. 
soidean, a jolly-looking or stout person ; see sod. . 
soighne, soighneas, pleasure, delight, Ir. sdighneas : so-gne-, 

root gen. 
soileas, officiousness, flattery, Ir. soilios ; from Lat. sollicitus ? 
soilgheas, wind, a fair wind : 
soilleir, clear, visible, Ir. soilleir : from so- and leir. The 11 is 

due to the analogy of soillse. 
soillse, brightness, so Ir., 0. Ir. soillse, soilse : *svelnestio- ; see 

solus for connections, 
soimeach, prosperous, easy, easy circumstanced, good-natured, 

seems to combine 0. Ir. somme, dives, and 0. Ir. soinmech, 


lucky, good, Ir. soinmheach, fortunate, happy. The former 
Stokes derives from so-imbi-s, for which see iomadh ; the 
latter is so-nem-ech, root nem, under neamh. M. Ir. 
somenmnach, good-spirited, is from meanmna. 

soin, esteem (n.), soineil, handsome ; cf. sdnraich for the root. 

soinionn, soineann, fair weather, Ir. soinean, M. Ir. soinend, E. 
Ir. sonend ; the opposite of soinionn is doinionn, for su-sin- 
enn, du-sin-enn, from sin now sian, weather, rain (Stokes). 

soir, the east, Ir. soir, E. Ir. sair ; from «s- (see suas) and air 
( = *are), on, q.v. 

soir, sack, vessel, bottle ; cf. searrag. 

soirbh, easy, gentle, soirbheas, success, wind, flatulence (Arg.), 
Ir. soirbh, 0. Ir. soirb, faoilis, opposed to doirh, difficilis, root 
reb or rib, manare (Ascoli). But compare Gaelic reabh. 

sois, snug, fond of ease (M'A.) ; from Sc. sosh, snug, social. 

soise, a ball of fire in the sky, a portent (M'A.) : 

SOisgeul, gospel, Ir. soisgeal, soisgeul, 0. Ir. soscele ; from so- and 

soisinn, taste, decency, rest, stillness ; from Sc. sonsy ? 

soitheach, a vessel, Ir. soitheach, M. Ir. soithcch, saithech : *sat'iko- : 

soitheamh, tame, docile, gentle *. *so-seimh, from seimh 1 So 
Munro, who writes soisheamh, 

sol, ere, before, Ir., E. Ir. sul ; root svel of seal. 

sdlach, highly delighted (M'A.; sollach, jolly, Arms.); founded 
on solas. Arm.'s word seems from Eng. jolly. 

solar, a provision, purveying, preparing, Ir. soldthar ; from so- 
and lathair. 

solas, joy, comfort, solace, Ir. sdlas ; from Lat. solatium, Eng. solace. 

sollain, a welcome, rejoicing, Ir. sqllamhuin, a solemnity, feast, 
rejoicing, E. Ir. sollamain ; from Lat. sollemne, Eng. solemnity. 

solus, light, Ir., M. Ir. solus, E. Ir. solus, bright : *svlnestu-, root 
svel ; Ag. S. svelan, glow, Eng. sultry ; Gr. <reAas, light, 
o-eXtjvrj, moon, ikavrj, torch ; Skr. svar, sheen, sun. 

somalta, bulky, large, placid ; from M. Ir. soma, abundance, with 
adj. terminations -ail and ta. See soimeach further. 

somh, convert, upset (Carm.) ; cf. Ir. s6m. 

son, sake, cause, air soil, on account of, Ir. son, ar son, M. Ir. son, 
er son ; from E. Ir. son, word (root sven of seinn) 1 

sona, happy, Ir., E. Ir. sona, opposite of dona : *so-gnd-vo-s, " well- 
doing" ; root gna of gniomh. 

SOnn, a stout man, hero ; from sonn, club, staff, M. Ir. suinn catha, 
captains, " staves of battle." Cf. N. stafn-buar, the stem 
men, or picked marines on the forecastle. Cf. Taillear dnbh 
na tuaighe was " ursainn chatha nan Camshronach." See sonn. 


sonn, a staff, cudgel, beam, Ir., E. Ir. sonn, W. flon, 0. W. fonn : 

*spo)ido-, Gr. arcfievSovrj, a sling, o-^eSavos, vehement ; Skr. 

spand, draw, move ; Lat. pendo, hang (Rhys). Stokes gives 

the stem *spundo, allied to Norse spjdt, a lance, 0. H. G. 

spioz, spit, spear. Cf. M. Lat. sponda, trabecula, repagulum. 
sonraich, appoint, ordain, Ir. sonraighim, sonrach. special, E. Ir. 

sunnraid, 0. Ir. sainriud, especially, sainred, proprietas, sain, 

singularis, proprius, 0. W. han, alium : *sani-, especially ; 

Got. sundro, privately, Eng. sunder ; Lat. sine, without ; Skr. 

sanutdr, without, 
sop, a wisp, Ir. sop, E. Ir. sopp, W. sob, sopen ; from Eng. sop, 

Norse soppa. Zimmer takes the Ir. from Norse svoppt*, 

sponge, ball ; Stokes derives it from Norse sdpr, besom. The 

W. sob, sopen favours an Eng. source. 
s6r, hesitate, grudge, shun : 
soraidh, a farewell, blessing, Ir. soraidh, happy, successful, M. Ir. 

soraid, E. Ir. soreid ; from so- and reidh. 
f sorcha, light, bright, Ir., E. Ir. sorcha ; opposite of dorch, q v. 
sorchan, rest or support, foot-stool, light stand, peer-man ; from 

sdrn, a flue, vent, Ir. s6rn, E. Ir. sornn, W. ffwrn, Corn, forn ; from 

Lat. furnus, oven, whence Eng. furnace. 
SOS, a coarse mess or mixture ; from Sc. soss. 
spad, kill, fell, Ir. spaidim, benumb, spaid, spad, a clod (cf. spairt), 

a sluggard, eunuch ; cf. W. ysbaddu, exhaust, geld, from Lat. 

spado, eunuch. Hence spadanta, benumbed, 
spad-, flat, Ir. spad- ; from *spad of spaid, spade ? 
spadag, a quarter or limb of an animal cut off; from L. Lat. 

spatula, a shoulder blade, spatula porcina, leg of pork, also 

spadula, a shoulder, spadlaris, a quarter of a beast. Cf. W. 

yspaud, shoulder. 
spadair, fop, braggart ; cf. Norse spjdtra, behave as a fop. See 

spadal, a paddle, plough-staff, so Ir. ; from M. Eng. spaddle, 
paddle, dim. of spade. 

spadhadh, a strong and quick pull, the utmost extent of the out- 
stretched arms, the grass cut by one scythe-stroke, spadh, a 
scythe's stroke (Bad.) ; from Lat. spatium. Meyer objects. 
If Stokes' theory were right spadh could be from root spa, 
pull, span. Cf. Eng. swath. 

spag, a claw or paw, limb of an animal, club-foot, spagach, club- 
footed or awkward in the legs, Ir. spdg, claw, club-foot, 
clumsy leg, W. ysbach, a claw ; spaga-da-ghlid, a buffoon, 
tomfool (Wh.) : 


spagach, uttering words indistinctly, spagadh, obliquity of the 

mouth, spaig, a wry mouth : 
spagluinn, ostentation, conceit : 
spaid, a spade, Ir. spdd ; from the Eng. 
spaideil, foppish, well-dressed : " strutting," from Lat. spatior, as 

in spaisdear below ? Cf., however, spadair. 
spailp, pride, conceit, spailpean, fop, Tr. spailp, spailpin, rascal, 

mean fellow, " spalpeen " : 
Spain, a spoon, Manx spain ; from Norse spdnn, sponn, spoon, 

chip, M. Eng. spon, Ag. S. spdn, chip. Ir. spundg, spoon, is 

from the Eng. 
spairn, an effort, struggle, Ir. spdirn, sbdirn, wrestling, struggling ; 

from the Norse sporna, kick with the feet, struggle, sperna, 

kick, spurn, Eng. spurn. Hennessey derived it from Eng. 

sparring (Athenceum, 15/8/71). 
spairiseach, foppish, spairis, having the hands in the trousers' 

pockets (M'A.) ; founded on Sc. spare, opening of the fore 

part of the breeches, 
spairt, a turf, clod, a splash, Ir. spairt ; verb spairt, daub, plaster, 

splash, brain, Ir. spairtim : cf. N. spar&a, pole-axe, whence 

M. Eng. spert or spart. 
spaisdear, spaidsear, a saunterer, spaisdeireachd, sauntering, Ir. 

spaisdeoireachd, promenading, walking ; Norse spdzera, walk, 

Dan. spadsere, Ger. spazieren, from Ital. (13th Cent.), spaziare: 

all from Lat. spatior, walk, promenade, 
spal, a shuttle, Ir. spdl ; from Norse spdla, a weaver's shuttle, M. 

Eng. spole, now spool, Ger. spule, bobbin, spool. Hence 

spalag, pea pod. 
spang, thin plate of metal, spangle j from Norse sp'ong, g. spangar, 

a spangle, M. Eng. spang, now spangle, Ag. S. spange, a clasp, 

Ger. spange, buckle, 
spann, sever, divide, wean (a child) ; from Sc. spain, spane, wean, 

prevent, confused with M. Eng. spannen, stretch, span, 
spann, a hinge, hasp; from the Eng. spang, a spangle, Ag. S. 

spang, a hasp; or Ag. S. spannan, to clasp, Norse spenna, 

spennir, grasper, Sc. spenn, to button, 
spaoill, speill, wrap, swathe : *svU, *sveil, as in till, etc. 
spardan, a roost, from spdrr. 
sparr, a joist, beam, roost, Ir. sparra, wedge, spear, E. Ir. sparr, 

a beam, joist j from Norse sparri, a spar, Swed., Dan. sparr e, 

0. H. G. sparro, bar, balk, Ger. sperren, a spar, Eng. spar. 

Hence G. sparr, drive as a nail or wedge, thrust, Ir. sparr aim ; 

G. sparrag, a bridle bit, " little bar." 
spathalt, a limb, a clumsy limb ; cf. spoil. 


sparsan, the dew-lap of a beast, Ir. sparsan (Lh., O'B.) ; see 

speach, a wasp, connspeach, for conas-beach, " wrangling or dog 

bee," from beach, bee 1 The Ir. for " wasp" is eircbheach. 

connspeach is referred by Stokes (Diet. 302) to *spekd, Gr. 

o-<£tj£ ; for phonetics cf . padhadh, piuthar, also speir and 

Speach, a blow, thrust, stitch in the side, Ir. speach, a kick : 
speach, door step (Carm.). 
spead, a very small foot or leg (M'A.), speadach, sheepskanked 

(M'A.), kicking (Badenoch, where spead means a cow's or 

sheep's kick) ; cf. M. Ir. spedudhud, a musical instrument (V), 

Kuno Meyer's " King and Hermit." Root sped-do-, spend-. 
speal, a scythe, Ir. speal, scythe, reaping hook, M. Ir. spel : 

*speld, Gr. xj/aXk, shears, root spal, clip, pull, further Eng. 

psalm (so Stokes). 
spealg", a splinter ; from Sc. spelk, a splint attached to a fracture, 

M. E. spelke, a splinter, Norse spjalk, spelkur, splint, Du. 

spealt, a splinter ; from Teutonic — M. Eng. spelde, now a spill, 

M. H. G. sprite, a splinter, Ger. spalten. 
spearrach, a cow-fetter, a fetter for wild goats ; see speireach. 
sp6"ic, a spike, Ir. speice j from Norse spik, a spike, Eng. spike, 

Ger. speiche. W. has ysbig. 
speil, cattle, herd, Ir. speil, herd of cattle or swine ; *speli-, allied 

to Lat. spolium (Stokes). 
sp6il, slide, skate ; from Sc. speil, play, bonspel, curling game, 

Ger. spielen, play, 
speir, hoof or ham of cattle, claw, talon, ankle and thereabouts of 

the human leg, Ir. speirr, hough, ham : *s-peri- ; compare W. 

fer, ankle, ber, leg, shank : Cor. fer, crus, E. Ir. seir, heel, 

di pherid : *speret-, Gr. a-^vpov, ankle, heel ; root sper, Eng. 

spwr, spurn, Lat. sperno, etc. 
speireach, spearrach, cow-fetter, foot fetter; from speir and 

*rich, tie, for which last see buarach. 
sp6"iread, strength, force, courage ; founded on Lat. spiritus. 
speireag, sparrow-hawk ; from M. Eng. sper-hauk, Ag. S. spear- 

hafoc, Norse sparrhaukr, from sparrow and hatvk. 
sp6"is, esteem, liking, Ir. spiis, M. Ir. sbeis ; seemingly from M. Ir. 

sbesailte, special, from Lat. species, look (cf. Eng. rt-spect). 
speuc, spiac, diverge, divaricate, tear asunder, branch ; from Sc. 

spaik, a spoke (in a wheel), Eng. spoke, Ag. S. spdea. 
speuclair, spectacles, Ir. speucldir, a glass, spectacles ; from the 



speur, the heaven, firmament, Ir. speur, speir ; from the L. Lat. 

spera, a hemisphere, circle (of each planet), celestial region, 

Lat. sphaera, a sphere (whence the Eng.), from Gr, cr^alpa, 

globe. Cf. Sc. spere, sphere, circle, " the speir of the moon." 
spid, spite, Ir. spid ; from the Eng. Hence, spideig or spideag, 

a taunt, 
spid, speed, haste ; from Eng. speed. 
spideag, nightingale (spideag, M.F.), Ir. spideog, robin: 
spideag, a delicate or slender creature (Arms, spideag) ; from Sc. 

spit, a little, hot-tempered person, spitten, a puny, mis- 
chievous person, Eng. spit. 
spideal, a spital, hospital, Ir. spideul, M. Ir. spidel ; from M. Eng. 

spitel, from O. Fr. ospital, from Lat. hospitale. 
spidean, pinnacle ; " spidean an teampuill " : 
spiligean, a seedling, dwarfish person : 
spioc, meanness, dastardliness, spiocach, mean : 
spiocaid, a spigot, Ir. spiocaid (O'R.) ; from Eng. sources — 

M. Eng. spigot, Eng. spike. 
spiochan, wheezing, Ir. spiochan ; see piochan. 
spiol, nibble, peel, pluck, Ir. spiolaim, spialaim, snatch, pluck. 

See piol. 
spiolg, unhusk, shell ; from the Sc. spilk, pilk, shell pease, etc., 

spilkins, split pease. Cf. spealg. 
spion, pluck up, pull, tear, Ir. spionaim, teaze, probe, pluck, 

examine ; cf. M. Ir. spin, a thorn, from Lat. spina, thorn, 
spionnadh, strength, Ir. spionnadh, spionnamhail, strong (Keat.) : 

*sphen or *sven ; see faod. 
spiontag, a currant, a particle in the throat, a maggot, a drop of 

rain or flake of snow, Ir. spiondn, a gooseberry, M. Ir. spinan ; 

from Lat. spina. 
spiorad, a spirit, so Ir., 0. Ir. spiurt, spirut ; from Lat. spiritus, 

Eng. spirit. W. has ysbryd, Corn, speris, Br. speret. 
spiosradh, spice, Ir. spiosra ; from Eng. spicery, 0. Fr. espicerie, 

spices, from Lat. species. 
spiris, a hen-roost, hammock ; from Norse sperra, a spar, rafter, 

with a leaning on G. iris, roost, 
spisniche, pillar, support (Carm.) : 
spitheag, a chip, spelk, small bit of wood, bite, Ir. spiothdg, a 

finger stone for throwing at an object (Con., Sh.), spitheog, a 

flake of snow ; a borrowed word belonging to the Eng. group 

spike, spigot, but likely taken from Norse spik, sprig, spike, 
splang, a sparkle, flash, Ir. splanc : 
splang'aid, a snot, mucus, Ir. spleangaid (O'R.) ; a side-form of 

sg long aid 1 


spleadh, a splay foot ; from Eng. splay. 

spleadh, ostentation, romance, false flattery, Ir. spleadh ; from 

M. Eng. spleien, display, from displeien, now display. 
spleadhan, a sort of wooden paddle to dig up sand eels ; see 

spleuchd, spliachd, stare, squint, spread out by trampling : 
spliuc, fluke of an anchor (M'A.) ; founded on Eng. fluke. 
spliuchan, spliucan, tobacco pouch, Ir. spliuchdn, a pouch, bag, 

leather purse ; hence Sc. spleuchan. Cf. W. blwch, a box. 
spliug, a snot, icicle, anything hanging down : *s-cluig ? Cf. 

spliugach, splay-footed : 

spliuig, a discontented countenance : 

spliut, a lame hand or foot, splay foot ; see pliut. 

sp6c, a spoke ; from the Eng. 

spoch, address one quickly and angrily, intimidate, affront, attack, 

Ir. spochaim, provoke, affront, rob ; cf. spoth. 
Sp6g, spag", a claw, paw, Manx spaag, Ir. spdg, W. ysbach : 
spoil, a quarter (as of a sheep, M'A.), spold, a piece or joint of 

meat, Ir. spodhla, spdlla, a piece of meat; from Sc. spaul, 

limb, spald, shoulder, from old Fr. espaule, espalle, L. Lat. 

spatula, shoulder, whence Eng. epaulet. Ir. spolla is also 

hence. Cf. spadag, spathalt. 
spolladach, sottish : 
sp61t, mangle, slaughter, hew down in battle, also (Dial. Badenoch) 

splutter j from the English. Cf. M. Eng. splatten, cut open, 

Sc. sploit, squirt, spout, spoltadh, drops flying out of a vessel 

when boiling or stirred carelessly, 
spong, sponge, tinder, Ir. sponc, E. Ir. sponge, W. ysbwng, sponge, 

Corn, spong, Br. spone, sponenk ; from Lat. spongia, sponge, 

from Gr. cnroyytd, allied to Lat. fungus. 
spor, a spur, claw, talon, Ir. spor, M. Ir. sbor, a spur for a horse ; 

from Norse spori, a spur, spor, foot trace, Dan. spore, Swed. 

sporre, Eng. spur, Ag. S. spora ; root sper of speir, etc. 

Hence sporadh, inciting, scraping the earth (as a hen), Sc. 

spor, tinder, flint, gun-flint ; from Eng. spar. 
sporan, a purse, Ir. spardn, spordn, sbarrdn, M. Ir. sboran, W. 

ysbur : *s-burr- from *burs, from L. Lat. bursa, a purse, 

whence Eng. purse, bursary, ; originally from Gr. Pvpo-r], a 

sporracan, crumbs (M'F.) : 
spors, sport, lr. sport (Fol.) ; from the Eng. 
spot, a spot 3 from the Eng. 


spoth, geld, castrate, Ir. spothaim, M. Ir. spochad (n.), W. dysbaddu, 

Br. spaza ; from Lat. spado, eunuch, whence Eng. spay. The 

M. Ir. spochad is thought by Stokes to be from Br. spac'hein 

spracadh, strength, sprightliness, Ir. spracadh ; from Eng. sprack, 

lively, Norse spraekr, lively, Swed. spraker ; from Norse also 

comes Eng. spark — Norse sparkr. 
spraic, a severe reprimand ; see spreig. 
spraidh, a loud blast, report of a gun ; cf. Sc. spraich, a cry, 

Norse spraki, a report, 
spreadh, burst, sound loudly while bursting, kill, Ir. spreidhim, 

spread, burst (spreighim, O'B.), E. Ir. spredaire, brush for 

sprinkling the holy water; from M. Eng. spraeden, now spread. 
spreangan, a cloven stick for closing the wound of bled cattle ; 

from Eng. springe, twig, rod, snare with flexible rod. 
spraidh, cattle, Ir. spre(idh), M. Ir. spre, spreid, W. praidd, flock, 

booty ; from Lat. praeda, booty. Hence Sc. spreith, booty, 
spreig, blame, reprove, incite, Ir. spreagaim ; founded on M. Eng. 

spraechen, now speak, Ger. sprechen. 
spreigh, scatter, burst ; see spreadh. 
spreill, blubber lip : *s-breill, from breall ? 
spreisneach, the remains of a wreck : 
spre6chan, weakness, weak person ; for *s-brebch-, being the same 

in root as brebclaid ? 
spredd, spreod (H.S.D.), a projecting beam, crann spreoid, a bow- 
sprit ; from M. Eng. spreot, a sprit, now sprit ; Ag. S. spreot, 

M. Du. spriet. Hence spredd, incite, 
sprochd, dejection, sadness, Ir. sprochd : *s-broc, M. Ir. broc, 

sorrow, anxiety (also sbrog). Cf. murcach for root ; or brbn ? 
sprogan, sprogaill, dewlap, bird's crop, Ir. sprogaille, sbroyaill, 

also sgroban, sgrogul, neck : *s-broggo-. See braghad. 
spronnan, a crumb ; from pronn. 
sprot, single stick (Lewis) : N. sproti, stick, 
spruan, brushwood, firewood, Ir. sprudn : *s-bruan, from bruon. 

M'A. has sprudhan, fragments. 
sprudan, fingers, sprouts ; from the Eng. sprout. 
spruileach, spruidhleach, crumbs, fragments, Ir. spruille(ach), 

crumb, fragment, sprudhaille (Lh.), M. Ir. sbruileach. Cf. 

spruan. M. Ir. has also spuirech, fragmentum, W. ysbwrial, 

sweepings, ysborion, refuse of fodder. w 

spruiseil, spruce, neat, Ir. spruiseamhuil ; from the Eng. spruce. 
spruithean, claw (as of eagle) : 
spuaic, crown of the head, a pinnacle, callosity, blister, Ir. spuaic. 

a welt, callus, pinnacle : 


spuidsear, baling ladle (N.H.) : cf. Eng. spudge. 

spuill, spoil, plunder ; from Sc. spulye, lay waste, plunder, Eng. 

spoil, Fr. spolier, Lat. spoliare. W. has ysbail, a spoil, 
spuinn, spoil, plunder, Ir. spuinim ; another form of spuill, 

borrowed directly from Lat. spoliare ? 
-K spuirse, spurge, milkweed, Ir. spuirse ; from the Eng. spurge, 

M. Eng. sporge. 
spull, nail of a cat, a clutch, spullach, nailed, greedy (M'A.) : 
spursan, a gizzard, Ir. spursdn ; cf. sparsan, dewlap, 
sput, a spout ; from the Sc. spool, Eng. spout. 
srabh, a straw ; from the Eng. : 
srabh, falling water (Carm.) : 
srabhard, strife (Suth. R.D.) : 
srac, tear, rend, rob, Ir. sracaim ; G. has also racadh : *srakko-, 

for rap-ko-, root rap of Lat. rapio ? 
srad, a spark of fire, Ir. srad : *sraddd, from strad or str-d, root 

ster, as in Eng. star, Gr. do-T^p. M. Ir. has srab-tine, light- 
ning, from the same root, 
sraid, a street, Ir. srdid, E. Ir. srdit ; from Lat. strdtd (via), 

whence Eng. street. K. Meyer derives it from Norse straeti, 

which itself comes from Lat. 
sraidean, the plant shepherd's purse, Ir. sraidin (srdidin, (O'B.) ; 

cf. srad. 
sraigh, the cartilage of the nose, sneeze (M'A.) ; cf. root of srbn. 
sramh, a jet of milk from the cow's udder, Ir. sramh (srdmh, O'R.) ; 

root ster, str, strew. 
srann, a snore, buzz, Ir. srann, E. Ir. srand, 0. Ir. srennim, sterto : 

*stre-s-no-, root ster, pster of Lat. sterto, snore, sternno, sneeze 

(see sreothart further). Stokes makes the Gadelic to be 

*strenvo, like Lat. sternuo. 
sraon, stumble, make a false step, rush forward violently ; cf. Ir. 

sraoinim, defeat, overthrow, scatter, M. Ir. srdined, dragging 

down, defeat, E. Ir. sroenim, hurl, drag, defeat : *sroino-, 

root ster, strew, scatter (Eng. strew, etc.). 
sraoiiais, a huff, snuffiness ; M'A. has srdin, a huff : from srbn, 

sratli, a valley, strath, Ir., M. Ir. srath, meadow land or holm 

along banks of a river or loch, often swampy (Joyce), 0. Ir. 

israth, in gramme, W. ystrad, strath, E. W. strat, istrat, 

planities : *stratu-, root ster, spread, scatter ; Lat. strdtus, 

from sterna, I strew ; Gr. crr/acoTos, spread, oropevvvfxi, scatter ; 

Eng. strew, strand (?). 
srathair, a pack-saddle, Ir., 0. Ir. srathar, W. ystrodyr ; from 

Mod. Lat. stratura, from stratum, sterno, spread. 


sream, rheum (M'A.), a wrinkle, sreamach, blear eyed, Ir. srdm, 

eye rheum, srdmach^ blear-eyed, sremach (F. M.). Stokes 

derives this from Ag. S. stred?n, Eng. stream. 
sreamadh, curbing or checking by the nose : 
sreang, a string, Ir. srang, sreang, E. Ir. sreng : *srengo-, strengo-, 

Gadelic root streg ; immediately allied either to Eng. string, 

Norse strengr, Ger. Strang (I. E. stregh, Gr. o-r/ac^co, turn), or 

to Lat. stringo, bind, draw, Ger. strick, string (I. E. streg). 

The I. E. roots streg and stregh are allied ultimately, sraing, 

lie, embroidery (Hend.). 
sreath, a row, series, Ir. sreath, 0. Ir. sreth : *srito-, *sr-to-, root 

ser, order, join ; Lat. series, row, sors, lot. 
sreathan, filmy skin covering unborn calf (H.S.D., etc.). When 

dried, it was used for covering vessels : 
sreothart, a sneeze, Ir. sraoth, sraothfurtach, earlier sreod, W. 

trew, y strew, a sneeze, ystrewi (vb.), Br. strefia, strevia (vb.), 

root streu, pstreu (Stokes), further ster, pster, Lat. sternuo, 

sneeze, Gr. irrapwyiai (do.). 
sriail, a bridle, Ir. srian, E. Ir. srian, W. ffrwyn ; from Lat. 

frenum (through W.). 
srideag, a drop, spark, srideach, white streaked with dark : 

*sriddi, root srd of srad. 
sringlean, the strangles ; founded on the English, 
sruit, a torrent of quick words ; founded on smth. 
srobadh, a push (Sh.), small quantity of liquor (A. M'D.) ; see 

sroghall, a whip, so Ir., E. Ir. sraigell, 0. Ir. srogill (gen.), W. 

ffrowyll ; from Lat. flagellum. 
sr61, a streamer, banner, silk, Ir. srdl, satin, byssus ; from Lat. 

stragulus, coverlet, pall, whence Cor. strait, tapestry, W. 

ystraill, a mat. Stokes (Lismore) has suggested a form 

*frol, *fldr, Fr. velours, velvet, Br. flour, velveted. 
sroil, a nose, Ir., 0. Ir. srdn, W. ffroen, Br. froan : *srognd ; 

*srokn& (Stokes, Gr. /oeyx w > snore, snort, peyKot), *sprognd 

(Strachan), to which Lat. spar go has been compared. W. has 

also trwyn (*trugno- or trogni-), Cor. trein. 
sruab, drink up with noise of the lips, pull hastily out of the 

water : *sroubbo-, root sreub 1 Cf. sriib, and Lit. sriaubiu, 

sup, lap up, Ch. SI. sriibati, swallow, Lat. sorbeo, Eng. 

sruan, shortbread cake having five corners (M'A. for Islay) : 
srub, a spout ; from the Sc. stroup, spout, M. Eng. strupe, throat, 

Norse strjupi, the spouting trunk when the head is cut off, 

Swed. strupe, throat. Hence sruban, a cockle. 


sruth, a stream, Ir., 0. Ir. sruth, g. srotha, W. ffrwd, Cor. frot, 
alveus, Br. froud : *srutu-, root sreu, flow ; Gr. /aixrts, a 
flowing, pevfia, a stream, /Sew, flow ; Eng. stream, Norse 
straumr ; Lit. sravju, flow. Some have referred the Celtic 
words to the root spreut, spreu, to well, Ger. sprudel, a well, 
spruhen, emit sparks, drizzle, further Eng. spurt, spout. 

sruthladh, rinsing, half-washing, Ir. sruthlaighim ; from sruth. 
/ x sta, advantage, use ; from the Eng. — founded on stay 1 

stabhach, wide, asunder, straddling, Ir. stabhaighim, straddle : 

stabhaic, a wry neck, a sullen attitude of the head (M'A.) ; see 
stuichd. Pronounced in Arg. staoi'c, staghaic. 

stabull, a stable, Ir. stabla; from Lat. stabulum, through the 

stac, a precipice, steep hill, M. Ir. stacc, a stack (F.M.), stacc, a 
pile, piece ; from Norse stakkr, a stack (of hay), stahha, a 
stump, Swed. stack, a stack, Sc. (Shetland, etc.) stack, a 
columnar isolated rock, Eng. stack. 

stad, a stop, Ir. stad, E. Ir. stad (Cormac) ; founded on Lat. status, 
position, stat, stands (Hennessey, Stokes). Cf. Norse sta&a, a 
standing, a position. Ascoli compares 0. Ir. astaim, sisto 
( --^ ad-sad-to-, root sed of suidhe). 

stadh (better stagh), a stay, a certain rope in ship's rigging ; from 
Norse stag (do.), Eng. stay, Dan., Ger. stag. 

stadhadh, a lurch, sudden bend : 

staid, state, condition, Ir. stdid, M. Ir. stait ; from Lat. statio (K. 
Meyer). W. has ystdd, from Lat. status. Ir. stdid may be 
from the Eng. See next word. 

staideil, stately, Ir. stdideamhuil ; from Eng. state, stately. 

staidhir, a stair, Ir. staighre, M. Ir. staigre ; from the Eng., and 
Ag. S. stdeger. The G. is possibly from Eng. stair, just as 
paidhir &ndfaidhir are from pair &nd fair (Dr Cameron). 

stail, a bandage, strap : 

stailc, stubbornness, stop, stump, Ir. stailc ; cf. tailce ; cf. N. stilkr, 

stailinn, steel ; from Norse stdl, steel, stdlin weapons (pi.), Ger. 
stahl, Eng. steel. 

staing, a peg, small pointed rock ; from Norse stong, g. stangar, a 
pole, Sc. and Eng. stang. 

staing, a well-built person or animal (M'A.), staingean, obstinate 
boorish person, Ir. stainc, incivility ; from the above. 

staipeal, a stopple, Ir. stapal (O'R.) ; from the Sc. stappil, Eng. 

staipeal, stapull, a staple, bar ; from Eng. staple. 


Stair, a path over a bog, stepping stones in a river. Dr Cameron 

has suggested connection with Du. steiger, waterside stairs, 

Eng. stair. For s-tar, from *tar, cross (see thar) 1 
stairirich, a rattling, a rumbling noise ; also dairireach, q.v. 

For s-dairirich. 
stairn, a particle, small quantity (Perth) ; from Sc. starn, particle, 

grain, star, from star. 
stairn, noise (as the tread of horses), a violent push : *s-tairn ; 

see tairneanach for root. Cf. Ir. stathruim, clatter, din. 
stairneil, stairneanach (Suth.), conceited, ostentatious; from 

stairn, noise : " creating a furore." Eng. stern ? 
stairsneach, stairseach, a threshold, Ir. tairseack, E. Ir. tairsech : 

" cross beam or stone " ; for root see tarsuinn, transverse, 
stairt, a considerable distance, trip (M'A.) \ from Eng. start ? 
stait, a magistrate or great man, staitean, great men ; see stat. 
stalan, a stallion, Ir. stail ; from the English, 
stale, stiffen, stalcanta, firm, strong ; for s-talc ; see tailce. M'A. 

gives stale as meaning " dash one's foot against (Islay), 

thread a hook, thump, stare." In the meaning of "stalk," 

the word is from the Eng. 
stalla, an overhanging rock, craggy steep, precipice, stall, a peat 

bank ; from Norse stallr, any block or shelf on which another 

thing is placed, pedestal, step of a mast, stall, stalli, an altar, 

Eng. stall, Lit. stalas, table, 
stallachdach, stupidly deaf, heedless ( Wh.) : 
stalladh, dashing against, thumping (M'A.) : 
stamag, a stomach j from the Eng. 
stamh, sea tangle, staf (Lewis), N. stafr, staff. 
stamhnaich, reduce to order, subject, break in, drub (M'A.), 

stannadh, subject (Heb.) ; from N. stafr, a stick, stafafyir, 

rule, fyrir stafni, aim at, stafn, stem % 
stamp, stamp, trample, Ir. stampdil, a stamping, prancing ; from 

Eng. stamp. 
t Stan, tin, Ir. stdn, W. ystaen, Cor., Br. stean ; from Lat. stannum, 

tin (for *stagnum ; cf. Ital. stagno). See staoin. 
Stan, a stan, below, down ; Sutherland form of a bhan, on analogy 

of a' s i-fhoghar, a' s ^-samhradh, etc. : 
stang, a ditch, pool ; from Sc. stank, 0. Fr. estang, now etang, 

from Lat. stagnum. 
Stang, sting, from Sc. stang, sting (as a bee), a sting, Norse 

stanga, prick, goad ; further Eng. sting. 
stangarra, the fish stickleback ; from stang, sting. 



stanna, a vat, tub, Ir. stanna, vat, barrel ; from Eng. tun, ton, 

M. Eng. tonne. See tunna. 
/ stannart, a standard, yard, limit ; from the Eng. It also means 

"affected coyness." 
staoig, a collop, steak, Ir. staoig, M. Ir. stdic ; from Norse steik, 

Eng. steak (Stokes, K. Meyer), 
staoin, pewter, tin ; see stan. 
staoin, juniper, caoran staoin : 
staoin, laziness : 

staon, bent, awry, shallow (Hend.), Ir. staon : 
staorum, bending of the body to a side ; for staon-um. 
stapag 1 , a mixture of meal and cold water ; from Sc. stappack (do.), 

stap, mix, hash, Norse stappa, bray in a mortar, 
staplaich, loud noise, noise of the sea : 
stapull, a bar, bolt, staple ; see staipeal. 
starach, cunning, deceitful (Suth.) : 
starachd, romping, blustering (M'A.) : 
starbhanach, a strong, robust fellow : 

starcach, firm ; from Norse starkr, strong, Eng., Ger. stark. 
Starr, shove, dash, starradh, pushing violently, dashing against, 

a failing or freak, cnap-starradh, a stumbling-block, obstruc- 
tion, a ball on the end of a spear ; cf. starr-(shuileach). 
starr-f hiacail, a tusk or gag-tooth, Ir. stairfhiacail ; from starr 

and fiacail. 
starr-shuileach, having the eyes distorted, stard, a moon-eye 

(M'A.) ; cf. Norse starblindr, blind with a cataract, 0. H. G. 

starablind, Ger. starr, stiff, Eng. stare, " fixed " look, Sc. stare, 

stiff, starr, sedge, star, a speck on the eye. 
Stat, pride, haughtiness, Ir. stdtamhuil, stately ; from the Eng. 

state, M. Eng. stdt, from Lat. status. Cf. staideil, stdta. 
y Stata, the state or Government ; from the Eng. 

Steach, a steach, (to) within, into, Ir. steach, a steach, M. Ir. is 

tech, E. Ir. isa tech: *in-san-tech, "into the house;", from 

teach. Cf. stigh. 
steadhainn, firm, pointed or punctual in speech (M'A.) ; cf. Eng. 

steafag, a little staff or stick, Ir. steafog ; from Eng. staff. 
Steairn, a blazing fire (Perth), " a drop in the e'e " : 
Steall, spout, cause to spout, pour out, Ir. steallaim, squirt, 

sprinkle, steallaire, a tap ; from Lat. stillo, I drop, Eng. distill. 
Stear, a pole to kill birds with (Carm.) : 
stearnal, a bittern, sea-bird, an inn-keeper's sign : 
st^idh, foundation ; from Norse staefri, staetSa, establish, Ork. 

steeth, foundation, steethe, to found. 


steill, a peg or pin for things hung ; cf. Sc. stell, a prop, 
st^illeach (steilleach, M'F.), lusty, stout, ruddy ; cf. st&dheil, 

steady, solid, from sUidh. 
steinle, the itch, mange, Ir. steinle (Lh., etc.) ; from teine, fire 1 
steoc, any person or thing standing (or sticking) upward, an 

attendant (steocair also) ; from Sc. stog, stug, stook, stubble, 

stumpy horns, stok, Eng. stick. 
ste6rn, guide, direct, manage ; from Norse stjorna (do.), stjdrn, 

steering, rule, Eng. stern, steer. See stiuir. 
/. steud, a horse, steed, Ir. stead (O'R), M. Ir. sted ; from Ag. S. 

steda, Ag. S. steda, M. Eng. stede, now steed. 
stiall, a strip, stripe, streak, Ir. stiall, E. Ir. stiall, girdle, strap, 

board ; cf. W. astell, M. W. ystyll, shingle, plank, Corn, stil, 

rafter, 0. Fr. esteil, pole, Lat. astella, splinter, or from 

0. H. G. stihhil, pole, post. 
Stic, a fault, blemish, pain ; from Sc. stick, a bungle or botch, 

Eng. stick, stitch (older sticke). 
stic, adhere, stick ; from the Eng. 
Stic, ghostly person, "imp" (Carm.) ; N. stygr, shy. 
stid, peep, Manx steetagh, to peep ; see did. 
stidean (stidean, H.S.D.), a cat, the word by which a cat is called 

to one (also stididh and tididh, from Sc. cheet, cheety, puss, 

cat, Eng. chit, cub, youngster ; from cat, like kitten). 
stig, a skulking or abject look or attitude ; from Norse stygr, 

Stigh, a stigh, inside, Ir. 'stigh, astigh, E. Ir. istig, istaig, isintig ; 

for *in-san-tig, " in the house," from tigh, house, 
stinleag, the hinge of a box, hasp : 
-' stiobull, a steeple ; from the Eng. 

■f stiocach, limping : " sticking " % From the Eng. anyway. 
* stiog, a stripe in cloth (M'A.) ; from Sc. steik, Eng. stitch. 

stiom, stim, a head-band, snood : 
x stiorap, a stirrup, Ir. stioroip ; from M. Eng. stirop, Ag. S. stigrdp. 
stiorc, stretch (at death, Arg.) ; from Eng. stark ) 
stiorlag, a thin, worn-out rag, an emaciated woman, stiorlan, a 

thin person ; stiorlach, thin gruel (M'D.) ; stirlean, thin 

gruel or watery stuff (Bad.) : 
stiornach, sturgeon (M'A.), stirean ; from Lat. sturio(n), whence, 

through Fr., Eng. sturgeon. 
stipean, a stipend ; from the Eng. 
v stiubhard, a steward, Ir. stiobhard ; from the Eng. 

stiuir, steer, guide, Ir. sdiuirim, M. Ir. stiurad or stiurad ; from 

Ag. S. stebran, steer, now steer, Norse styra, Got. stiurjan. 
stiup, a long tail or train, a foolish person. In the latter sense, 

the G. is from Sc. stupe, from Lat. stupidus. 



stiuireag, gruel ; from the Sc. stooram, stooradrink, stourreen, 

sturoch, a warm drink, meal and water mixed, from stoor, to 

stir, agitate. 
stob, thrust, stab, fix (as a stake), stob, a stake, stick, stob (Sc.), 

Ir. stobaim, stab, thrust ; from Sc. stob, a side-form of Eng. 

stab. Cf. Norse stobbi, a stump, Eng. stub, M. Eng. stob. 
stdbh, a stove ; from the Eng. 

stoc, a stock, pillar, stump, Ir. stoc ; from Eng. stock. 
Stoc, a trumpet, so Ir., M. Ir. stocc, E. Ir. stoc ; cf. Sc. stock-home, 

stock-and-hom, a pipe formed of a sheep's thigh-bone inserted 

into the smaller end of a cut horn, with an oaten reed, from 

Eng. stock. Gadelic is borrowed, 
stocain, a stocking, Ir. stoca ; from the Eng. 
stoim, a particle, whit, faintest glimpse of anything (Dial.) ; from 

Sc. styme. 
stoirm, a storm, Ir. stoirm ; from Eng., M. Eng. storm, Norse 

stormr, Ger. sturm. 
stdite, prominent ; cf. stdt for origin, 
stdl, a stool, settle, Ir. stbl, W. ystol ; from Ag. S. st6l, now stool, 

Norse stdll, Ger. stuhl. Hence vb. stdl, settle. 
stop, a wooden vessel for liquor, a stoup, Ir. stopa, a " stoup " or 

wooden pail ; from Sc. stoup, M. Eng. stope, now stoup, Du. 

stoop, a gallon, Norse staup, a stoup. 
stop, stop, close up, Ir. stopaim ; from the Eng. 
Stdr, a steep cliff, broken teeth ; cf. sturr, starr. Norse stor. 
stdras, store, wealth, Ir. stor, stdrus ; from M. Eng. stor. 
stoth, lop off, cut corn high : 
stoth, hot steam, vapour ; see toth. 
Strabaid, a strumpet, Ir. strabdid; from an early form of Eng. 

strumpet, that is, *stropet, from 0. Fr. strupe, concubinage, 

stupre, from Lat. stuprum. 
strac, a stroke, ship or boat plank ; from Sc. stroke, Eng. stroke ; 

from Sc. straik, strait-edge for measuring corn, comes G. 

strac (do.). Similarly G. strac, mower's whetstone, is from 

stroke ; all are from the root of Eng. stroke, strike, 
stracair, troublesome fellow, gossip, wanderer ; from Norse strdkr, 

a vagabond, etc. 
straic, pride, swelling with anger, Ir. strdic : 
straighlich, rattling, great noise, sparkles ; root sprag, sporg, 

crackle, Eng. spark, sparkle, Lit. sprageti, crackle. 
Straille, carpet ; from Lat. strdgulum, coverlet, 
strangair, a lazy, quarrelsome fellow, Ir. strangaire ; cf. dreangan. 
Streafan, film, carpet (Carm.) : 

streap, climb, strive against obstacles, Ir. dreapaim ; cf. dreimire. 
Streodag, a little liquor (Skye) : 


- streud, a row, line (Suth.) ; from Eng. street. 

streup, streapaid, strife, quarrel ; from Lat. strepitus. 

stri, strife, contention j from Norse strift, Ag. S. strict, Ger. streit. 

strianach, a badger : 

strioch, a streak, line, Ir. strioc ; from Eng. streak. 

strlochd, yield, Ir. striocaim, striocail (inf.), fall, be humbled, 
submit : 

strioghach, prodigal (Rob.) : 

strlopach, a prostitute, Ir. striopach ; from 0. Fr. strupe, concu- 
binage, from Lat. stuprum, dishonour, violation. 

strddh, prodigality, Ir. stro, strbgh ; seemingly (because of pre- 
served st in all cases) borrowed from, rather than allied to, 
M. Eng. strawen, strew, Ag. S. streowian, Got. straujan, I. E. 
st7ou, stru. Hence G. struidheas, prodigality, squandering. 

Strdic (stroic, Arm.), tear asunder, a long rag, strip torn off, Ir. 
stroicim, strdicim, sroic, a piece : *srakki-, from srac, confused 
with strddh 1 

strolamas, mess (Glenmoriston) : 

stropach, wrinkled (H.S.D.) : 

struidheas, prodigality ; see strddh. 

Struill, a baton, cudgel, Ir. sroghall, whip, rod, 0. Ir. sraigell ; 
see sroghall. 
A . strumpaid, a strumpet ; from the Eng. 

struth, ostrich, Ir. struth ; from Lat. struthio, whence, through 
0. Fr. ostruche ( = avis struthio), Eng. ostrich. 

struthan, cake made on St. Michael's eve and eaten on his day 
(Carm.) : 

stuadh, a wave, gable, pinnacle, scroll, Ir. stuadh, gable, pinnacle, 
scroll, stuaidh-nimhe, rainbow, M. Ir. stuag-nime (do.), stuaid- 
le'im, leap of the waves, E. Ir. stuag, arch : *s-tuag, from 
0. Ir. tuag, bow, belonging to the same root as tuagh, axe. 

stuaic (M'A., Arm.), stuaichd (H.S.D.), a little hill, round 
promontory, Ir. stuaic : *s-tuag-c, from stuadh above. M'A. 
has the meaning " wry-neck and sullen countenance, extreme 
boorishness," which is usually represented by stuic. Stokes 
gives the Celtic as *stoukki-, Br. stuckyaf, to feather, Lit. 
stiigti, set on high, Eng. steep. 

stuaim, modesty, Ir. stuaim, device, mien, modesty : *s-tuamm-, 
*tous-men, root tus, teus of tosd, silence. 

stuc, stuchd, a little hill jutting out from a greater, a horn, Ir. 
stucdn, a small conical hill, stucach, horned ; from Teutonic 
— N. stuka, wing of a building ; So., Eng. stook, M. Eng. 
stouke, a shock of corn (12 sheaves), stooks, small horns, Low 
Ger. stuke (properly a projection), a bundle, bunch. But 
cf. stuaic. 


Stuic, stuichd, a projecting crag, an angry or threatening aspect ; 
from stuc above. 

stuidearra, studious, steady, glum, Ir. stuideurach, stuideur, a 
_.,• stuig, incite, spur on dogs ; from Eng. stick. 

^ stuird, huffiness, pride, Ir. stuirteamhlachd (Con.) ; from M. Eng. 
sturte, impetuosity, sturten, impetuous, quarrelsome, Sc. sturt, 
vexation, anger, a side form of start. 

stuirt, vertigo, a disease in sheep caused by water in the head, 
drunkenness j from Sc. sturdy, from 0. F. estourdi, dizzy- 
headed, now etourdi, giddy-headed ; from Lat. extorpidire. 
From Fr. comes Eng. sturdy, 
i stur, dust ; from Sc. stour, M. Eng. stour, tumult. 

sturr, the rugged point of a rock or hill, sturrach, rugged : 
*s-tiirr, from turr = tbrr, q.v. 1 Cf. N. staurr. 
, stuth, stuff, metal ; founded on the Eng. stuff. 
- stuthaig, dress with starch, starch (vb. and n.) ; from Sc. stiffing, 
starch, Eng. stiff. Perthshire has stifinn. 

suabag, a sweeping blow (Suth. KD.) : 

suacan, a pot (M'F.), earthen furnace (Arm.), a basket hung in 
the chimney containing wood to dry (Dial.), anything 
wrought together awkwardly, as clay (M'A.), Ir. suachgan 
(Lh.), an earthen pot ; from suath % 

suaicean, a bundle of straw or hay twisted together, a deformed 
person ; see siigan. 

suaicheantas. ensign, escutcheon, Ir. suaitheantas, a streamer, 
standard, escutcheon, su-aichintus, ensigns, colours (K. Meyer), 
0. Ir. suaichnid, clear, demonstrate, for su-aithne, " easily 
known," from aithne, knowledge. 

suail, small, inconsiderable (M'F.), Ir. suaill, E. Ir. suail, a trifle : 

suaimhneach, genial, secure, Ir. suaimhneach, peaceful, gentle, 
peaceable : *su-menmnach % See meamna. 

suaill, sleep, Ir. suan, E. Ir., 0. Ir. suan, W. hurt, Br. hurt : 
*supno-s, developing into *sofno-, *sovno, *souno- ; I. E. root 
svop, svep, sleep ; Lat. sopor, sleep, somnus ; Gr. vttvos, sleep ; 
Ag. S. swefn, dream, swefan, sleep ; Skr. svdprms. 

suaineadh, twisting, rope-twisting anything, a line for twisting 
round anything, E. Ir., 0. Ir. suanem, g. suaneman, funis : 
*sognemon-, root sug, soug, Br. sug, trace, W. syg, chain, 
trace ; Romance soga, rope, Ital. soga, rope, leather band, Sp. 
soga, a linear measure, Port, soga, rush rope, Churwalsch 
saga. Stokes finally refers suanem to a stem-root *sogno- 
beside segno- (whence E. Ir. sen, a net for catching birds, gin, 
root segh, hold, Eng. sail), Lit. segu, fasten, saga, sledge. 


This divorces suaineadh from G. suaicean and sugan, q.v. 

Cf. W. hwynyn, hoenyn, a hair from a horse's tail, gin. 
suaip, a faint resemblance ; from Sc. swaup, swap, cast or linea- 
ments of the countenance, Norse svipr, likeness, look, a swoop 

or flash. 
-( suaip, exchange, swop ; from the Sc. swap, Eng. swop. 
suairc, civil, meek, so Ir., E. Ir. suarc(c) ; opposed to duairc : 

*su-arci- : 
suaiteachan, wagging (tails) (Suth.) ; from suathl 
suanach, a hide, skin, fleece, coarse garment, "plough rein" 

(Suth.) ; cf. Ir. sunach, a kind of plaid : 
suarach, insignificant, careless, Ir. suarach : *svogro-, root sveg, 

sug, Ger. schwack, weak, siech, sick, Eng. sick. Cf. Eng. 

sour, Ger. saner, *sura. 
suas, up, upwards, Ir. suas, 0. Ir. suas : *s-uas, from uas, as in 

uasal, and the prefix s-, allied to the final s of Lat. abs, ex, 

Gr. If, irpos, etc., and the initial s of Lat. sub, super ; possibly 

for *ens, Gr. els, from en, and meaning " into," " to " (Rhys' 

M. Pray? 156). 
Suath, rub, mix, knead, Ir. suathaim, knead, mix, M. Ir. suaihaim 

(do.), E. Ir. suata, polished down, root sout, sut, mix; cf. 

Eng. seethe, Norse sjotSa, cook, seethe, Got. suaths, a burnt 

^ subailte, supple ; from the Eng. 
subh, subhag (suibheag or sui'eag, Dial.) a raspberry, subh, 

fruit generally (Arg.), Ir. suibh, a strawberry, sughog, rasp- 
berry (Fob), 0. Ir. subi, fragae, W. syfi, strawberry, Br. sivi ; 

a side form to root sug as in siigh. Cf. Gr. vfaap, a kind of 

subhach, merry, so Ir., E. Ir. subach, 0. Ir. sube, joy ; opposite of 

dubhach : *so-bv-io-, " well-being," from root bu, be (see bu, 

subhailc, virtue, Ir. subhailce (subhailce, Con.), 0. Ir. sualig, 

virtus, sualchi (pi.) : *su-alich (Asa, Zim. 1 54), root at of 

altram (Dr Cameron). 
suchd, sake, account (M'A.) : 
sud (Dial, sid), yon, Ir. sud, E. Ir. sut, siut, illud, illic, W. hwnt 

(h-wnt), other, yonder, Br. hont ; from the root of so ; sud = 

s-ut (Rhys). Also ud. 
sudh, a seam between the planks of a ship ; from Norse sice?, 

a suture (only used for the clinching of a ship's boards), from 

s'yja, sow, Eng. sew, suture. 
SUg, SUgradh, mirth, Ir. sugadh, sUgradh, E. Ir. sucach : 
sug, suck, imbibe ; from Sc. souk, sook, Eng. suck, Ag. S. sucan. 

See siigh. 


sugan, corra-shugain, the reflection of rays of light from any 

moving luminous body from the roof or wall of a house : 
SUgan, a rope of twisted straw, Ir. sugdn, suagan, straw or hay 

rope, suag, a rope (O'R.) : *souggo-, root soug of suaineadh, 

q.v. Hence suigean, a circle of straw ropes in which grain 

is kept in a barn. 
SUgh, juice, sap, also (as vb.) drain, suck up, Ir. sugh, sughaim, 

E. Ir. sugim : *sdgo, suck, *siigo-, juice ; Lat. sugo, suck ; 

Ag. S. sHcan, Eng. suck, soak. W. has sug, juice, sugno, suck. 

sug, such, W. sug, from Lat. sucus (Stokes). 
SUgh, a wave (A. M'D.), motion of the waves (H.S.D.) ; root sup, 

swing, Lit. supti, swing, Lat. dissipo, scatter 1 ? 
Suicean, a gag for a calf ; founded on siig, Sc. sook. 
suidh, sit, suidhe, a seat, sitting, Ir. suidhim, E. Ir. suidim, 

sudim, 0. Ir. suidigur, suide, a seat : *sodeio, *sodio-n, root 

sed, sod, W. s